BULLARD, Edward Crisp

Published: 13 September, 2023  Author: admin


CONTEMPORARYSCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of SIR EDWARD CRISP BULLARD,FRS (1907-1980) Compiled by Jeannine Alton and Peter Harper VOLUME I List of Contents General Introduction Sections A - D Deposited in the Churchill College Archives Centre, Cambridge CSAC 100/4/84 All rights reserved E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 The work of the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre, and the production of this catalogue, are made possible by the support of the following societies and institutions: The Biochemical Society The Charles Babbage Foundation for the History of Information Processing The Institute of Physics The Institution of Electrical Engineers The Institution of Mechanical Engineers The Nuffield Foundation . The Rhodes Trustees The Royal Society of London The Wolfson Foundation E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 NOT ALL THE MATERIAL IN THE COLLECTION IS YET AVAILABLE FOR CONSULTATION. ENQUIRIES SHOULD BE ADDRESSED IN THE FIRST INSTANCE TO: THE ARCHIVIST, CHURCHILL COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 LIST OF CONTENTS GENERAL INTRODUCTION SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL A.1 -A.261 A.| -A.14 Biographical, autobiographical, bibliographical A.15 -A.47 Diaries A.48 -A.123 Career, honours and awards A.124-A. 205 Family and personal A. 206-A. 257 Photographs A. 258-A. 261 Tape recordings SECTION B CAMBRIDGE B.1 - B.92 B.1-B.88 Department of Geodesy and Geophysics B.1 -B.4 Early history of the Department B.5 -B.29 B.30-B.73 Postwar organisation and research, 1943-48 Research and administration, 1956-80 B.74-B.88 Lectures B.89-B .92 Other Cambridge departments and institutions SECTION C CALIFORNIA C.1-C.43 Introduction to Section C C.1 -C.11 Administrative and personal C.12-C.28 Research and academic C.29-C.43 Lectures and teaching 13 14 18 19 28 39 45 46 47 47 49 53 58 60 61 65 68 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 SECTION D RESEARCH D.1-D.651 Page 70 Introduction to Section D List of contents SECTION E COMMITTEES AND CONSULTANCIES E.1 - E.231 177 Introduction to Section E List of contents SECTION F SOCIETIES AND ORGANISATIONS F.1 - F.120 212 Introduction and list of contents SECTION G PUBLICATIONS, LECTURES, BROAD- CASTS G1 «6.268 G. 1 -G.110 Writings on scientific topics with an introductory note G.111-G.135 Biographical writings G.136, G.137 Reviews G.138-G.175 Lectures with an introductory note G.176-G.192 Radio and television broadcasts G.193-G.268 Correspondence re publications, lectures and broadcasts with an introductory note SECTION H VISITS H.1 - H.34 Introduction to Section H 235 236 251 255 256 263 266 274 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 SECTION J CORRESPONDENCE J.1 - J.206 Introduction to Section J LIST OF PUBLICATIONS With an introductory note INDEX OF INDIVIDUALS, ORGANISATIONS AND FIRMS Page 281 310 338 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 GENERAL INTRODUCTION PROVENANCE 6 The collection, which is very extensive, was received at various dates 1981-84 from Dr. Belinda Bullard (Bullard's eldest daughter) who had assembledit from several locations: Bullard's homes in Cambridge, England, and at La Jolla, California, where he died, his office at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (also at La Jolla) and the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, Cambridge University, where a laboratory now bears his name. In addition, Lady (Ursula) Bullard made available the sketchbook at A. 140; Dr. D.H. Matthews added the photocopied account of the pioneering seismic expedition of 1938 at D.350. marine heat-flow (A.4) and of his correspondence on the subject with R. Revelle (D.415A) were sent by the Archivist of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, where the originals are housed. The photocopies of the article on Bullard's work on OUTLINE OF THE CAREER OF E.C. BULLARD Bullard was born in 1907 into a comfortable family of Norwich brewers He was educated at who provided him with relative affluence and a dash of eccentricity. Repton and Clare College, Cambridge; his first graduate research was at the Cavendish Laboratory when its Director, from whom he says he learned much, was Rutherford. Bullard himself worked under the direction of P.M.S. (later Lord) Blackett and in collaboration with H.S.W. (later Sir Harrie) Massey, on electron scattering in gases. In 1931, partly because of the economic depression, he accepted a post underSir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham at the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics in Cambridge; here he worked with great energy and success on a variety of projects: geophysical instrument design and development, gravity determination in Britain and Africa, explosion seismology including the first British expeditions to study the Atlantic seafloor, and heat-flow in South African bore-holes. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 7 During the Second World War Bullard was seconded to the Admiralty, again working on various tasks, including anti-mine protection, operational research and intelligence; at the end of the War he was Assistant Director, Naval Operational Elected to the Fellowship of the Royal Society in 1941 he was a member Research. of the Society's Post-War Needs in Geophysics Committee and instrumental in organi- sing the allocation of surplus equipment and apparatus to universities at the end of Returning to Cambridge, he put much effort into re-establishing the hostilities. Department and its several lines of research, including gravity measurements, heat- flow and deepsea seismic refraction. In 1947 he accepted a post as Professor of Physics at Toronto, a sudden and many felt an unwise decision which Bullard himself attributed to frustration at While there, but the lack of administrative and research facilities at Cambridge. on a summer vacation visit to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, he did some of his most important work on the design of equipment for the measurement of heat-flow at sea (in collaboration with A.E. Maxwell), and in 1950 returned to Britain as Director of the National Physical Laboratory. ment! post, which brought him a knighthood in 1953, was remarkable in the amount of research he continued to pursue undistracted - or minimally distracted - by administrative He continued to work on marine heat-flow, building apparatus and and official duties. taking part in sea-going expeditions, and also developed his dynamo theory ofterrestrial His tenure of this essentially 'establish- magnetism. In 1956 Bullard returned to Cambridge and to the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics as Assistant Director of Research (Readerin Geophysics 1960, Professor Once again, his research interests proliferated, in collaboration with many 1964). gifted students (the ‘Cambridge Mariners’) to include continental drift and plate tectonics as well as continuing work in seismology and geomagnetism, and a very practical interest in the development of computer programs for processing large amounts of observational data. During this period too, Bullard was increasingly in demand as consultant and adviser to Government Departments (notably the Admiralty, Foreign Office, Mini- stries of Defence, Science and Supply), to professional and learned societies such as E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 8 the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, and to industrial firms principally Shell and IBM UK of which he was a director for ten years. He was a founder member of the Natural Environment Research Council, played a part in attempts to negotiate a test-ban treaty and was joint chairman of the Anglo-American Ballistic Missiles Committee. Bullard had always enjoyed his contacts with America where he had many friends. He paid regular visits to various research institutions and was frequently offered tempting appointments. Most of all, he admired the personnel and facilities at Scripps; he accepted from 1963 a Visiting Professorship to spend three months there each year, and onhis retirement from Cambridge in 1974 he and his second wife became He continued research in geomagnetism and American residents living at La Jolla. plate tectonics and took part in Scripps expeditions as well as in its teaching and lecturing programmes; and he added a last topic of interest - energy sources and nuclear waste disposal - in his capacity as consultant to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Caltech. Despite failing health he remained occupied in writing and research until his death in April 1980. DESCRIPTION OF THE COLLECTION The material is presented in the order shown in the List of Contents. following paragraphs aim only to give a brief guide to its substance and interest; additional explanatory notes accompany many of the Sections, sub-sections and individual The entries in the catalogue. The surviving papers cover almost every aspect of Bullard's career. The chief lacunae in this collection are his wartime papers (see J.7 where Bullard expresses his regret at having destroyed these in 1945) and his official papers at Toronto and at Despite efforts to assemble as full a collection as possible, there are probably NPL. also gaps in the correspondence files, deriving from frequent transatlantic migrations. Section A includes (A.9) Bullard's own autobiographical notes of his family, childhood and schooldays, written in 1973 and updated in 1980, as well as many tributes by others, some of which have been drawn upon in compiling the catalogue. The E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 9 material on his career, though incomplete, yet includes offers of many posts which he declined and which are not always generally known. The ‘personal’ material includes Section B is several items on Bullard's antiquarian book collection (A.185-A.189). mainly concerned with the Department of Geodesy and Geophysicsat Cambridge and includes the original correspondence leading up to its foundation in 1921 (B.1, B.2), and Bullard's efforts to re-invigorate it after the Second World War (B.5-B. 29). Section C records his connection with the University of California, chiefly the Scripps Some of the items deal with his lecturing, teaching Institution of Oceanography. and examining there at the end of his life (C.29-C.43); for all his experience as a lecturer he admits in his letters of resignation (C.11) that direct contact with under- graduate work was new to him and he must have beengratified by the unmistable warmth of response he met (C.31, C.34). Section D (Research) is the largest Section and documents almost all of Bullard's many research interests, some more comprehensively than others. remarkable to see the extent of manuscript notes, calculations, diagrams, site des- criptions, drafts and, later, computer programsall in Bullard's hand whether written in the African field, as Director of NPL or as Professor of Geophysics at Cambridge. Especially full are the records for gravity measurement including the famous 1933-34 expedition to East Africa, for heat-flow research including the 1938 Atlantic expedition, and for the work on dynamo theory and on computing applications. on energy sources and nuclear waste disposal, is also documented, and includes drafts for a book on the subject on which Bullard was working right up to his death. fully represented in the surviving papers is Bullard's contribution to the theory of continental drift and plate tectonics. Of more general interest is D.273, Bullard's detailed account of (it seems) every penny spent on the 1933-34 expedition in East His last research, It is Less The famous story of his being treed by lions, however, is not recorded: Africa. there is a reference to his ‘experiences with lions' in a letter (at D.366) but this is dated January 1939 and refers toa later trip to South Africa to study terrestrial heat- flow. research career; he may have bornehis learning lightly but its presence is irrefutable. Insum, this Section provides an impressive record of Bullard's distinguished Sections E and F document Bullard's public life as consultant, committee member and adviser on science policy. Because of the confidential or official nature Section G includes of much of this work, the surviving material is sometimes sparse. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 10 several unpublished, or unlisted, works, among them substantial drafts for a book on optics, in collaboration with P.B. Moon, commissioned by Cambridge University Press There is also a rather full record of Bullard's joint editorship in 1934 (G.2-G.18). with N.F. (Sir Nevill) Mott of the International Monographs in Physical Science for The sub-section on 'Lectures' (G.138-G. 175) the Clarendon Press (G.194-G.230). is of interest in showing at once Bullard's mastery of his subject and the temperamental poise, even panache, which enabled him to lecture with rivetting success on the basis of half a page of notes. Both Sections H and J are somewhat disappointing in that it is unlikely that they represent more than a selection of Bullard's visits and conferences (H) and correspondence (J). from his later years when he was frequently consulted by historians of several disciplines The latter Section contains a high proportion of material dating for his recollections and opinions. Bullard's historical interests were not confined to the events of his own career, though it is true that he was at pains to collect material about the early history of the Cambridge Department (Section D) and Bushy Househis official residence as Director of NPL (Section A). a special interest in Newton and Halley; he played an important role in the Royal Society's Halley Tercentenary celebrations (Section G), advised the Institute of Physics on the disposal ofits historical book collection (Section F) and presented a scion of Newton's apple tree for planting at the new buildings of the Cambridge Department But he was a respected collector of scientific books, with He wrote several biographical tributes and accounts of colleagues; the (Section B). most substantial of these is perhaps the memoir of W.M. Ewing, while a more ‘light- hearted' (his description) account of Rutherford published originally in NATURE was selected for quotation in L. and H. Fowler, Cambridge Commemorated, 1984. Bullard was held in almost universal esteem and affection, which transpires throughout the collection, whether in the flood of requests to visit, lecture, or advise on technical matters, the many offers of influential posts in Britain and America, the trust placed in him as adviser, referee and consultant at every level from national academies and government ministries to junior employees and sixth-formers, or the more ‘objective’ criteria of 'Course and Professor Evaluation’ (at Scripps) and BBC audience research panel reports. One can see why. Bullard - known and addressed E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 1] by all as 'Teddy' - seems to have grown younger andless formal as his age and honours Even without his voice and living presence, his personality emerges un- increased. mistakably in all he wrote: serious without pomposity, forthright without animosity, loyal without prejudice. He rarely lost contact with old friends and colleagues and often intervened quietly to help them or their families left unprovided for by death or inadequate pensions (a topic on which he felt strongly). He appears never to have written a routine letter; he may (as he often claimed) have never quite mastered English spelling) conventions, but his thought and his wit are immediately accessible. In view of the very full and frank nature of some of the documents it will readily be understood that they are not all currently available for consultation. Material of this kind occurs in Sections A, C, E, F, Gand J. LOCATIONS OF FURTHER MATERIAL Certificates and scrolls of honour remain in family hands. Material relating to the Anchor Brewery (the Bullard family firm) is held at the Norfolk and | Norwich Record Office. Material assembled by Bullard for his memorial writings on W.M. Ewing is at Columbia University, New York. Correspondence exchanged with W.H. Munk and others is in the Archives of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego.. Official papers relating to Bullard's service on government committees are held at the Air Historical Branch, Ministry of Defence. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 12 Our main debt is to Dr. Belinda Bullard for her initiative in assembling material, her encouragement, and her comments on the draft catalogue. Weare also indebted to: Dr. H.C. Jenkyns and Dr. C.E. Phelps for information, and for their patience. Dr. D.H. Matthews, for information and for additional material. Mrs. D.C. Day, Archivist of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for information and additional material. Lady Phillips, for help with indexing. Mrs. M.M. Edwards, for patiently typing various drafts of the catalogue. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 13 SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL _A.1 - A. 261 A.1 -A.14 BIOGRAPHICAL, AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL, BIBLIO GRAPHICAL A.15 -A.47 DIARIES A.48 -A.123 CAREER, HONOURS AND AWARDS A.124 - A.205 FAMILY AND PERSONAL A. 206 - A.257 PHOTOGRAPHS A.258 - A. 261 TAPE RECORDINGS SOME OF THE MATERIAL IN THIS SECTION MAY BE SUBJECT TO RESTRICTION E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal 14 A.1-A.14 BIOGRAPHICAL, AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL, BIBLIOGRAPHICAL BIOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNTS OF BULLARD AND HIS WORK A.] 'Profile', New Scientist, 1959. Biographical note andlist of Bullard's publications, by M.N. Hill, 1962, with ms. note ‘originally written for R.S. Profship'. Biographical note, for Scripps Institution, 1970. tables of Bullard's salaries from 1931. Includes 'Sir Edward Bullard', by D. Davies, Earth-Science Reviews, 1968 (Photocopy). A.2 Ip. biographical note, 1971. Revised Who's Who entry, 1975. Newspaperarticle, 1977. A.3 'Sir Edward C. Bullard', 3pp. note, January 1978. Obituary and Memorial Service notices, The Times, 1980. Memoir by W. Nierenberg and R. Revelle. "Imagined Worlds: The Day the Earth Moved', by D. McKenzie (on plate tectonics), The Listener, 1982. AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL A.4 'E.C. Bullard's First Heat-Probe' Article by E.N. Shor, incorporating shortened version of a taped conversation with Bullard on 5 August 1973, published in EOS, 28 February 1984. (Photocopy kindly made available by the Archivist, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. ) A.5 Note for McGraw Hill Modern Men of Science, ¢c.1966 (on work on the origin of the earth's magnetic field). Later extended note for McGraw Hill and for Monadori Editore, 1979. Correspondence with both publishing houses, 1972-78. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 15 A.7 A.8 Biographical and personal ‘Edward Bullard'. Non-Linear Dynamics' (Bibliog. 1978a). Dedication by W.H. Munkfor ‘Topics in 19pp. ms. draft (photocopy). App. typescript version as published with a ms. note 'This was written entirely by me. ECB 3-30-78'. Interview for Oral History Department, United States Naval Institute. Correspondence, 1969-70, and corrected typescript transcript of interview conducted during Symposium Oceanography 2000, including reminiscences of much of Bullard's research career. A5pp. A.9 'Notes for Biographical Notice of Edward Bullard’. 36pp. ms. account of family, early life and schooldays up to and including Repton. and sent to the Royal Society with a covering letter re his biographer, 31 March 1980 (Bullard died on 3 April). Written 1973, with Ip., 6 March 1980, Included in the folder are a few additional notes, family trees, etc. Miscellaneous autobiographical notes by Bullard. Includes lists of children's and grandchildren's birthdays, of wartime colleagues, of his addresses 1921-75, of his research notebooks, of his proposed periods of residence at La Jolla, etc. A selection of letters written by Bullard in response to enquiries or requests for his views on various topics. be found elsewhere, particularly in the correspondence section where an indication is given, but these offer a compendious in- sight into Bullard's characteristic approach. Similar material may They include letters on the value of interchange with overseas students (1967), on the Rothschild Report (1971), on pension schemes (1976), and on combining research and administra- tion (1977) - this last being of special biographical interest. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 16 Biographical and personal BIBLIOGRAPHICAL List of publications. 27pp. (variously paginated) typescript with ms. additions, made available by B. Bullard, 20 July 1983. pp. It is reproduced on 311-337, This is the bibliography used in the attribution of publications, drafts and research material in the manuscript collection, in the form (@Bibliog ...) appended to the relevant entries. Copies, or photocopies, of papers selected by Bullard as of special interest, and bearing his own ms. comment. the Director, Scripps Institution, 12 May 1975, witha covering note as follows: Sent to 'This selection of my papers attempts to give a cross- section of the things about which | have written, | have not attempted to select the "most important" papers. The papers are: 'Work of H.S.W. Massey and E.C. Bullard on electron scattering’, App. typescript and ms. account by Bullard, n.d. This item was added to the selection at a later date, probably 1978. See J.10, J.91. 'The Elastic Scattering of Slow Electrons in Argon’, (Bibliog. 193la), with comment 'Work done while a graduate student. Experimental Atomic Physics’. 'The protection of ships from magnetic mines', (Bibliog. 1946a), with comment 'An account of work during the war'. 'The flow of heat through the floor of the Atlantic Ocean', (Bibliog. 1954c), with comment 'Experimental work at sea’. "Homogeneous dynamosand terrestrial magnetism', (Bibliog. 1954e), with comment 'A long and rather complicated theoretical paper on the origin of the earth's magnetic field’. Continued E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A.13 (Cont'd. ) 17 Biographical andpersonal ‘Continental drift', (Bibliog. 1964b), with comment 'An attempt to persuade the geological establishment of the error of their beliefs - it was successful beyond my expectation’. 'Reversals of the earth's magnetic field', (Bibliog. 1968a), with comment 'Review toa high-level audience of a critical part of the evidence for the recent revolution in geological thought’. 'The origin of the oceans', (Bibliog. 1969b), with comment 'A popular exposition - it has sold 180,000 copies (in addition to its original sales in the Sci.Amer.)'. 'Electromagnetic induction in the oceans', (Bibliog. 1970a), with comment ‘Systematic review and development of a relatively new branch of geophysics’. 'Basic theories’, (Bibliog. 1973b), with comment 'Ist chapter in a UNESCO book on Geothermal Power, relates the problems to the scientific background’. 'Rutherford's Cavendish', (Bibliog. 1974b), with comment 'A light-hearted historical work'. 'Minerals from the deep sea', (Bibliog. 1974c), with comment ‘Possible source of base metals in the ocean’. Miscellaneous lists of names and addresses for reprint distribution, for various periods of Bullard's career; some very early, and continuing to 1978. Miscellaneous lists of publications, compiled for bound volumes and for various occasions (to 1973). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A.15-A.47 DIARIES Biographical and personal 18 These are all small pocket diaries. They forma relatively complete sequence, 1942-78, though some are scantily used. Diaries for 1951 and 1955 are missing. A.15 A.16 A.17 1942-43 1943-44 1945 A.18 1946-47 A.19 A.20 A.21 1947-48 1949 1949-50 A.22 A.23 A.24 A.25 A.29 A.30 A.3] A.32 A.33 A. 39 A.40 A.4l A.42 A.43 1952 (hardly used) A.26 1956 1952 (hardly used) A.26A 1957 1953 1954 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1970 197] 1972 1973 1974 A.27 A.28 1958 1959 A. 34 A.35 A. 36 A.37 A.38 A.44 A.45 A.46 A.47 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1975 1976 1977 1978 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 19 Biographical and personal A.48-A.123 CAREER, HONOURS AND AWARDS A.48 A.49 A.50 A.5] A.52 A.53 Twoletters from Bullard to his mother, one dated 1917, the other '?1916'. Repton School Reports 1924-26. Bullard as 'a willing worker, with no literary tastes’. The English master describes Includes letter, January 1924, to Bullard's father from the Headmaster (G.F. Fisher). Mathematical Tripos and Natural Sciences Tripos Part | Examination Papers, annotated by Bullard, May-June 1928. Included here is a reprint of a paper by H. McCombie et al, February 1928, acknowledging work 'carried out by Mr. E.C. Bullard, of Clare College, in the Mineralogical Museum’. Certificate of election, Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, December 1931. Superannuation Agreement on appointment as Demonstrator in Geodesy, 1932. Correspondence re possible appointment at Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1933. Two letters to Bullard's parents, 1933, on his impending trip to Africa. Miscellaneous correspondence on career. Includes letter re Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1935. Bullard's draft letter re Chair of Physics at Cape Town, 1936. Correspondence re Smithson Research Fellowship of the Royal Society, appointment 1935, move to Admiralty 1939, extension 1942. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 20 A.54 Correspondence, 1941 and 1943, re Chairs at Liverpool. Biographical and personal Letter of congratulation on election to Royal Society, 1941 (only surviving letter). A.55 Miscellaneous items re service in Second World War. Includes material re staff and salaries, invitation to serve on Physics Committee, Advisory Council on Scientific Research, Ministry of Supply, 1944, and on Scientific Research Advisory Committee, Ministry of Labour, 1945. A.56 Cambridge University, 1943-46. Includes material re Bullard's Readership, his release from war service, arrangements for 1.C.1. Fellowships, etc. Also included is letter of appointment as External Examiner in Physics, Manchester, 1945. A.57 Clare College, Cambridge, 1943-45. Includes correspondence re election to Research Fellowship, 1943, and Official Fellowship, 1945, and miscellaneous items on teaching and examinations. A.58 Correspondence, 1947, re post of Director of Safety in Mines Research. For offer of post at Institute of Geophysics, Los Angeles, see J.133. A.59-A. 61 Appointment as Professor of Physics, Toronto. A.59 A.60 Correspondence and negotiations, 1947, including letter of appointment with effect from 1 March 1948. Correspondencere staffing and funding of UK Physics Departments, sent at Bullard's request by N.F. Mott, W.L. Bragg, 1949. A.61 Correspondence, 1949, re Bullard's resignation. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 ZA Biographical and personal A.62 Correspondence, 1948, 1949, re possible appointments at Cambridge. For correspondencere the offer to Bullard of the post of Director of the Scripps Institution, see C.14. A.63-A.77 Appointment as Director, National Physical Laboratory (NPL). See F.39-F.49 for NPL material after Bullard's resignation as Director. See A.241-A.246 for photographs of NPL occasions. A.63 Letters and cables re appointment. Includes letters of appointment, press-cuttings. A.64-A.70 Letters and cables of congratulation. A.64 A.65 A.66 A.67 A.7] A-B C-F G-L A.68 S-T A.69 V-W A.70 First name and un- identified signatures Correspondence and accounts, mainly with Royal Society, re payments from the Petavel fund for expenses of furnishing and entertaining at Bushy House (residence of the Director, NPL). by Bullard, 1950-55. Includes detailed ms. accounts of expenditure claimed A.72-A.76 Material relating to the history of Bushy House. A.72 Notebook inscribed 'References to Bushy House’. A.73 App. notes and references from State Papers, 1689-1695. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 22 Biographical and personal A.74 Bundle of index cards of references, 1621-1864/5. A.75 3pp. note on Bushy House, no author, 1932. Correspondence re early owners of Bushy House, 1952, 1962. A.76 Correspondence on Bushy House, 1962, 1970, 1980. A.77 Invitation (declined) to serve on Visiting Board of NPL, 1976. A.78 A.79 A.80 A.81 A.82 A. 83 Warrant of appointment, Board of Visitors, Royal Greenwich Observatory, 1953. Correspondence and negotiations re return to Cambridge, 1953-54. Correspondence re election to Berkeley Bye-Fellowship, Caius College, Cambridge, and resignation from NPL, January- July 1955. Correspondence re appointment as Senior Assistant in Research, Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, November-December 1955, and one letter 1956. Correspondence, 1955, re proposed research at Cambridge. Offer (declined) of 'Institute Professorship’ to head new Laboratory of Earth Science, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nology, 1958. A. 84 Miscellaneous honours, 1959. Award of Arthur L. Day Medal of Geological Society of America for 1958. Election as foreign associate, National Academy of Sciences, 1959. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 23 A.85-A. 87 Churchill College, Cambridge. Biographical and personal Bullard was a Professorial Fellow from 1960, anda "Pensioner Fellow’ on his retirement in 1974. pondencerefers to general academic and social affairs of the College. The corres- 3 folders as follows: A.85 1960-73 A. 86 1974 A.87 1975-78. Includes Bullard's letter of resignation from College committees, and material re the Bullard Prize set up to mark his retirement and awarded to the Churchill undergraduate achieving the highest marks in Physics in the Natural Sciences Tripos. A. 88 Correspondence re Headships of Colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, 1960, c.1966, 1968. Offer of Professorship at Yale, 1960 (declined). A.89-A.91 University of East Anglia. Bullard served on the Court of the University, and received an Honorary D.Sc. in 1976. 3 folders as follows: A.89 1961, 1970. Includes material re University's decision to bank elsewhere than at Barclays Bank. A.90 1974-76. Includes material re Bullard's Honorary Degree, originally proposed for 1975 but deferred until 1976. A.91 1976-79. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 24 Biographical and personal -A.92-A.94 The Vetlesen Prize. The prize was established in Columbia University in ‘It is awarded for 'achievement in the sciences of the 1959 by the G. Unger Vetlesen Foundation (itself set up in 1955). earth and the universe', the first recipient being W.M. Ewing. Bullard regularly attended the presentation meetings and made recommendations, and was himself awarded the prize, with F. Birch, in 1968. See especially A.93 below. 3 folders as follows: A.92 1962. Award Dinner for H. Jeffreys and F.A. Vening Meinesz. A.93 1968. Award to Bullard and F. Birch. Includes notification, letters of congratulation, ms. note of Bullard's speech of thanks at dinner, 8pp. draft of his lecture at the symposium, publication arrangements, l4pp. revised version, printed information re Vetlesen, Foundation and prize, etc. The letter of notification (11 October 1968) explains the history of the prize which it was intended would 'in time . rank in dignity and significance with the Nobel Prizes which now recognise scholarly and scientific achievement in otherfields’. See also C.24, A.94 1970, 1971. A.95 Award of Alexander Agassiz Medal, National Academy of Sciences, 1965. A.96 Award of Wollaston Medal, Geological Society of London, 1967. Correspondence, press notice, draft of Bullard's remarks on receiving medal. A.97 Election as Honorary Fellow, Indian Geophysical Union, 1967. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 23 A.98 A.99 A.100 A.101 A.102 A. 103 Biographical and personal Invitation to University of Toronto as Centennial Visiting Professor in 1967. Brief correspondence, 1966-68. See also G.157. Correspondence, 1968-69, re offer to Bullard of newly-created Henry L. Doherty Chair, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts . Correspondence, 1969, re Election as Foreign Member, American Philosophical Society. Certificate of Commendation, Committee on Oceanography, Texas House of Representatives, 1970 (Bullard's letter only). Election to Mark Twain Society, 1971 and 1976. Conferral of honorary D.Sc., Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1971. Correspondence, programme, etc. Honorary Membership, Stokes Society, Cambridge, 1972 (correspondence only). A.105 Honorary Fellowship, Geological Society of India, 1972 (correspondence only). A.106 Retirement from Cambridge, 1974. Letters and cables of greeting, signatures of those attending retirement dinner at King's College, Bullard's notes for speech. A. 107 A. 108 Correspondence re honorary degree, Leicester University, 1974. Correspondence re honorary membership, European Geophysical Society, 1974. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A.109 26 Biographical and personal Correspondencere offer to Bullard of Directorship, Marine Science Institute, University of Texas at Austin, 1974. Bullard declined, preferring to retain his connection with Scripps. A.110-A.114 The Royal Medal, 1975 A.110 Notifications, citation, arrangements for award of medal, press-cuttings. A.111-A.114 Letters and cables of congratulation. A.111 A- B A.113. R-S A.112 G-N A.114. V-Waand unidentified. A.115 A.116 A.117 Award of the William Bowie Medal, 'for outstanding contributions to fundamental geophysics and for unselfish cooperation in research', 1975. See also F.3. Includes photocopy of Bullard's 'Reply on receiving the Bowie Medal’. Midsummer Banquet, Mansion House, London, 1976. Caius College, Cambridge. Re-election to Combination Room, 1978. A.118 The Ewing Medal, 1978. Bullard was not able to receive the Medal in person; the item See also F.4. is his Response on receiving the Ewing Medal'. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 27 Biographical and personal A.119-A.121 'A Meeting in Honor of Sir Edward Bullard', held at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 11 and 12 January 1980. The papers were published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, 1981, 86, pp.11509-11695. The meeting was sponsored by: Cambridge University Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Office of Naval Research Scripps Institution of Oceanography The University of Miami Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute The range of sponsors and of the topics discussed (A.119) indicate the breadth of Bullard's research interests. friends (A.120) and Bullard's letters of thanks to the organisers (A.121) show the affection in which he was held and his own pleasure at what was tacitly recognised as a farewell. The letters from A.119 Programme, list of participants. A.120 Letters and cables from friends. A.121 Bullard's letters of thanks to A.E. Maxwell and W.A. Nierenberg (photocopies). A.122 A.123 Programmes of lectures, symposia and conferences given, organised or attended by Bullard. Miscellaneous press-cuttings of Bullard, career, activities, honours. 28 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal A.124-A. 205 FAMILY AND PERSONAL A.124-A.148 The Bullard family A.149-A. 157 Personal correspondence A.158-A. 205 Miscellaneous biographical material A.124-A. 148 The Bullard family A.124 A.125 A.126 Certificates (or copies) of Bullard's birth, marriage, divorce, second marriage. Correspondence, mainly with solicitors, about the estates of Bullard's father (Edward John, d. 1950) and mother (Eleanor HowesBullard, d. 1962). Correspondence runs 1950-66 and is in large part concerned with the affairs of Bullard and Sons, the family brewery in Norwich. See below. Short account of the 'Anchor Brewery', the family firm founded Bullard became a director in 1952 and continued as in 1837. such until the firm was taken over by Watney Mann in 1964. épp. typescript, August 1955. This is a photocopy of the original document which has been deposited, with other material relating to the firm (1951-68) at the Norfolk and Norwich Record Office where earlier records of the firm are already held. A.127 Correspondence and papers exchanged with Watney Mann, 1970-71. Mainly about data processing systems and including a report by Bullard after a visit to Watney Mann computer centre at Brighton; also includes correspondence and papers on the effect of weather on beer consumption. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 2? Biographical and personal A.128 Sir Harry Bullard (Bullard's grandfather, M.P. for Norwich, d. 1902). Mainly correspondence about estate (1955-57) but includes some reminiscences by Bullard in response to an enquiry (1974). Sir Frank Crisp (Bullard's grandfather). Mainly correspondence from Bullard's sister, Molly, about Friar Park, the house at Henley built by Crisp and bought (1970) by George Harrison of the Beatles. A.130-A. 133 Margaret Ellen (Tom) Bullard, Bullard's first wife (m. 1931, marriage dissolved 1974). See Section D passim for Margaret Bullard's active participation in various research projects in the 1930s and early 1940s. The surviving correspondence dates from the later and less happy years when the marriage was understrain. Margaret Bullard's letters are dated and in the absence of postmarks they are placed in a tentative order based on context. Very few of A.130 1954, 1962, 1965, 1967 and one unidentified letter to Margaret Bullard 1934. Portsmouth). Includes post-card from Bullard, 1941 (after raids on A.13] 1968 (approx. ) A.132 1971-73 (approx.) A.133 1973-76 Emily (Stewart) and Henrietta (Bullard's twin daughters). Brief correspondence, 1960s and 1970s. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 30 A.135-A. 137 Polly (Hill), Bullard's youngest daughter. Biographical and personal Very few of these letters are dated. They run approximately 1966-79, in three folders. A.138 Notes and letters from Bullard's grandchildren. A.139,A.140 Ursula Margery Bullard (formerly Curnow, née Cooke, Bullard's second wife). A.139 Miscellaneous shorter correspondence. A.140 Drawing book, containing two drawings of Arthur, son of Belinda Bullard (Bullard's eldest daughter) by Odile Crick, and 7 drawings of Bullard in his last illness, 2 April 1980, by Ursula Bullard. Made available by Lady Bullard, 1982. A.141 Miscellaneous correspondence with other members of the Bullard family, or others of the same name, some including reminiscences or biographical information. A.142-A. 145 19 Clarkson Road, Cambridge (Bullard's home, now occupied by Belinda Bullard). Miscellaneous correspondence about purchase, heating, various lettings of the house, 1954-75. In his letter of 21 June 1955 Bullard states that the house was built for him in 1935. A.142 1950, 1954-57. A.143 1955 (Bullard's drawings and specifications). A.144 1968-75. A.145 Miscellaneous correspondence with Belinda Bullard, 1970-76, on various matters, including transfer of the lease of the house in 1974. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal 31 A. 146-A. 148 Correspondencewith solicitors (Francis & Company, Cambridge), on various family matters, wills, trusts for children and grandchildren, divorce settlement, etc. A.146 1962-71. Wills and settlements. A. 147 1973-74. Mainly divorce petition, and transfer of lease of house. A. 148 1974-77. Wills and settlements. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 32 Biographical and personal A.149-A, 157 Personal correspondence These are all letters from female friends, most of very long. acquaintance. when there is a postmark, and some are signed with first names only. Few ofthe letters can be dated except A.149, A.150 G 1940-74 A.151 I-K A.152 L-M A.153 A. 154 A.155 A. 156 A.157 R S S T 1953-76 1950-79 1955-80 Miscellaneous cheques. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 33 Biographical and personal A.158-A. 205 Miscellaneous biographical material A.158-A. 177 Finance and Investments in Britain. A.158-A. 164 Correspondence with accountants on UK Income Tax. Includes statements of income and expenses prepared by Bullard and by accountants. The accountants were Down, Kilner & Company (corres- pondence: W.R. Packer) until 1 May 1971, and thereafter Buzzacott, Vincent, Watson, Kilner & Company (corres- pondence: Thomas Kilner). A.158 1961-64 A.159 1965-67 A.160 1968-69 A.161 1970-71 A.162 1972-73 A.163 1974 A.164 1975-80 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal A.165-A.171 Correspondence with N.M. Rothschild & Sons. Rothschilds took over the management of Bullard's investments at his suggestion from June 1967 (see letters May- June 1967 in A.165). actively maintaining his portfolio, keeping capital, income and deposit accounts and trans- ferring monies to and from his bank accounts as requested. The material includes transfer certificates, balances of accounts and general correspondence on the management of funds. A.165 1967 A.166 1968 A.167 1969-70 A.168 1971-72 A.169 1973. Includes statement of holdings as at 31 December 1973. A.170 1974-79 A.171 Miscellaneous statements of accounts with Rothschilds. A.172 A.173 A.174 Correspondence, 1975-79, with National Westminster Bank concerning transfer of funds on Bullard's and Lady Bullard's becoming U.S. residents. Shorter correspondence re U.K. pension, 1975-80. Correspondencere possible participation in Lloyds syndicate, 1971-74. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A.175 A.176 A.177 35 Biographical and personal Miscellaneous shorter notes and correspondenceon financial matters, various dates, 1956-79. Miscellaneous royalty statements, broadcast and TV fees. Miscellaneous college and university fees, thesis supervision and examining. Bundle of dividend warrants, chiefly Bullard & Sons. A.178-A. 184 Finance and Investments in U.S.A. A.178 A.179 Correspondence with accountant (George A. Peterson) on U.S.A. income tax and financial matters, 1962-78 (not all complete). Correspondence and papers re Lux Land Company, Brawley, California. R. &R. Land and Cattle Company. Bullard was a 'Limited Partner'. 1965-74. See also A.180 Correspondence and papers re Universal Resources (a California estate company), 1969-73. A.181-A.184 Correspondence and papers re R. & R. Land and Cattle Company, Brawley, California. also Lux Land Company. Bullard was a ‘Limited Partner’. See A.181 1970-73 A.182 1974-76 A.183 1979 A.184 Plans of ranch holdings and land improvements, mainly 1972. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 36 Biographical and personal A.185-A. 189 Books. Bullard had collected books on science and on the history of science since student days, with a special interest He bought at auction and from dealers, many in Halley. of whom cameto respect his knowledge and to consult him on certain items. See G.123-G.133 for Bullard's contribution to the Halley Tercentenary . See also F.21. A.185 Correspondence with Dawsonsof Pall Mall, 1960-79. A. 186 Miscellaneous correspondence on books and book purchases, 1965-77. A. 187 Similar, 1978. A.188 Similar, 1979. A.189 Miscellaneous notes and lists of books and book purchases by Bullard. Includes notes for a talk on 'My Books' given at San Diego, February 1977, describing his interest and collection. Photocopy of Bullard's catalogue of his books, some with notes of dates of purchase and prices. Biographical and personal 37 E.C Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A.190-A. 194 Health A.190 1943-49 A.191 1968-72 A.192 1973-74 A.193 1975-78 A.194 1979 A.195 Miscellaneous birthday, greeting, get-well cards, 1970s. A.196 A.197 A.198 Miscellaneous memos., lists, engagement plans drawn up by Bullard. Correspondencere portraits, photographs and interviews with Bullard. Includes correspondence, 1972-73, with Ruskin Spear about the retirement portrait now at the Cambridge Department. 1959-77. Miscellaneous humorous anecdotes, drawings, quotations collected by or sent to Bullard. A.199, A.200 Miscellaneous correspondence, notifications, etc. of societies and appeals. on Disarmament appeals. Several of these are requests to sign Test Ban A.199 1961, 1970-73 A. 200 1974-79 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 38 Biographical and personal A. 201 A. 202 A. 203 A. 204 A. 205 Letters of congratulation sent by Bullard to colleagues receiving honours and awards. only, but some with replies. Mostly Bullard's carbons 1960-79. Letters of thanks to acknowledge books, articles, photographs, etc. received by Bullard. Shorter correspondence on social invitations, 1966-73 (only). Miscellaneous items, including results of 1.Q. test (1952), speeding fines, wine merchant (Bullard sent regular gifts of wine to his doctors). Miscellaneous items of personal correspondence, various dates. Includes letter recalling Bullard's childhood in Norwich, letter from wartime colleague at Portsmouth, etc. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 39 Biographical and personal A.206-A. 257 PHOTOGRAPHS A.206-A. 214 Photographs of Bullard A.215-A. 218 Family and personal friends A.219-A. 233 Conferences and eieone A.234-A, 239 Scientific colleagues A.240 Second World War A.241-A. 246 National Physical Laboratory A.247-A. 257 Expeditions and research A.206-A. 214 Photographs of Bullard A. 206 At National Physical Laboratory. the portrait of Bullard by Bernard Dunstan at NPL. Includes a photograph of A. 207 Lecturing at Royal Institution, ¢.1954. A. 208 Watching solar eclipse, with Chapman Pincher, n.d. A.209 Miscellaneous photographs, some with dates in 1950s. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 40 Biographical and personal A.210 Photograph labelled by Bullard on verso: 'ECB with apparatus for measuring heat flow through the floor of the ocean. Taken in 1953.255". Photograph inscribed 'NPL, British Ass. visit to ICI salt mine’. A.211 At home. A.212 Later photographs, including some late portraits at Alaska, 1978, 1979. A.213 Set of 4 photographs, one labelled 'Lux Ranch’. 1970s. A.214 Portrait study photograph. A.215-A. 218 Family and personal friends A.215 Of Ursula Bullard. A.216 On safari in Kenya, 1968. A.217 Envelope of miscellaneous photographs of friends, a few only named and dated. A.218 Humorous drawing of 'The BOMM bomber'. A.219-A. 233 Conferences and groups A.219 A.220 Group photographs of the Cambridge Department, 1930s (with Lenox-Conyngham), 1960s. Seventh General Assembly, |.U. Geodesy and Geophysics, Washington D.C., September 1939 (2 copies). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 4l Biographical and personal A. 221 Dallas, 1955. National Bureau of Standards, 1955. A. 222 A. 223 A.224 Anglo-U.S. ballistic missiles committee, Los Angeles, 1956. Geneva conference on nuclear tests, 1958. Set of photographs ofvisit to U.S. Air Base (probably Anglo- U.S. missiles committee, 1959). Press Conference on ‘Space’, c.1958. A.225 First Major International Congress on Oceanography, United Nations, New York, 1959. Includes R. Revelle, W.M. Ewing. A. 226 Vetlesen Lecture, 1960. Earth Tide Symposium, Brussels, 1961. A. 227 Second International Oceanographic Congress, Moscow, 1966. A. 228 Churchill College, Cambridge. Inauguration photograph. Photograph of Bullard with Lord Home. A.229 IBM Conference at Churchill College, 1967. A. 230 Symposium on Earth's Magnetic Field, Washington D.C., 1968. Opening (by Bullard) of Geomagnetic Research Laboratory, Newfoundland, 1971. A. 231 Bullard with astronauts, at Cambridge, 1971. E.C, Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 42 Biographical and personal A. 232 Alaska, n.d. Conference at Princeton, 1972 (with Walter Sullivan). Penn. State, 1976. A. 233 Unidentified. album from Rocketdyne (aviation company). Loose photographs and a commemorative A.234-A. 239 Scientific colleagues A. 234 Early Cambridge days. Includes copies of photographs of Rutherford and J.J. Thomson; photograph of Bullard with G.I. Taylor, 1938; miscellaneous photographs at Cavendish, 1930s. Small photograph of Bullard with B. J. Schonland (perhaps in Africa, c.1938). A. 235 Sir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham. Sir Harold Jeffreys. A. 236 M.N. Hill. A. 237 Set of photographs taken at the Royal Society, London, on the occasion of the award of the Vetlesen Prize Medal to A. Holmes, 1964. (The presentation was made by W.M. Ewing.) A. 238 J. Miller, 1960. L. Szilard, 1965, and Trude Szilard, 1970. T.F. Gaskell, 1970. M. Prior. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 43 Biographical and personal A. 239 Miscellaneous other photographs, including NATO conference, historical photograph of Einstein and von Neumann, Bullard with Blackett and others. A. 240 Second World War Set of photographs, only one dated 'Clarence Pier 1940', but all of same period, recording the devastation caused byfire after anair raid. and consequently Bullard and the team moved to Edinburgh. The mine-sweeping apparatus was destroyed A.241-A. 246 National Physical Laboratory A. 24] The Pilot ACE. A. 242 Visit by H.R.H. Prince Philip. A. 243 Visit by The King and Queen of Sweden. A. 244 Visitors to the High Voltage Laboratory. A. 245 Various NPL occasions. lorry (with Polly Bullard), opening of NPL auditorium, start of work on Ship Tank, presentation of Bullard's portrait, Bullard with staff of Physics Department. Includes Coronation exhibition A. 246 Informal NPL occasions, sports days, garden parties, etc. A. 247-A. 257 Expeditions and research A. 247 Photograph labelled 'Fishing a large net from the Discovery II May 1937' (photograph is a later copy). E.C. Bullard | CSAC 100/4/84 44 A. 248 A. 249 A. 250 Biographical and personal Set of photographs taken in H.M.S. Tudor, July 1946, during the Royal Society submarine gravity survey of the eastern North Atlantic. (B.C. Browne, R.I.B. Cooper, W. Niewenkamp). Includes equipment, colleagues Set of photographs of work on marine heat flow, 1949. Includes equipment and apparatus, research vessel 'E.W. Scripps’, A.E. Maxwell with probe, etc. Envelope of photographs (small format) of equipment, colleagues, etc. on 'Discovery' expeditions, none dated but some identified on verso (Hill, Gaskell, Cleverley, Swallow, etc.). A.251 Miscellaneous photographs, similar material, of 'Discovery' equipment, colleagues and crew, etc., n.d. 1950s. A.252 Photographs of heat flow probe, many taken by NPL. n.d. 1950s. A. 253 A. 254 A.255 A. 256 A. 257 Miscellaneous expedition photographs, some with various dates, 1958-64. Miscellaneous photographs of expedition to Fiji, Easter Island and South Pacific, 1967. Miscellaneous photographs (small format) of later expedition, n.d., 1970s. Miscellaneous photographs of research vessels, equipment and apparatus. None dated. Miscellaneous photographs of expeditions and apparatus, taken by Scripps Institution or other U.S. sources. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 45 Biographical and personal A.258-A.261 TAPE RECORDINGS A.258, A.259 Two lectures at Berkeley, 1975. A. 258 A. 259 A. 260 A. 261 'The Floor of the Deep Oceans - What Are They Like? ' 20 January. 'The Floor of the Deep Oceans - What Is Happening There?' 3 February. See H.20 "Physics and W.W.II', given at Berkeley 1976 (cassette). 'Scientific advice to government. (cassette). Lect.7' dated 3/4/76 See G.167 for transcript of the lecture. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 46 SECTION B CAMBRIDGE B.1 - B.92 B.1-B.88 DEPARTMENT OF GEODESY AND GEOPHYSICS B.1 -B.4 Early history of the Department B.5 -B.29 Postwar organisation and research, 1943-48 B.30-B.73 Research and administration, 1956-80 B.74-B.88 Lectures B.89-B.92 OTHER CAMBRIDGE DEPARTMENTS/INSTITUTIONS For biographical material on Bullard's career at Cambridge, his colleges, home and interests, see Section A, passim. For material on research projects at or connected with Cambridge, see Section D, passim. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 47 Cambridge B.1-B.88 DEPARTMENT OF GEODESY AND GEOPHYSICS B.1-B.4 EARLY HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT The early material appears to have been inherited by Bullard from Sir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham, either directly or via B.C. Browne. B.1 Tagged folder of correspondence and papers, inscribed ‘British Association Geodesy Committee/Correspondence 1916-1919 relating to the Establishment of a Geodetic Institute in Britain’. The British Association's Resolution of 11 May 1916 called for a series of reports on various sciences. The report on Geodesy, by F.W. Dyson, C.F. Close and E.H. Hills, resulted in the setting up of a Committee 'To discuss the present needs of Geodesy, including its relation to other branches of Geophysics, and to report ...'. was E.H. Hills, whose folder this originally was. The Chairman was C.F. Close, and the Secretary On the appointment of a Committee in Cambridge to con- sider the establishment of a Professorship with a Geodetic Institute, the B.A. Committee's work came to an end(seeletter, 30 June 1919). The folder, which runs May 1916-July 1919, includes preliminary material, correspondence with colleagues, members of the committee, agendas, memoranda, committee arrangements, appointments, etc. Also included is earlier correspondence, 1915, re the International Geodetic Association. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge 48 B.2 Correspondence exchanged between H.F. Newall and G.P. Lenox-Conyngham, re the funding, setting up and organisation of a school of Geodesy at Cambridge. The letters are ms., with typed transcripts. Enclosed with the material is a letter, 1960, to 'My dear Ben' (B.C. Browne) from Lenox-Conyngham's daughter who had found the letters among her father's papers and thought them of historical interest. sumably inherited them. Browne died in 1968 and Bullard pre- The letters run 23 December 1918-April 1921. In his letter of 19 April 1919 Lenox-Conyngham writes 'The last two days have been rather anxious ones, with this attempted rebellion at Amritsar and elsewhere’. Correspondence March-April 1921 explores the possibility of Lenox-Conyngham's appointment as Director of the proposed school. 2pp. ms. account by Bullard 'Fifty years of Geodesy and Geo- physics at Cambridge’, prepared for the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Department, 1971. With brief correspondence re Praelectorship in Geodesyat Trinity College, Cambridge. Annual Reports of the Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics, 1932-36, 1938, 1940-43, 1945-48. These reports have been drawn upon for information on research at the Department, and particularly Bullard's own projects. B.3 B.4 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge 49 B.5-B.29 POSTWAR ORGANISATION AND RESEARCH, 1943-48 B.5 -B.10 Memoranda and Reports B.11-B.22 Equipment B.23-B.29 Research and administration Bullard's earliest note on postwar requirements dates from 1943 (B.5-B.7). He was a member of the Royal Society Committee on postwar needs in Geophysics set up in February 1944, to which he submitted several memoranda, and whose recommendations included the extension of the Cambridge Department. See F.86- F.89. Bullard was also a memberof the joint committee appointed by the Royal Society and the University Grants Committee to organise the distribution of government surplus stores to universities at the end of the war. He was active in visiting various official stores and depots, drawing up lists of material, and - as representative of Cambridge University - bidding for material on behalf of other Cambridge departments as well as the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics (B.11-B.16). On his return in 1945 to his post as Reader in Geophysics, Bullard was for practical purposes head of the Department and responsible for matters of equipment, staff and day- to-day administration (B.17-B. 29). B.5-B.10 Memoranda and reports 5.5 'The Post-War Development of Geophysics. to be submitted to the Nuffield Trustees.’ Draft of a scheme 8pp. typescript draft, with a covering letter from Sir Ronald Fraser dated March 1943, bearing ms. corrections by Bullard and Fraser. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 50 Cambridge B.6 'Draft of a scheme for the Post-war development of Geophysics.' 9pp. typescript with ms. revisions. B is Uses similar material to B.7 ‘Notes on the cost of providing for Geophysics in Cambridge." 9pp. typescript and ms. draft by Bullard, written to supplement the above, July 1943. B.8 B.9 'Report of the sub-committee appointed by the Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics.' (Cambridge). Report, and amendments, prepared for meeting on 20 September 1943. Letter from Bullard to Lenox-Conyngham, setting out his views on the development of geophysics at Cambridge, with reference to the above, March 1945. ‘Draft report of the Committee of the General Board on the future of the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics', 1948. See D.351 for a research proposal, 1949. B.11-B.22 Equipment Draft memoranda re distribution of surplus government equipment to universities, correspondence with officials, ministers, colleagues, etc., re compilation oflists of material available through scheme, March 1945-March 1946. B.12 Official lists of Government surplus stores made available for purchase via University Grants Committee, various dates, 1945. The list of radio components is annotated by Bullard and B.C. Browne. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Bl Cambridge Supplements to Ministry of Supply lists and miscellaneous other typescript lists or drafts for lists. Correspondence, etc. re requirements of various Departments of Cambridge University (including Department of Geodesy and Geophysics), October 1945-August 1946. Miscellaneous lists of requirements of machinery and equip- ment prepared by various Cambridge Departments (including Department of Geodesy and Geophysics). Consignment notes, invoices, etc. for equipment supplied from various ministries and government stores to Department of Geodesy and Geophysics. B.17-B.19 Correspondence and papers re gravimeter for research in the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, 1946-47 (not indexed). With officials and colleagues re Graf gravimeter from Germany through Treasury Reparations Scheme. With commercial firms and suppliers of parts and equipment. B.19 Bullard's ms. notes and diagrams. B.20-B.22 Correspondence with industrial firms and suppliers re various items of equipment for Department and research projects. Not indexed. B.20 B.21 1945 1946. Correspondence April includes letters explaining purpose of research project to make a Gravity Survey of the western seaboard of the British Isles, under the joint Navy/Royal Society advisory committee for ship- borne research. isation of thermometers. Correspondence August is re standard- E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge 52 B.22 Miscellaneous receipts, invoices, consignment notes, etc. for departmental supplies, 1945, 1946. B.23-B.29 Research and administration Buia B.24 B.25 B.26 B.27 Correspondence, 1944-46, with Lenox-Conyngham, B.C. Browne, L.R. Flavill re resumption of work at Cambridge, and with others coming or applying to work there. Correspondence and papers re Shell Studentships in Geophysics, 1945. Two Studentships were offered by the Royal Dutch Shell Group of Companies, to begin 1 October 1945; folder includes corres- pondence with the Company and with Cambridge University re setting-up of scheme, draft notice, etc. and with applicants for the first studentships. Correspondence, 1946-47, re proposed collaborative research on echo-sounding at sea, with Admiralty and others, and its funding. Correspondencere trials of Siebe Gorman Bathysphere at Portsmouth. as a witness, 1946-47. Includes ms. report by B.C. Browne who attended Correspondence, 1945-46, re requests to visit Bullard or seek advice on starting or continuing research projects, set up institutes, etc. B.28 Shorter administrative correspondence, 1946. B.29 Correspondence with Cambridge University General Board and Treasurerre affairs of the Department: budget estimates, staff, building requirements. 1945-46. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 53 B.30-B.73 RESEARCH AND ADMINISTRATION, 1956-80 Cambridge B.30-B.37 Research proposals B.38-B.64 Expedition and research reports B.65-B.73 General administrative material It should be noted that much of the material on research is by other members of the Department, principally M.N. Hill. The authorship is noted where known. See Section D for further material on research projects undertaken at this period. The 'General administrative material' at B.65-B.73 consists of the surviving documents from Bullard's own files and is in no sense a comprehensive record of the Department. B.30-B.37 Research proposals B.30 ‘Proposed survey of the mid-Atlantic ridge. ' 2pp. draft, n.d., probably written for G.E.R. Deacon by M.N. Hill in 1958, shortly after D.H. Matthews joined the Department. (Information from D.H. Matthews, 1983.) B.3] B.32 ‘Proposed future plans for marine investigations by the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics . ! 7pp. typescript by M.N. Hill, November 1959. "Geological and Geophysical investigations of the floor of the ocean andof neighbouring shallow seas undertaken by the Department ...' A historical survey, 6pp. typescript, by M.N. Hill, November W959. B.33 "Seismology in the United Kingdom. Future requirements.' 3pp. typescript, no author, January 1960. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 B.34 ‘NATO Magnetic Survey.' Cambridge 5pp. typescript + tables and notes (the latter signed 'DHM' EMatthews J, 9 March 1962). B.35 'Needs of the Department ... for the Quinquennium 1962-67", App. typescript memorandum, no author or date. B.36 ‘Data logging and data reduction at sea.' App. typescript by D.H. Matthews, July 1965. B.37 ‘Marine Geophysics at Cambridge. ' 3pp. circular letter by D.H. Matthews, on past research and future proposals, January 1980. B.38-B.64 Expedition and research reports B.38 B.39 B.40 Untitled journal, 18 July-30 August, no author or year, but almost certainly by Hill and referring to R.R.S. 'Discovery II’ expedition, 1956. 19pp. typescript. magnetometer are marked by Bullard. All references to work with the proton See D.484-D.506. 'M.N. Hill's journal of the cruise of "Discovery II" May to July 1958." 28pp. typescript. 'The cruise of R.R.S. "Discovery II" May 9 to July 28, 1958. Report from the Department ....' 13pp. typescript, with contributions by several participants. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge 55 B.41 'MNH's journal of "Discovery II" cruise August-October 1960." 22pp. typescript + 3pp. ‘Extract from journal of A.S. Laughton', and 'Station List’. B.42 "Expedition by R.V. "Sarsia", June 19-29 1961.' 3pp. typescript by Hill. B.43 'MNH's journal of "Discovery II" expedition: January-March 1962.' q 35pp. typescript. B.44 "Station list' for above expedition. App., and chart. B.45 ‘Cruise Report' for above expedition. Spp. typescript, no author. B.46 B.47 B.48 Report on Indian Ocean Expedition in H.M.S. ‘Owen', 12-26 April 1962. 3pp. typescript by B.C. Browne. Report on expedition in R.V. 'Argo' (a Scripps Institution vessel), October-November 1962. 2pp. typescript by T.J.G. Francis. 'H.M.S. "Vidal" - operation NAVADO. Report on the work of members of the Department ... during the cruise from Portland to Hamburg and back', September-October 1963. 2pp. typescript by B.C. Browne. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 56 Cambridge B.49 'H.M.S. "Vidal" ... Portland to Oporto,’ October 1963. 2pp. typescript by J.O. Beaumont. B.50-B.64 Office of Naval Research Grants. Application, budgets, reports, etc. prepared for O.N.R., B.50 is a budget many relating to the expeditions above. for 1960-61 in which the grant reference is NR 083-153; on the other reports the contract number is N 62558-2704. The dates run 1 December 1960 to 28 February 1963; some of the reports are signed by M.N. Hill and other members of the Department. B.65-B.73 General administrative material B.65, B.66 Requests to visit/work in Department, letters of thanks. B.65 1960-69 B.66 1970-77 B.67 B.68 B.69 Correspondence on research at Department, 1960-68. Miscellaneous correspondence re staff, research, expeditions 1963-79. Includes list of 'The Whereabouts of Cambridge Mariners’, listing names and careers of research students, 1950-79. Correspondence, 1968-69, with Hydrographer of the Navy re the transfer to his new Geophysical Laboratories ofa sine lift from the Cambridge Department. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge 57 B.70 Correspondence, 1974, re the organisation of ‘earth science’ at Cambridge. Bullard's reply of 24 October, in answer to a request for information, is an interesting summary of his work on the history of the subject at Cambridge, its likely development there, and his own suggestions for its place in university studies. B.71 Correspondence with J.A. Jacobs (Bullard's successor as Professor) re research and affairs of the Department, 1975-79. Correspondence 1979 includes discussion on the merging of 'Earth Sciences Departments' at Cambridge and the proposal to name the Madingley Rise site the ‘Bullard Laboratories’. B.72 Miscellaneous correspondence re buildings. Includes press report from O.N.R. 'European Scientific News' re opening of new building at the Department, and a letter from Bullard to Jacobs, 1978, about the apple tree at Depart- ment, a scion of Newton's apple tree, obtained by Bullard from Kew in 1970. B.73 Correspondence, 1969-70, with David Peace re engraved glass door for new building. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 58 Cambridge B.74-B.88 LECTURES ‘These are notes for University lecture courses, mainly at Cambridge, but see B.76-B.78 for lectures originally given at Toronto. Very few are dated. Other lectures given in Cambridge may be found in Section G. B.74 B.75 Miscellaneous lecture schedules and summaries, various dates and undated. Extensive sequence of notes for courses of lectures in Mechanics, 28 numbered pages and many intercalated pages. pp. 2 and 3 only of similar material. B.76 '2nd Year Acoustics Lect.' Miscellaneous ms. notes, some paginated. folder. First given at Toronto 1948. In original B.77 "Applied Geophys. Lect.' Miscellaneous ms. notes, some paginated. folder, n.d., similar to above. In original B.78 "Lecture notes' Miscellaneous ms. notes on various topics in physics. original folder, n.d., similar to above. In B.79 Miscellaneous shorter lectures: "Physics for Arts Students, 1956' ‘Origin of the Earth's Magnetic Field', 1957 'Rockets and Satellites (to Arts Students 1959)' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 B.80 ‘Earth's Magnetic Field' Cambridge 59 Course of 8 lectures, 1958. In original folder. B.81 "Geological Time' Course of 3 lectures, Michaelmas Term 1959. In original folder. B.82, B.83 Notes for courses on Geophysics, various dates, numberings and paginations (few complete). B.82 B.83 1956, 1961, 1962. In original folder. 1967, 1971, 1973 (complete course of 8 lectures). B.84 "Mechanics' 20pp. sequence, 1960. In original folder. B.85 B.86 Similar sequence paginated 8-23. ‘Earth structure and oceans’ 7 lectures, October 1963. B.87 'Phys. of Earth. Part 2 General’ Lectures 2-8 of course, October 1967. In original folder. B.88 Miscellaneous shorter lectures: ‘Minerals from the deep sea', 1971 ‘Earth's magnetic field', 1974 ‘Continental Drift’, 8th lecture (only), n.d. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge 60 B.89-B.92 OTHER CAMBRIDGE DEPARTMENTS AND INSTITUTIONS In alphabetical order. B.89 Department of Botany 1964 Cambridge Philosophical Society 1946, 1964 B.90 The Cavendish Laboratory 1956-63, 1969, 1973 General correspondence, principally with N.F. Mott but also with other colleagues, on research, funding, personnel, lectures, etc. B.91 Computer Laboratory Pye of Cambridge Scientific Periodicals Library University Chemical Laboratory 1971 1970 1970, 1977 1973, 1974 B72 University General Board 2pp. 'Comments ... on the development of the University’, witha ms. note at end 'prob. about 1957 or 1958'. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 61 SECTION C CALIFORNIA C.1 - C.43 INTRODUCTION TO SECTION C Bullard's first documented connection* with the University of California was during his period at Toronto, when he spent the summer of 1949 working with A.E. Maxwell at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography on marine heat flow (C.12- C.14). This work, mainly concerned with the design of apparatus, was the start of continuing work through the 1950s and its successful completion was regarded as a "historic occasion’ for Scripps (see C.26). A typescript draft report of the 1949 work, by Bullard and Maxwell, appears at G.25. See also A. 249. During the 1949 visit, Bullard was approached to consider appointment as Director of Scripps, but declined in view of his decision to return to Britain as Director of NPL (see C.14). His connection with Scripps, and the friends and colleagues there, remained among the most valued of his life. He returned regularly over the years in various research and teaching capacities, and became a United States resident, based in California, after his retirement in 1974. The offer of the Directorship of Scripps was repeated in 1964 (see C.18) and again declined, this time from loyalty to Cambridge. The symposium organised in his honour at Scripps in January 1980 was a tribute to his role in animating research projects and to the affection he inspired. See A.119-A.121. * See J.133 for correspondence with L.B. Slichter in 1947 offering Bullard a post at the newly-constituted Institute of Geophysics at UCLA where Slichter had been appointed Director. SOME OF THE MATERIAL IN THIS SECTION MAY BE SUBJECT TO RESTRICTION. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A note on nomenclature California 62 Bullard's long connection spanned various expansions, mergings and changes of organisation and title at the University of California, not all of which are consistently The represented in the references or indeed on the letter-heads of the correspondence. following outline of events, quoted by permission, was provided by the Archivist of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Library: 'The Scripps Institution of Oceanography has been part of the University of California since 1912. It was founded in 1903 as the Marine Biological Association of San Diego, and its name was changed in 1912 to the Scripps Institution for Biological Research of the University of California. the name was changed to Scripps Institution of Oceanography. From 1912 to 1937, the Berkeley campus of the University of California granted degrees to students studying at Scripps and undertook some administrative andfiscal responsibility concerning the operation of Scripps. In 1938 these functions were transferred to the new University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Since 1960, when the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) was founded, Scripps has been officially defined as a research and graduate school of UCSD. In 1925 The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is a university- There are branches of IGPP The institute was founded in 1946 as the Institute wide institute of the University of California. at Scripps and at UCLA. of Geophysics, and its headquarters were at UCLA. Walter Munk was the sole representative of the institute on the Scripps campus. In 1960, the Scripps branch of the institute was established, and the name of the institute was changedto its current form. Although the La Jolla branch of IGPP is physically located on the Scripps campus and cooperates closely with Scripps, in administrative terms it is independent of any single University of California campus. From 1947 to 1960, The University of California, San Diego, began in the late 1950s as the brainchild of Roger Revelle, then director of the Scripps Institution. 1960 is generally recognized as the official date of its establishment even though some UCSD faculty was recruited before that date. campus was completed, its Institute of Technology and Engineering and School of Science and Engineering were physically located on the Scripps Campus. Before the UCSD The University of California, San Diego, was initially called the University of California, La Jolla. by the University and a degree granted under that name. Forpolitical considerations, however, the name was changedin 1961 to University of California, San Diego. It is acceptable to refer to it as the San Diego campusof the University of California as well.' In fact, one dissertation was accepted E-C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 California 63 C.1-C.11 ADMINISTRATIVE AND PERSONAL Includes Bullard's appointments, visa applications, resident status, retirement pension, insurance. For other personal material see Section A passim. C.12.-.C.28 RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC Includes research correspondence and papers, staff, promotions, expeditions, meetings, conferences, publications, other institutions of the University. Much ofthis is necessarily exchanged during Bullard's periods at Cambridge away from California, and is thus only a partial record. For work on BOMM, see D.528 - D.576. For work on palaeomagnetism, see D.586 - D. 592. For work on nuclear waste, see D.613 - D.643. For consultancies in California, see E:99 - E.113, E.185 - E.187. C.29 - C.43 LECTURES AND TEACHING E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 California C.1-C.11 ADMINISTRATIVE AND PERSONAL 1961 (one letter only). 1962 1963 Includes correspondence, July, re Bullard's appoint- ment as ‘research associate in the Institute of Geo- physics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, San Diego'. Includes correspondence, July, re Bullard's appoint- ment as 'Visiting Professor V for a period of three months each year commencing September 1, 1963, in the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics’. C.2 1964-66 Includes correspondence, February 1966, re Bullard's appointment as 'Professor, Step V, inthe Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego ... from July 1, 1966, for a period of three months per year’. C.8 C.4 C.5 C.6 C7 1967-68 1969-70 Includes a note, April 1970, by Bullard of his research at IGPP on Plate Tectonics and on the Earth's magnetic field, for inclusion in Institute Report. Also included is material about the proposed Inter- national Center of La Jolla. 1971-72 Includes correspondence, May 1971, about Bullard's promotion to what he terms in his letters of thanks, 'a yet grander kind of professor’. 1973-74 Includes correspondence re Green Scholarships (see also C.8, C.27) and to Bullard's visit to Berkeley (see also H. 20). Correspondence, visa applications and other miscellaneous papers re granting of U.S. resident visas to Bullard and to Lady (Ursula) Bullard, December 1974-August 1976. Includes biographical information, details of previous appoint- ments and salary at Scripps Institution. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 California 65 C.8 1975-76 Includes correspondence, December 1975- January 1976, on Bullard's appointment as a 'Cecil H. and Ida Green Scholar', and correspondence, October 1976, on his appointment as ‘Professor Recalled to Active Duty’. C9 1975-76 Correspondence, etc. re retirement pension. See A.11 for a letter by Bullard commenting on the University pension system. 1975-78 Correspondence, etc. re medical insurance and claims. 1977-79 Includes correspondence, December 1977, re Bullard's re-appointment for Fall Quarter 1977 and Winter Quarter 1978, his letters of resignation, April and May 1979, and a copy of a paper by R. Revelle 'The Adolescence of The Elephant' given at the 75th anniversary banquet of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, April 1978. Correspondence 1979 testifies to the great success of Bullard's lectures and teaching. C,12-C.28 RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC C.12-C.14 Correspondence and papers, 1948-49, re Bullard's visit to Scripps, June-September 1949, to work on marine heat flow. See also A. 249, C.26, G.25. Invitation and arrangements, comments on the research proposal sent to C. Eckhart (Director, Scripps Institution). Letters of thanks after visit, list of ‘Submarine geologists ... with comments by Bullard. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 C.14 66 California Letters re the offer to Bullard of the post of Director of Scripps. In his letter of 9 September 1949 to President Sproul, Bullard explains his reasons for declining, his admiration for Scripps and his warm commendation of R. Revelle for the Directorship. €.15 1962 Includes correspondence, February-March, re W.H. Munk's fellowship at Churchill College, Cambridge, to ‘extract components of oceanic and atmospheric tides from very long geophysical time series’ (jointly with Bullard); correspondence on ocean heat flow with W.H.K. Lee and others. C.16 1963 Includes continuing correspondence on heat flow, and preliminary suggestion for Bullard's part-time appointment (see also C.1). C.17 1963-64 Correspondence re Scripps expedition in R.V. Baird to Easter Island, Juan Fernandez and Valparaiso in August 1964. See D.586-D.592 for research on palaeomagnetism arising from expedition. C.18 1964 General correspondence onscientific matters, including BOMM, SCOR (q.q.v.). Bullard to consider nomination as Director of Scripps. Letter of 13 May asks C.19 1964-65 Correspondence with W.H.K. Lee re publication 'Terrestrial Heat flow' (ed. Lee), Geophys. Monogr. No.8, to which Bullard contributed a ‘Historical introduction’ (Bibliog. 1965e). C.20 1965 Includes correspondence and data re magnetic reversals for rocks from South Pacific expedition (see D.586- D.592), correspondence re proposed publication in Bullard's honour of papers of International Symposium on Geothermal Problems at |.U.G.G. General Assembly, 1966, etc. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 C.2] C.22 C23 C.24 G.25 C.26 C.27 California 67 1966-67 General scientific correspondence re research and appointments. 1966-67 Correspondence and papers re Scripps NOVA expedition to southwestern Pacific. Horizon, 13 July-8 August, Suva-Brisbane, for sampling of palaeomagnetic rocks and volcanic lavas. Bullard was on Includes a carbon letter from Bullard, 1970, re specimens collected on NOVA expedition. 1968 Correspondence with and re Y. Bottinga. 1968-70 Includes congratulations on the award of the Vetlesen prize, a note, August 1969, by Bullard on ‘Magnetic Stratigraphy and JOIDES', Bullard's assess- ment of the work of IGPP, etc. 1971-73 General correspondence on research and appoint- ments. 1973 Material on the history of research on marine heat flow at Scripps, stemming from Bullard's joint work in 1949 (see C.12-C.14). of the subject by E.N. Shor, with comments and corres- pondenceby Bullard, September-October 1973. Includes a draft account See A.4 for a copy of the article 'E.C. Bullard's First Heat-Probe' as published in 1984. Correspondence and papers re selection of Green Scholars, funded by Cecil and Ida Green 'for the benefit of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics and ... the entire Earth Sciences community at Scripps Institution of Oceanography’, 1973-74, 1979. Bullard was Chairman of the selection committee and was him- self a Green Scholar in 1976 (see C.8). Folder includes background information on the terms of the gift. C.28 1974-78 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 C.29-C.43 LECTURES AND TEACHING California 68 Bullard was concerned with various sets of lectures for the APIS* courses. He gave lectures, and also set, graded and moderated tests and examinations. He explains in his letter of resignation (C.11) that he had previously been little involved with undergraduate teaching, but had found it enjoyable; this was clearly reciprocated (C.31). The several records of tests and examinations indicate his conscientious yet humane approach to this aspect of academic life, even in 1979-80 when he knew that he was terminally ill (see esp. C.33, C.34). . APIS = Applied Physics and Information Sciences. <29 C.30 C.8] C.32 C.33 General correspondence and circulars on timetables, schedules, etc. 1967, 1974-79. Reading-lists, orders for books/reprints, handouts and teaching material for Bullard's classes. Evaluations of, and comments on, Bullard's courses by participants. Tests and examinations: question papers, draft or 'ideal' answers, various dates, 1973-79. Material re examinations, winter 1979 (Bullard's last at Scripps). Arrangements, scalings, detailed performances. C.34 Correspondence with and re students and their examination grades. 1974, but mainly 1978-80, when Bullard wasseriously ill but still brought meticulous care to re-assessment, comments on work, etc. woo Lists of participants in Bullard's courses, and their gradings, 1978, 1979. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 69 C.36 C.37 C.38 C.39 C.40 C.41 C.42 C.43 California 21pp. ms. notes for course of lectures on 'The Earth’, some dated 1973, 1974. llpp. ms. notes for course of lectures on ‘Earth's Magnetic Field (Scripps Oct. 1974)', and 2pp. additional notes. Shorter ms. notes for lectures on 'Magnetic Limestones' and ‘Atlantic continental edges', both October 1974. Ms. notes, arrangements and schedules for lectures and seminars on Plate Tectonics, January 1976. Ms. notes for lectures on ‘Plate tectonics', 'Fits and Splits’, 'Earth's magnetic field', 'Disc Dynamos', all October- ’ December 1977. Ms. notes, arrangements and schedules for lectures and seminars on ‘Development of ideas on plate tectonics' and ‘Origin of earth's magnetic field', 1978 and 1979. Miscellaneous shorter notes for lectures on various topics, given at La Jolla, various dates, 1965-73. Miscellaneous notes, summaries of lectures, etc., various dates or undated. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 70 SECTION D RESEARCH D.1-D.651 INTRODUCTION TO SECTION D Almost all this work is in manuscript, and a substantial part of it remains in Bullard's original folders bearing his descriptions and dates, which are quoted in inverted commas in the catalogue entries. The policy of retaining the original arrangement of the folders has been followed even when only one or two sheets of paper were contained; D.143, D.293 contain folders now empty from which material had been removedorredistributed by Bullard in ways not now easily traceable. Very bulky folders, and a fortiori the large filing-drawer dividers Bullard sometimes used to hold his more extensive accumulations of material, have been split into more manage- able units for ease of reference. Much ofthe early work on gravity measurement and explosion seismology, con- ducted from the Cambridge Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, includes corres- pondencewith or to the then Reader, Sir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham, and other members of the Department. In conjunction with Section B it thus forms a useful contribution to the history of the subject and the Department. To a considerably less extent, some of the work on geomagnetism conducted when Bullard was Director of the National Physical Laboratory includes material relating to staff and activities there. The topics are presented in chronological order of the earliest documented evidence of Bullard's involvement. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 LIST OF CONTENTS Research 7 D.1 -D.17 SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY NOTEBOOKS 1925-29 D.18 -D.23 ELECTRON SCATTERING 1929-31 D.24 -D.294 GRAVITY MEASUREMENT Pendulum Swings D.24-D.143 1924-53 With an introductory note African Gravity Campaign 1933-36, 1956 D.144-D.294 With an introductory note D.295-D.351 EXPLOSION SEISMOLO GY Introductory note On land D.295-D.341 1933, 1935-36 At sea D.342-D. 351 1937-39 D.352-D.426 HEAT FLOW On land D.352-D.398 1937-58 With an introductory note At sea D.399-D.426 1949-58 With an introductory note D.427-D.429 AIRBORNE MAGNETOMETER D.430-D.433 FIGURE OF EARTH 1947 . 1947 D.434-D.476 DYNAMO THEORY 1947-79 With an introductory note E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 72 D.477-D.483 EARTH DENSITY c.1951-56 D.484-D.506 PROTON MAGNETOMETER 1956-58, 1966 D.507-D.513 SEISMIC REFLECTION/APPLIED SEISMO LO GY D.514-D.517 ARGON DATING With an introductory note 1956-58 1956-61 D.518-D.522 SECULAR VARIATION c.1958-59 D.523-D.576 COMPUTER APPLICATIONS EDSAC D.523-D.527 e. 1959-62 With an introductory note BOMM D.528-D.576 1960-76 With an introductory note D.577-D.585 CONTINENTAL DRIFT ¢.1962-65, 1975 D,556-D,,572a PALAEO MAGNETISM 1964-66 D.593-D.609 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF OCEANS 1965-71 D.610-D.612 MAGNETIC VARIATIONS 1967-69 D.613-D. 643 ENERGY SOURCES/NUCLEAR WASTE 1976-80 With an introductory note D.644-D.651 MISCELLANEOUS E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 73 D.1-D.17 SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY NOTEBOOKS, 1925-29 D.1, Di2 School Notebooks D.1 D.2 Black notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard 28/12/25 Chemistry’. Hardback notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard Feb 4th 1926 Repton. Cohen's Organic Chemistry’. D.3-D.17 Undergraduate notebooks Chemistry D.3 D.4 Hardback notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard 14/10/26 Chemistry’ (few pages used). Hardback notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard. Volumetric'. January 1927-February 1928, some checked and counter- signed 'J.B.'. Record of experiments. 16/1/27. D.5-D.7 Three jotter-type notebooks, all bearing Bullard's name and two with a later note '1927 or 1928'. Mineralogy D.8 Blue notebook, ‘Practical Mineralogy', inscribed inside front cover 'E.C. Bullard. Clare. 'These note books were returned to me by Mrs. Hutchinson after Prof. Hutchinson's death. E.C.B. 2/2/38'. 18/1/27', witha ms. note E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Physics Research 74 D.9 Small red notebook, labelled 'Heat'. Large springback folder. The inscription is 'E.C. Bullard, Repton, Oct. '25', but the contents are miscellaneous, some possibly dating from Repton, but most on various topics in physics and many bearing various dates 1926-29, in no obvious order. Hardback notebook, labelled 'E.C. Bullard. 14/10/26. Physics’. Black looseleaf notebook, of notes taken at lectures at Cambridge, 1926. Includes: 'Mechanics & Properties of Matter. Mr. Woods' ‘Organic Chemistry. Prof. Sir W. Pope. Mr. Palmer' ‘Mineralogy. Prof. Hutchinson’ Springback folder, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard. Clare. 7/1/28. General Dynamics from notes taken at Mr. Pars' Lectures Michaelmas Term 1927'. This is a written-up account, paginated 1-115, with an index of 57 sections. Green notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard. Practical crystal physics’. Clare. 14/10/27. Red notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard, Clare. Practical Physics Dr. Ellis' Lab.'. 10/10/27. Red notebook, inscribed 'Part 2 Phys. Practical Class'. Work runs 15 October 1928-26 February 1929. Softback notebook, labelled 'E.C. Bullard, Clare. (Translation, presumably Translation of Schrddinger, 1926'. by Bullard, of papers on wave mechanicsby E. Schrédinger. ) 17/3/28. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 75 Research D.18-D.23 ELECTRON SCATTERING, 1929-31 This was Bullard's first research, conducted at the Cavendish Laboratory under Rutherford, in collaboration with H.S.W. (later Sir Harrie) Massey. See A.13 for an account by Bullard of the work and the conditions in which it was carried out in the ‘attic' referred to inD.18. Seealso J.10, J.91. D.18 D.19 Softbacked green notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard, Clare. "The Attic". Long Vac. 1929'. Experiments, mainly with apparatus, various dates July- August 1929. Small hardbacked notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard, Cavendish Lab. 11/10/29. Lab. Diary’. Entries run 10 October 1929-15 February 1930. D.20-D.23 Four notebooks on electron scattering. D.20 lacks the inside front page; D.21-D.23 are inscribed with the names of Bullard and Massey and are all titled 'Scattering of Electrons in Gases’ and numbered 2, 3 and 4 respectively. D.20 D.21 D.22 D.23 No nameor title, experiments run 28 October 1929-13 June 1930. Notebook 2, experiments run 13 June-3 August 1930. Notebook 3, experiments run 7 August-12 November 1930. Notebook 4, experiments run 14 November 1930-13 March 1931. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 76 D.24-D. 294 GRAVITY MEASUREMENT D.24-D.143 PENDULUM SWINGS/GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS, 1924-53 This was one of the principal activities of the Cambridge Department in its early days, ‘largely because the Department possessed some pendulums' as Bullard character- istically put it later (A.7). Although he joined the staff only in 1931, the earliest records date from 1924 and were all kept in long-hand by Lenox-Conyngham andhis assistants. They thus form an interesting contrast with the more sophisticated methods of automatic recording and more sensitive instrumentation to which Bullard himself contributed, using the talents of Leslie Flavill, the Departmental technician whom he valued highly. See, e.g. D.72, D.83, D.84. The material is presented chronologically as far as possible; the ‘African Gravity Campaign’ for which Bullard was directly responsible has been treated as a separate entity at D.144-D.294. Although the early folders at D.24-D.33 contain work done by others before Bullard joined the Department, the folders themselves and the des- criptions of contents are his. The sequence of folders is broken at D.34-D.38 to include Bullard's own laboratory and field notebooks, and resumes at D.39 with his folders of observations, correspondence and other research material. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 77 D.24 "Pendulum Observations, 1924-25' Miscellaneous tables of observations, calculations, etc., mainly 20 May-1 June, and October 1925, all ms. in the hands of G.P. Lenox-Conyngham and G. Manley. Included here is ms. 'Résumé of Work at the Pendulum House, Cambridge, November 1924-March 1925', 15pp., no author, and a letter to Lenox-Conyngham, February 1926, reporting 'gravity determinations made by our engineer Dr. F.A. Vening Meinesz'. D.25 ‘Lawes (sic) Temp. & Press. Coeffts.' Notes, calculations, bundles of observations, almost all by J.B. Laws, but with some notes by G.P. Lenox-Conyngham; related mainly to adjustments to pendulums and to thermal coefficients. Includes report by Laws on 'Final adjustment of lengths of Danish Pendulums', September 1926. Observations run various dates, June-September 1926. D.26-D.28 Miscellaneous bundles of observations at Cambridge, Ordnance Survey Southampton and other stations, almost all made by J.B. Laws but with some additions and corrections by Lenox- Conyngham, August-September 1926. Similar to above, but received as loose bundles. Now in three folders. D.29 "Laws obns. 1926' Includes 'Report on the Relative Determinations of Gravity during August and September 1926' by Laws, with maps and notes by Lenox-Conyngham, and ‘Recalculation of Lawes' (sic) Results ...' by Bullard, n.d. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 78 D.30 'Col. Crasters Obns. 1926' Research Folder containing 'Report on Adjustment of period of Oscillation of Pendulums Oct. to Dec. 1926', by Craster. D.31 'Pesonen 1926-29! Notes, calculations, chart of observations 1926-29 for brass and invar pendulums, in Bullard's hand (presumably a copy of earlier data). D.32 "Jolly and McCaw 1927' Folder referring to work by G.T. McCaw, Geographical Section, War Office, and H.L.P. Jolly, Ordnance Survey. Includes report 'Gravity Determinations in 1927', with ms. corrections by Jolly and Lenox-Conyngham, report on 'Gravity Observations 1927', l4pp. by Jolly and McCaw, miscellaneous tables cind notes by Jolly, Ip. ‘Summary of 1927 Obsns.' by Bullard. 5 pp. draft D.33 'Willis & Jolly 1930! Referring to collaborative work on gravity determination with H.L.P. Jolly (Ordnance Survey) and J.C.T. Willis (Geographical Section, War Office). Includes draft report, notes on loan of Cambridge Pendulum, maps, tables, etc., some by Lenox-Conyngham, and corres- pondence, April 1930-March 1931, between Lenox-Conyngham, collaborators and other colleagues re project. D.34-D. 38 Five notebooks of observations and calculations, of Cambridge and other stations, all inscribed with Bullard's name and address and numbered 1-5 as follows: D.34 D.35 Notebook No.1, 6 July 1931-12 February 1932 Notebook No.2, 17 March ~ 8 August 1932 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 79 D.36 D.37 D.38 Research Book 3 8 August - 13 December 1932 Book No.4 24 January 1933-12 July 1935 Book No.5 16 July 1935-11 August 1937 These books are occasionally referred to in the notes and corresporidence. D3? "Pendulum Observations 1931' Tables, graphs, calculations, etc. almost all by H.L.P. Jolly 1931 (with a few notes 1932), J.C.T. Wiilis and Bullard, at various stations. Includes correspondence, 1931, all addressed to Lenox- Conyrgham, from Willis and Bullard, re progress of research. Correspondence for September refers to damage sustained by pendulums, referred to in Annual Report for 1932 included in B.4. D.40 "Pendulum Observations 1932' Tables, graphs, calculations by Jolly and Bullard, almost all 1932 but a few 1931. Includes letter to Lenox-Conyngham from Director General, Ordnance Survey and a copy of his annual report describing the history and progress of the collaborative research on gravity pendulum apparatus. D.4] 'E.C.B. Report 1931-32! ‘Report on pendulum observations September 1931 to February 1932 by E.C. Bullard’ 18pp. draft + 6 tables (2 copies). Ms. drawings and figures. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 80 Research D.42 'E.C.B. Press. & Temp. Coeffs. 1931-32' Folder of ms. tables and calculations. D.43 'Royston etc. 1932' Ms. records and calculations, all by Bullard, taken at Pendulum House and various sites in Cambridge district, various dates, October-November 1932. D.44 "Magnetic & cooling measurements. E.C.B. 1932-33' Miscellaneous ms. graphs, charts, calculations. D.45 'Willis' Folder of miscellaneous shorter correspondence between Bullard and Willis, re pendulum swings, 1931, 1933. Bullard's letter 5 October 1933 (written during his voyage to Africa) describes his discovery of rust in the invar pendulums. See Annual Report 1933-34 in B.4. Included here is an unsigned letter to 'Dr. Wood', May 1941, about development of research methods. D.46 'Jolly' General correspondence about gravity determination research, with H.L.P. Jolly, 1932-36, and with M. Hotine, 1935-36 (both of Ordnance Survey). Includes (incomplete) ms. historical note by Jolly on ' Gravity in the British Isles’. D.47 'Kater's results’ Ms. calculations, and Bullard's copy of a letter to Jolly on subject, July 1933. folder by Bullard. Referred to in D.46 but kept in separate E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 81 D.48 'Temp. coeffts. Jan. 1933' Research Tables, charts, calculations, all by Bullard. Some pages annotated 'Record measured upside down’. There is a note on the folder 'see also notebook 4' (D.37). D.49 'Temp. & press. coeffts. of quartz pendulum 1933' Tables, graphs, calculations, mainly comparing quartz and invar pendulums. D.50 'Aneroids' Certificates of comparison for various instruments, annotated by Bullard, 1933-36. D.51 'Red Sea' Tables and notes of 'Comparison of various observers in Red Sea', by Bullard, n.d. but kept in the sequence. D.52 ‘Pendulum Observations 1933' Bulky folder of tables, charts, calculations, etc., almost all by Bullard but some by Jolly. Includes some material 1932 and 1934 as well as 1933. Includes extensive observations at various stations in N. Wales by Bullard, March-April, and a 'check' for July-August swings dated 'Bay of Biscay October 1933' (when Bullard was en route to Africa). D.53 '8-hr. swings Mar.-Aug. 1933' Data sheets for Pendulum House, April and June only. D.54 8-hour swings Southampton, June 1933 Observations, calculations (not all by Bullard). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 82 Research D.55 8-hour swings, various dates and stations, June-August 1933. Observations, calculations (not all by Bullard). 8-hour swings, Southampton, July 1933. Observations, calculations (not all by Bullard). '8-hr. swings Oct. 1933' Observations, calculations for Pendulum House, Cambridge. ‘Cambridge 1' Observations, calculations, October 1933, at Pendulum House, mainly comparison of quartz and invar pendulums. Bullard. All by '8-hr. swings Nov.-Dec. 1933' Observations, calculations, at Pendulum House (not all by Bullard). '8 hr. swings Jan.-Feb. 1934' Observations, calculations at Pendulum House. Not all by Bullard, but annotated and corrected by him. '8 hr. swings Mar-Apr. 1934! Similar material. '8 hr swings May-June 1934! Similar material. '8 hr. swings June-July 1934! Similar material (includes 1p. observations for August). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.64 "Hunstanton' Research Observations, calculations, June 1934. 83 D.65 "Cambridge 2' Similar material, and tabulated results. Mainly May-June 1934. D.66 '8 hr swings July 1934' Observations, calculations at Pendulum House. by Bullard. Some by D.F. Munsey. Notall D.67 ‘Cambridge Oct. 1934' Similar material, almost all by Bullard. D.68 '8 hr swings Oct.-Dec. 1934' Similar material, almost all by Bullard. D.69 'Temp. coeffts. & summary 1934' Calculations, tabulated summary of temperature coefficient data, 1926-34. D.70 'Tables' Folder of calculations, notes, tabulations, all by Bullard, mainly re temperature and density corrections of quartz and invar pendulums, n.d., kept with above. Some perhaps relating to later work with B.C. Browne, D.86-D.88. Includes note of 'pendulum taken to Africa’ and 'List of apparatus required at field station’. D.71 Correspondence, 1934, with National Physical Laboratory re possible collaboration in gravity project. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D772 "Design of Quartz Pend.’ Research 84 Folder of notes, drafts and drawings of various dates. Includes: Note of 'Proposed alterations to quartz pendulums' July 1934, with additional notes by Lenox- Conyngham. 3 bundles of draft 'Design of Quartz Pendulum' paginated 1-12, 13-16, 17-22. 2 unpaginated bundles of calculations. Note on 'South African Pendulum', August 1935. Blueprints for 'Quartz Pendulum', by L.H. Flavill. D.73 "Quartz Balance’ Miscellaneous calculations, n.d., but kept with above as separate folder. D.74 Correspondence, 1935, re proposed 'magnetic survey of the oceans' and equipment for gravity measurements, with G. Norgaard. See also D.89. D.75 ‘Cambridge Aug. 1935' Observations, calculations, all by Bullard or checked by him. D.76 "Southampton Aug. 1935' Similar material. D.77 'WESTON COLVILLE’ Similar material, September 1935. D.78 ‘Cambridge Sept. 1935' Similar material, all by Bullard. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.79 '8 hr swings 1935' Research 85 Observations, calculations, tables, all by Bullard, various dates, August-December 1935. D.80 'Lincolnshire' Observations, calculations, not all by Bullard, July, September 1936. Note: Folders labelled 'Cambridge Sept. 1935', 'Cambridge July 1936 (Base Southampton)' and 'Cambridge July 1936 Base Downing Place', found empty in the sequence, are included at D.143. D.81 '8 hr Swings 1936' Observations, calculations, mainly for Southampton and Cambridge, various dates 1936. Includes 1p. ‘Summary of 8hr swings made at Cambridge Oct. 1934'. D.82, D.83 'O.S. Summaries’ Contents of bulky folder so described. D.82 Correspondence and reports re 6th General Assembly, Inter- national Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Edinburgh 1936. Includes correspondence with H.L.P. Jolly re meeting and Bullard's contributions, maps, tables and reports on gravity anomalies prepared by Bullard. (In original folder.) D.83 Earlier reports on gravity measurements, kept by Bullard with Several above and perhaps assembled by him for 1936 report. refer favourably to his improved methods of measurement and recommendtheir wider use. Includes: N.P.L. Report 1927 Summary of gravity determinations 1928 Ordnance Survey Geodetic Work 1927-30 (incomplete) Continued E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 86 D.83 (Cont'd.) Ordnance Survey Pendulum Work 1927-33 Research List of Gravity Stations in Britain, by Jolly, n.d. Report on Gravity by J.C.T. Willis, c.1933-34 Present Position of Gravity Survey of Africa, October 1935 D.84 'Thermal Syndicate’ (Firm of quartz manufacturers. ) Correspondence with the firm re design and supply of quartz pendulums and other apparatus; includes various sketches for equipment by Bullard. Various dates, 1932-38. D.85 'Metro-Vic' (Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd.) Correspondence with the firm re apparatus. Oneletter 1933, but mainly 1936. D.86-D.88 Three folders of observations, calculations, notes, drafts, etc., mainly on the comparison and standardisation of pendulums. Much ofthe work is in the hand of B.C. Browne, who joined the Department as Demonstrator in Geodesy in Michaelmas Term 1936, replacing Bullard on the latter's election to the Smithson Research Fellowship of the Royal Society. See A.53. B.86 'Az, B7 and C7' Observations, calculations, notes and drafts, on standardisation and correction of pendulums, various dates, 1937. D.87 'A7, B7 and C7 Pressure Coeffs.' Similar material, various dates, 1937. D.88 'A7, B7 and C7 Temp. Coeffs.' Similar material, various dates, 1937. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 87 D.89 "Norgaard' Research ‘Static Gravity-meter', by G. Norgaard. 7 pp. report, rivdsy c.1935-36 Miscellaneous observations, 1936, letter to Lenox-Conyngham re Browne's work on pendulums, 1937. D.90, D.91 "Standardisation of Quartz Pendulums' Contents of bulky folder so labelled (in the hand of B.C. Browne). This refers mainly to a quartz pendulum apparatus made for the University of Cape Town; the pendulums were standardised by B.C. Browne at the National Gravity Station at Greenwich. See the Annual Report for 1938 in B.4. D.90 Observations, calculations, notes of operating procedure, etc., various dates, November 1936-August 1937 (in the hands of Browne and Bullard). D.91 Material relating to despatch of apparatus to Cape Town. Includes ms. and typescript versions of descriptions of apparatus and instructions for its use (by Browne, heavily revised by Bullard), with letter and summary of standardisation procedure, December 1937. Also included are ms. lists of apparatus, and valuation for shipping. D.92 List of apparatus taken to South Australia by C. Kerr- Grant in order to make gravity determinations. With ms. note by Bullard at head, and signed at end by Kerr- Grant, 10 June 1937. “See Annual Report 1938 in B.4. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.93 '8 hr Swings 1937' Research 88 Observations, calculations, summary, all by Bullard, various dates 1937. Note: A folder also labelled '8 hr. Swings 1937', found empty in the sequence, is included at D.143. D.94 '8 hour Swings at Downing Place Dec.-Jan. 1938-39' Folder (not by Bullard, some by Browne) of observations, calculations, summary of work on pendulum standardisation by Browne dated October 1939. Includes letter, 1949, from Browne to C. Kerr-Grant re his pendulum observations in Australia in 1938. J.70. See D.92, D.95 '8 hour Swings. Pendulum House. Dec, -Jan. 1938-39! Similar material, mainly by Browne, on standardisation of pendulums for Dehra Dun, India. D.96 '8 hour Swings. Pendulum House. July 1939" Similar material. D.97 "Gravity Summary 19.36-39' Notes, tables, measurements for submission to 'Gravity on land' section of 7th General Assembly, International Union Geodesy and Geophysics, Washington, September 1939. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.98 D.99-D.103 89 Research Correspondence and papers, 1939, with National Physical Laboratory, re Bullard's visit to Washington Conference in September, and standardisation of pendulums at Department of Geodesy, National Physical Laboratory and National Bureau of Standards, and other matters on gravity determinations. Includes miscellaneous comparative data by Bullard on pendulums at NPLand NBS, various dates, July-October 1939. Also included is one letter from NPL, 1938. Work on testing and standardising of apparatus and set of pendulums for University of Buenos Aires. |The work was done in 1942 (D.99) much of it by Lenox-Conyngham himself with Bullard guiding the procedure and working out the results. The pendulums were re-swung in 1945 (D.100) and further testing took place in Cambridge in 1947 (D.101). pondence, etc. continues to 1949. Corres- The pendulums are referred to in the data as 8A / B/C to denote the eighth set made by the Cambridge Instrument Company. D.99 '8 hr Swings 8 ABC June-Aug. 1942' Extensive folder of observations, calculations, etc., almost all by Bullard or Lenox-Coynyngham. Includes Bullard's ms. instructions for conducting the observations, and a letter from Lenox- Conyngham onhis difficulties with them. D.100 'Aug.-Sept.1945 8 ABC. Argentine Pendulums' Extensive folder of similar material; calculations all by Bullard. D.101 '| A,B,C &8A,B,C in Argentine’ 1947 Extensive folder of similar material, April-May 1947. D.102 Correspondence re pendulums and variations of gravity at Cambridge and Buenos Aires, 1948, 1949. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 90 Research D.103 "Normal Continuous Argentine Pendulums 1949' Observations, calculations, not by Bullard, various dates, June-July 1949. D.104 ‘Cambridge (opening swings for New Zealand work)! This refers to the standardisation of a set of pendulums sent to D.S.1.R., New Zealand, for a gravity survey, and a quartz clock which wasalso sent. Observations, calculations, mostly by Bullard, some by R.1.B. Cooper, various dates, April-May 1947, with ms. note 'sent to N.Z. 11/2/48'. D.105-D.107 ‘Theoretical Gravity Problems’ Contents of a bulky folder so inscribed (by R.1.B. Cooper) relating to research and joint paper with Bullard 'Determination of the masses necessary to produce a given gravitational field’ Proc. R. Soc., A, 194 (Bibliog. 1948c). D.105 Typescript and ms. draft for paper, heavily revised by Bullard. D.106 D.107 Correspondence and research notes, 1947-48, from collaborator, and from G. Kreisel who had originally been a joint author but whose work was published as a separate paper (1947). Extensive notes, graphs, calculations, all by Bullard. original folder. In D.108 ‘South Africa 1948' Observations, calculations, etc. standardising pendulum swings at Cambridge and Witwatersrand. All by R.I.B. Cooper. Includes letter re gravity survey in South Africa, 1948. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 91 D.109 'Gravity Survey of the British Isles’ Research_ 6pp. duplicated typescript note by Bullard 'prepared for consideration by the Sub-Committee on English gravity recently appointed by the National Committee for Geodesy’. n.d. but probably March 1948. for Ireland and Scotland; see D.110-D.127 for the imple- mentation of the research. Recommendsfuller coverage Correspondence (only) re paper by Cook and Thirlaway on ‘Recent observations of Gravity in Wales and the Borders', 1948. D.110-D.127 Observations and calculations for gravity survey of Britain, for various stations in Ireland, Scotland and England, standardised at Pendulum House, Cambridge. The work was done in 1949, when Bullard was at Toronto; the material is therefore not in his hand, but forms part of the gravity survey project and of the work of the Cambridge Department. Ireland D.110 Dublin pendulums March-April 1949 D.111 Sligo pendulums D.112 Cork pendulums Galway pendulums D.113 D.114 March 1949 April 1949 March 1949 Post-Eire (standardising at Cambridge) April 1949 D115 Eire 1949 (‘pre-Eirean swings' at Cambridge) March 1949 D.116 Ireland 1949. Tabulated results for various stations, standardised with Cambridge. Includes letter, May 1949. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 England D.117 York D.118 Newcastle 92 July 1949 July 1949 D.119 Cambridge (base swings before York and Newcastle) July 1949 D.120 Cambridge (base swings after York, Newcastle and Edinburgh) August 1949 Scotland D.121 Edinburgh D.122 Edinburgh D.123 Aberdeen July 1949 September 1949 September 1949 D.124 Cambridge (base swings) September 1949 D.125 Cambridge (base swings) October 1949 D.126 Edinburgh and Aberdeen. Various tables of results and drafts for paper. Australia D.127 Folder of base swings standardised at Cambridge for similar work on Australian Survey November 1949 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 93 D.128-D.141 Continuing work on Gravity Survey, 1951 Research Envelopes and folders of observations and calculations made at Pendulum House, Cambridge, and for other base stations as specified. D.128-D.132 Five envelopes, National Physical Laboratory as follows: D.128 24, 25 June D.129 2, 3, 5 July D.130 18, 19, 20 July D.131 7, 8, 9 August D.132 10, 11 September D.133 Southampton Ordnance Survey, 28, 29 June D.134 D.135 Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Sevres, 12, 13 July Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Brunschweig, 25, 26 July D.136 Bad Harzburg, 29, 30 July D.137 Cambridge Pendulum House, June D.138 Cambridge Pendulum House, August D.139 D.140 D.141 Cambridge Pendulum House, 5-7 September Cambridge Pendulum House, 17-24 September Cambridge Pendulum House, 24 October-2 November E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D142 D.143 94 Research Brief correspondence and chart of gravity data for S.W. Asiatic Russia, 1953. Empty folders originally containing pendulum data, various dates, 1935-37. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 95 Research D.144-D.294 AFRICAN GRAVITY CAMPAIGN, 1933-36, 1956 This research, though related to the general work on gravity determinations con- ducted at the Department, was Bullard's first major expedition and its published results (Bibliog. 1935, and especially the long paper in Proc. Roy. Soc. Bibliog. 1936a) aroused widespread interest. Characteristically, Bullard himself later referred to the work as 'what now seems a wholly erroneous interpretation of the origin of the rift valleys’. The expedition was funded from various sources, including Cambridge University, the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society; Bullard also held a research fellowship from the Leverhulme Trust. He left Britain on 21 October 1933 and returned on 16 May 1934, having visited 57 stations, some more than once, situated in the then territories of Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, Belgian Congo and Tanganyika. An additional observation (no.58 in the sequence, now at D.224) was made in Cape Town on the journey home. Bullard was accompanied on the trip by his wife Margaret (Tom) who helped with some of the observations and record-keeping. In addition to the gravity measurements which were the main research purpose of the 1933-34 expedition, Bullard also carried out observations at 14 stations on the secular variation of terrestrial magnetism. See especially the correspondence with the Carnegie Institution of Washington on the loan of equipment and the organisation of the work (D.146) and Bullard's journals, notes and observations (D.275 seq.) See also letter from S. Chapman in D.151. Before leaving Africa, Bullard discussed the possibility of continuing work on gravity determinations, to be undertaken by officers of the Survey Department of Tanganyika. The designated officer, W. Horsfield, visited Cambridge in 1934 to study the measurement technique and, using the Cambridge field-apparatus, carried out observations at 36 stations during 1935-36. A collaborative paper ' Gravity Measurements in Tanganyika Territory' appeared in 1937 (Bibliog. 1937a). Many of the observations and data-sheets at D.225-D.270 are signed orinitialled by Horsfield E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 96 Research or his assistant, R.N. Lissett, though all the reductions for topography and compensation were done in Cambridge by Bullard. D.294 is later (1956) correspondence on gravity measurements in East Africa. The material is presented as follows: D.144-D.157 Organisation and funding of expedition, 1933-34 D.158-D.224 East African Station records (1-58), 1933-34 D.225-D.270 Tanganyikan Station records (1-36), 1935-36 D.271-D.293 Journals, calculations, writings D.294 Correspondence, 1956 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 97 D.144-D.157 Organisation and funding, 1933-35 Research D.144 "Leverhulme' D.145 D.146 Application for Research Fellowship, and correspondence arising, 1933, and one letter 1935. Application to Royal Society for grant for expedition; submitted by Lenox-Conyngham but drafted by Bullard. Correspondence with Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1933-34, 1937-38. Correspondence 1933-34 deals with the loan to Bullard of a 'field-outfit' to enable him to conduct magnetic measure- ments in addition to the gravity observations. It includes detailed recommendations from the Institution for research on secular variations, operational instructions, etc. Correspondence 1937-38 deals with Bullard's report, return of the 'cahiers' (see also D.276-D.281) and also refers to his seismic work at sea with R.M. Field (see also D.342-D.351). Includes a copy of the Carnegie Institution's ‘General Directions for magnetic observations ...', 1924. D.147 'Kohlschutter' Correspondence 1933-34 with Kohlschutter, who had made a similar expedition in 1899, about sites, loan of maps, etc. Correspondence 1934 refers to Kohlschutter's visit to Britain and meeting with Bullard and Lenox-Conyngham. Bullard visited several of Kohlschutter's sites and repeated his observations. The similarity of the results was considered very satisfactory and was commented upon in the published papers (see D.291). See also D.157, D. 289. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 98 D.148 D.149 D.150 D.151 Research Correspondence with colleagues re equipment and information for observations in Africa, 1933-34. Correspondence with suppliers of scientific instruments. Cooke, Troughton & Simms, re pendulums, 1933-34. Cambridge Instrument Company, re coil magnetometer, 1933-34. Correspondence with Governmentofficials in Africa re arrangements, transport, laisser-passer, 1933-34. Correspondence with colleagues re research plans, information on local conditions, etc., 1933. Includes letter from S. Chapman to Lenox-Conyngham on Bullard's proposed work on magnetic variation. D.152 Correspondence, 1934, re additional gravity observation made at Cape Town on return journey (see D.224). D.153 Miscellaneous notes by Bullard. Includes 'Notes on matters connected with the E. African Expedition. c.1934; 'Summary of rock densities’ (for magnetism work); ms. notes of various gravity sites. Oct. 1933'; 'Notes on Quartz Pendulums' D.154, D.155 Correspondence with Lenox-Conyngham. An extensive sequence of letters and cables exchanged every few days during trip, with scientific and a little personal news. 21 September-29 December 1933 (in original folder). D.155 4 January-2 April 1934. See D.274 for Lenox-Conyngham's laboratory notebook for the expedition. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 99 Research D156 Correspondence re maps and plansof sites of observations in Africa, 1934. D.157 Correspondence arising from visit. Letter from H. G. Lyons congratulating Bullard and his wife on ‘a really great performance’ in obtaining data, 1934. Letters from B. Willis about his own work in E. Africa and on Kohlschutter's results, 1935. D.158-D.224 East African Station Records (1-58) This sequence: of folders retains Bullard's original order. Each contains, unless otherwise stated, photographic observations, dated and timed and with ms. annotations; ms. records of pendulum used; standardisation with Cambridge base, etc. The records are in the hands of Bullard and Margaret Bullard, usually checking each other's work. Some have additional information describing the observation site, conditions of work or other relevant circumstances. Additional notes, calculations, maps, etc. relating to this work are at D. 271 seq. D.158 D.159 D.160 D.161 D.162 D.163 "Mombasa No. 1' 18-19 November 1933 "Mombasa No.1 Second visit’ 17-19 March 1934 "Nairobi I. No.2" 23-25 November 1933 "Nairobi Il. No.2’ 19-21 December 1933 "Nairobi No.2' 3rd visit 1-4 March 1934 "Limuru No.3' 27 November 1933 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 100 Research 'Kijabe No.4! 28 November 1933 "Naivasha No.5' 29 November-2 December 1933 "Naivasha No.5" (2nd visit) 28 February 1934 'Gilgil No.6! 4-5 December 1933 "Nakaru No.7' 5-6 December 1933 'Nakaru No.7 (2nd visit)" 27-28 February 1934 "Eldama Ravine No.8' 7 December 1933 "Marigat No.9' 8 December 1933 'Kampi-Ya-Moto No.10' 9 December 1933 ‘Thomson's Falls No.11' 11 December 1933 "Nanyuki No. 12' 13-16 December 1933 "Nyeri No.13' 16 December 1933 "Fort Hall No.14' 18 December 1933 "Equator No.15' 23-24 December 1933 ‘Equator No.15 (2nd visit)! 26 February 1934 "Kisumu No.16' 27-28 December 1933 D.165 D.166 D.167 D.168 D.169 D.170 D.171 D.172 D.173 D.174 D.175 D.176 D.178 D.179 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 101 D.180 D.18] D.182 D.183 D.185 D.186 D.187 D.188 D.189 D.190 D.191 D.192 D.198 D.194 Research ‘Kisumu No.16 (2nd visit)' 23 February 1934 "Eldoret No.17' 1-2 January 1934 ‘Tororo No.18' 3-5 January 1934 ‘Jinja No.19 First Visit’ 6 January 1934 ‘Jinja (Second Visit)! 11-14 January 1934 ‘Jinja No.19 Third Visit' 20-21 February 1934 "Kampala No. 20' 7-9 January 1934 'Mbale No. 21' 15-16 January 1934 'Soroti No. 22' 17 January 1934 Includes a later note by Bullard on corrected measurements used for this station in published paper. "Lira No.23' 18-19 January 1934 'Kitgum No. 24! 19 January 1934 "Torit No. 25' 20 January 1934 "Juba No. 26' 22-23 January 1934 "Aba No.27' 24-25 January 1934 "Bai Nzoro No.28' 25-26 January 1934 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 102 Research D.195 'Maie No. 29' 26-27 January 1934 With extensive comparative calculations by Bullard. D.196 D.197 D.198 D.199 D.200 D.201 D202 D.203 D.204 D.205 D.206 D.207 D.208 D.209 'Nioka No. 30' 27-28 January 1934 "Bogoro No.31' 29-31 January 1934 'Kasenyi No. 32! 30-31 January 1934 "Irumu No. 33' 31 January-1 February 1934 'Butembo No. 34' 1-2 February 1934 'Kisolo No. 35' 7-8 February 1934 'Kabale No.36' 8 February 1934 'Lwashamaire No. 37' 9-10 February 1934 'Kichwamba No. 38' 10-11 February 1934 'Kikorongo No.39' 12-13 February 1934 'Fort Portal No.40' 13-14 February 1934 'Kabwoya No.4]! 15 February 1934 'Butiaba No.42' 16 February 1934 "Hoima No.43' 17 February 1934 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 103 D.210 D.211 D.212 D.213 D.214 D.215 D.216 D.217 D.218 D.219 D.220 D.221 D.222 D.223 D.224 Research "Mumias No.44!' 22-23 February 1934 'Kitale No.45' 24 February 1934 "Magadi No.46' 5-6 March 1934 'Kajiado No.47' 6-7 March 1934 "Ngorongoro No.48' 8 March 1934 "Arusha No.49' 9-10 March 1934 "Moshi No. 50' 10-11 March 1934 15-16 March 1934 ‘Voi No.51' 16 March 1934 'Kilifi No. 52' 20-21 March 1934 "Malindi No. 53' 21 March 1934 "Kwale No. 54' 23 March 1934 "Tanga No. 55' 24-25 March 1934 ‘Pangani No. 56' 26 March 1934 "Dar-es-Salaam No.57' 3 April 1934 'Cape Town No. 58' 22 April 1934 This was the additional observation taken during the return journey. arranging visit at D.152. See correspondence E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 104 Research D..225-D: 270 Tanganyikan Station Records (1-36) This sequence also preserves Bullard's original folders and arrangement. The material is similar, though the base stations vary and include Rugby, Southampton The field data are usually signed W. Horsfield or R.N. Lissett, but and Bordeaux. all the folders include checking, corrections and additional calculations by Bullard. The stations are not numbered as in the 1933-34 sequence: they are in chrono- logical order of date of observation. D.269, D.270 are additional material relating to the work, also by Horsfield and Lissett. D.225 D.226 D.227 D.228 D.229 D.230 D.231 D.232 D.233 D.234 'Singida' 'Mgori’ 'Sela' 24 January 1935 25 January 1935 24 February 1935 'Chokaa' 4 March 1935 "Mbuyuni' 'Myamya' 6 March 1935 8 March 1935 ‘Dodoma Base' 11 March 1935 'Dodoma' 12 March 1935 'Chibwangula' 13 March 1935 'Kilosa’ 15 March 1935 D.235 "Ruvu' 18 March 1935 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 105 Research D. 236 "Dar-es-Salaam Ist Visit' 20-21 March 1935 25 March 1935 D.237 D.238 D239 D.240 D.241 D.242 D.243 "Dar-es-Salaam 2nd Visit' 24-26 June 1935 "Bahi' 'Itigi! 'Tura' 27 March 1935 29 March 1935 1 April 1935 "Goweko' 5 April 1935 'Kaliwa' "Uvinza' 8-9 April 1935 12 April 1935 "Kazuramimba' 17 April 1935 D.245 'Kingwempimpi' D.246 D.247 D.248 D.249 D.250 30 April 1935 2 May 1935 3-4 May 1935 6-7 May 1935 "Ruaha Bridge’ 'Iringa' "Nyamapara' 8-9 May 1935 Includes a note by Bullard on discrepant figure in published paper. 'Trig. Pt. 182' "Itewe' 11 May 1935 14 May 1935 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 106 Research D.251 D.252 D.253 D.255 D256 D.258 D.259 D.260 D.261 D.262 "Iwungu' 'Kipembawe' 'Mbogo' "Kitunda' 'Shinyanga' "Mwanza' 16-17 May 1935 20 May 1935 21 May 1935 22 May 1935 25-27 May 1935 28-29 May 1935 'Mafia' 13 June 1935 "Kilwa Kiswani' 15 June 1935 "Mikindani' 17 June 1935 'Lindi' 18 June 1935 "Kilwa Kivinji' 20 June 1935 "Khartoum Ist Visit' 16-18 December 1935 15 February 1936 D.263 "Musmar' 20-22 February 1936 'Haiya' 'Sinkat' 'Suakin' D.265 D.266 24-25 February 1936 27-28 February 1936 2-4 March 1936 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 107 Research D.267 "Khartoum 2nd Visit' 11-12 March 1936 10-11 May 1936 D.268 "Unreadable records' Miscellaneous readings 1,15 February 1935, 16 March 1936 for stations Morogoro, Babati, Wembe. D.269 Large folder of 'Latitude and Barometer Heights of Pendulum Stations’. Observations made at various stations, some dated April, May 1935, in the hands of W. Horsfield and R.N. Lissett of the Tanganyika Territory Survey Department. D.270 Purple ledger-type book, inscribed ‘Pendulum Observations' . Similar material, by Lissett and another, various dates, April-June 1935. D.271-D.293 Journals, calculations, writings D.27] Softbacked notebook labelled 'African Gravity Campaign 1933-34', paginated 1-155 and kept in the hands of Bullard and Margaret Bullard. Entries run 18 November 1933-26 February 1934 and include detailed accounts of observations, descriptions and maps of stations numbered 1-56. D.272 Small pocket diary for 1934, with diary entries, calculations, mileage covered, etc., to 1 April. All in Bullard's hand. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 108 Research D.273 Large blue account book, labelled 'African Gravity Accounts’. Detailed account of all expenditure incurred before, during and after journey to Africa. 31 July 1934, with a final statement of account at end of trip. Entries run 26 July 1933- This is in many respects one of the most interesting items in the collection, documenting expenses in meticulous detail for personal living, travel, equipment, wages for 'boys', sums 'lost through hole in pocket', etc. D.274 'Diary of Pendulum Observations at Cambridge, November 1933' This is a small format notebook, all in the hand of Lenox- Conyngham. Entries run 17 November 1933-22 April 1934 and deal primarily with 'records intended for comparison with those made in Africa’. e.g. 29 November 'Vening Meinesz visited the Pendulum House’, 12 March 'Cable received from Bullard "climbing Kilimanjaro"'. Occasional other entries are made, D.275-D.281 ‘Coil magnetometer' Contents of a bulky folder so inscribed, dealing with Bullard's research on terrestrial magnetism conducted at the same time as the gravity observations and with equipment provided by the Carnegie Institution of Washington (see D.146). Items D.276-D.280 are 'Observer's Cahiers' of the Carnegie Institution, completed by Bullard for five stations only. D.281 is a bundle of observations, descriptions and notes for various stations not distributed into 'Cahiers'. D.275 Miscellaneous ms. notes and calculations, on results, comparison of various equipment, 'Test on Ordnance Survey coil magneto- meter after return from Africa’, etc., various dates, December 1933-July 1934. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 109 Research D.276 Carnegie Institution Observer's Cahier no.1 D.277 D.278 D279 D.280 D.281 D.282 D. 283 D.284 no.2 no.3 no.4 no.18 Bundle of loose pages, similar to above, various dates, November 1933-March 1934. Tagged sequence of descriptions and summaries of work at all magnetic stations, November 1933-March 1934. Ip. 'Report on Magnetic Observations in E. Africa, 1933-34', by Bullard. Miscellaneous notes and charts for African stations. In original folder, inscribed 'Cambridge Aug. 1935' though material does not correspond with title, and is similar to D.285 below. D.285 ‘Attractions Zones' Miscellaneous notes, diagrams and calculations, comparative tables for East African stations, etc. Bibliog. 1934. Perhaps related to D.286 'Atbara, Wadi Halfa, Abu Hamad, Meinesz Nos 12 & 13' Tables and calculations. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 110 D.287 ‘Uganda Geological Survey’ Research Correspondence, 1934-37, re Bullard's research and publications on 'Gravity Measurements in East Africa’. D.288 Shorter correspondence, 1936, re Bullard's paper on gravity measurements. D.289 "Kohlschutter's Stations’ Extensive folder of tables and calculations, comparing Bullard's observations and results with those of Kohlschutter's expedition of 1899-1900. D.290 "Hts. Congo Stations' Tables and calculations. D.. 27] 'The Structure of the African Rift Valleys’ Ms. and typescript draft for essay submitted for the Sedgwick Prize, Cambridge, September 1936; the draft incorporates sections from Bullard's previously published accounts (Bibliog. 1935, 1936a). D292 "Station Diags.' Plans, drawings, etc. for papers. D.293 D.294 Miscellaneous empty folders labelled for various African stations, data presumably redistributed elsewhere. Correspondence, 1956, with Department of Geological Survey, Tanganyika, re their proposed resumption of gravity measure- ments in East Africa. There are various shorter items on gravity research in Africa, requests for station maps, information, etc. in Section J. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 WI D.295-D.351 EXPLOSION SEISMOLOGY Research This research originated as part of the work in applied seismology at the Depart- ment of Geodesy and Geophysics in the mid 1930s. The earliest record of Bullard's involvement dates from 1933 (D.295), but the bulk of the material deals with research from 1935 onwards. Seismic reflections of small explosive charges recorded on geophones constructed for the purpose were used to measure the depth of the palaeozoic floor, mainly but not exclusively in eastern England (D.301-D.332). Bullard's chief collaborators in this work were C. Kerr-Grant and T.F. Gaskell; the major publication 'Seismic investiga- tions on the Palaeozoic floor of east England' appeared in 1940 (Bibliog. 1940a). The experience thus gained of equipment and methods led to Bullard's being consulted by several industrial firms with an interest in mining or subsidence (D.333-D.340), a con- nection he frequently referred to in later plans for the postwar organisation and expansion of the Cambridge Department (see esp. B.5-B.9). What was more important, the work on explosion seismology on land, led to Bullard's being invited to America in 1937 by R.M. Field (D.342) to see the progress of seismic prospecting on the eastern edge of the continental shelf; this was the occasionof his first meeting with Maurice Ewing. Asa result, Bullard instigated similar work in Britain to study the western side of the continental shelf. Two expedi- tions took place, in 1938 from H.M.S. Jason with the cooperation of the Navy, and in 1939 using two Brixham trawlers crewed mainly by amateur yachtsmen.’ The expeditions were of value in themselves in determining the depth of sedimentation of the continental shelf and also as inaugurating marine geophysics in Britain. The pre- liminary stages and proposals for the project are documented at D.342-D.348; Bullard's letter of July 1939 in D.348 refers to an additional short expedition in the trawler Arthur Rogers in August 1939 to explore the deep ocean floor. Of interest is the racy account of the 1939 trip by the skipper of one of the trawlers, published in 1946 and retained at D.350 in a photocopy kindly made avail- able by Dr. D.H. Matthews. See also E.1. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 112 The material is presented as follows: Seismic work on land Apparatus and equipment design 1933, 1935-39 D.295-D. 300 Seismic observations and data 1936-38 Consultancies 1937-39 D.301-D. 332 D.333-D. 340 Miscellaneous later material 1947-56 D.341 Seismic work at sea 1937-39, 1949 D.342-D.351 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Seismic work on land Research ls D.295-D. 300 Apparatus and equipment design D275 Correspondence re purchase of explosives for planned explosion test, 1933. This refers to tests on a field seismograph belonging to the Royal Geographical Society and intended for work on thickness of ice in Polar regions, mentioned in the Annual Report of the Cambridge Department for 1932-33 in B.4. D.296 Drawings for 'Seismic Unit', signed and dated 'E.C.B. 7 vied". D.297 'Tests of Seismograph Apparatus, 1935-36' Black hardback notebook so inscribed, belonging to C. Kerr-Grant (a research student of Clare College, Cambridge, who joined the Department in July 1935 to work on applied seismology). Record of various tests of calibration, sensitivity, etc. on sites in Cambridge and East Anglia, almost all in the hand of Kerr-Grant with an occasional note by Bullard. Tests run 27 July 1935-8 September 1936, with an incomplete entry for 25 January 1937. D.298 Grey soft-backed notebook, inscribed with Bullard's name and address and dated 'Dec. 7 1937'. Entries are almost all in Bullard's hand, and relate to various aspects of geophone testing. The last dated entry is 17 July 1938. Some entries are by T.F. Gaskell. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D297 'Geophone Design' Research 114 Bulky folder of graphs, calculations and narratives, related to various aspects of geophone andto the tests recorded in D.297, D.298, almost all in Bullard's hand and some bearing various dates in 1936 and 1937. Bullard's collaborative paper with C. Kerr-Grant 'The design and testing of geophones and their amplifiers' (Bibliog. 1938b). Probably related to Includes several paginated sequences by Bullard, one on 'Hydrophone design’. D.300 ‘Calculations and lists' Folder so inscribed but containing similar material to above, calculations, graphs, narratives, almost all by Bullard but some in the hands of T.F. Gaskell and C. Kerr-Grant. Includes 'List of articles to be taken in van' for seismic survey, dated 27 May 1937, and 5pp. typescript note on ‘Seismic Workin Eastern England', n.d. witha ms. note ‘Paper pre- pared by Gaskell for Lord Iveagh who had expressed interest in the Lakenheath work'. (See D.330.) Probably related to collaborative paper ‘Seismic investigations on the Palaeozoic floor of east England’ (Bibliog. 1940a). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 115 Research D.301-D.332 Seismic observations and data, 1936-38 This is a series of folders somewhat similar to those for the African Gravity Campaign. Each has the name of a location, mostly in Eastern England but some in Cornwall and elsewhere. The contents vary, but may include maps, diagrams and descriptions of sites, calculations, narratives and drafts for a report or paper. Most of the work is in the hand of T.F. Gaskell though there are notes and comments by Bullard in almost every folder. The folders are less meticulously dated than those for Africa and the 'sequence’ is therefore presented in the order as received, with a note of any material of special interest. The folders record the project to measure the depth of the palaeozoic floor. D.301 D.302 D.303 'Calvert' 'Tempsford' some dated 5 August 1937 'Corby' some dated February 1936, January 1937 Extensive folder, with many notes and calculations by Bullard. See also D.333. D.304 ‘Cornwall Dec. 1938' Extensive folder by T.F. Gaskell, including Spp. note on 'Seismic work in Devon and Cornwall December 1938', and 'Story of the Cambridge Seismic Expedition which wintered in the South West Peninsula during December 1938' (journal, photographs, maps). D.305 'Westmill' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 116 D.306 D.307 D.308 D.309 D.310 D.311 D.312 D.313 D.314 D.315 D.316 D.317 D.318 D319 D.320 D.321 Research 'Arlesey' 'Pertenhall' "Fen Stanton’ 'Bassingbourn' 'Great Staughton' some dated May, June 1938 "Meesden' "Duck End' some dated October 1937 ‘Bow Brickhill' "Leighton Bromswold' some dated November 1937 ‘Cambridge’ some dated March, April 1938 'Brockhall' '‘Benefield' some dated July 1937 Extensive folder of calculations and drafts. "Feltwell' 'Bridgham' "Great Oxendon' 'Castlethorp' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 117 D.322 D.323 D.324 D.325 D.326 D.327 D.328 D.329 D.330 D.331 Research 'Saffron Walden' 'Kentford' 'Fulbourn' some dated August 1936 "Swaffham Prior' some dated May 1937 'Madingley' ‘Bourn’ 'Charnwood' 'Culford' Includes some comparative data. "Lakenheath' some dated March, April 1938 "Laxton' some dated July 1937 Includes 3pp. ‘ms. narrative by Gaskell. D.332 "Upware' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.333-D.340 Consultancies Research D.333 Stewarts and Lloyds Limited, 1937, 1945 118 Correspondence and papersre investigation by Bullard and his collaborators of the palaeozoic floor beneath the company's works at Corby. Includes arrangements to conduct investiga- tion and publish results with other seismic data, draft of Bullard's 'Report on Seismic Work at Corby ...' anda ms. draft additional explanatory letter, September 1937. Also included is a later letter from Bullard about the work, 1945. See also D.303. D.334-D. 338 Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), 1937-39 Bullard was consulted by the Company's Alkali division at Northwich, Cheshire, on measuring the shape of cavities full of brine. He made a visit to Northwich to consider the problem, returning later to carry out the required seismic tests. D.334 Correspondence with R. G. J. Fraser of ICI Alkali Limited, re the consultancy problem, fees, visits to Northwich, etc. Includes typescript and ms. draft of Bullard's report, anda later letter, 1939. D.335, D.336 Two reports by Bullard, as presented to the Company's Brine and Water Supplies Executive Committee. D.335 D .336 'Report on proposed method of measuring the shape of cavities full of brine', May 1938. 'Report on test of seismic method of measuring brine cavities’, September 1938. D .337 ICI report on visit to Company's Winnington Works to discuss work, September 1938. E.C,. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 lI? Research D.338 Ms. notes, calculations, diagrams, some paginated by Bullard, some in the hand of T.F. Gaskell, some dated August 1938. D.339, D.340 "Scottish Iron and Steel Company', 1939 Correspondence and papers relating to investigations into the collapse of a chimney, undertaken by Bullard because of his experience with small explosive charges, and using his geophone. D.339 Correspondence, calculations, drafts of T.F. Gaskell's report, 1939. D.340 Background papers and reports on subject, sent to Bullard. D. 341 Miscellaneous later material on seismic work on land Ip. circular letter by Bullard re large explosion at Heligoland, 1947. 'Proposed explosions in Canada’ 3pp. draft by Bullard (from University of Toronto), 1948. Note on boreholes in E. Anglia, by F.H. Edmunds, 1955. 'Boreholes at Soham and Wyboston', by T.F. Gaskell, 1956 (comment on the above). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Seismic work at sea D.342 Research 120 Folder of correspondence, 1937-39, principally with R.M. Field, re marine geophysical research in America, Bullard's visit, meeting with M. Ewing, subsequent seismic research at sea in Britain in 1938, 1939, etc. Field's letter of February 1939 also refers to Bullard's work on heat flow in South Africa. (See D.359-D. 371.) D.343 Letters from M. Ewing. No letters from Bullard accompany this correspondence which runs 8 February 1937-1 August 1938, and is concerned with gravity and seismic measurements at sea, equipment and apparatus. congratulates Bullard very warmly on his 'good work on the shelf’. Ewing's last letter, which is autograph manuscript, D.344 Correspondence and papers, 1937. Includes Bullard's letter (carbon only) of application to Royal Society for grant to visit America, in response to Field's invitation. Proposal for seismic research on continental shelf in Britain, October. D.345 D.346 Correspondence, 1938-39, with J.D.H. Wiseman about proposed seismic and gravity research on mid-Atlantic ridge. Correspondence, 1938, re equipment and preliminary testing of underwater explosives. D.347 Correspondence and papers, 1938. Includes 2pp. note on 'Proposed Seismic and Gravity Work on the Continental Shelf’ (no author or date, but probably from Cambridge Department), with comments by W.B. Wright and H.R. Mill, and Bullard's reply. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 121 Research D.348 Correspondence and papers, 1939. Includes 2pp. note on ‘Proposed Seismic Experiments at Sea', March (not signed, but from Cambridge Department). Letter from Bullard (carbon only) to Royal Society re investigation of deep ocean floor on short expedition funded trom unspent grant tor seismic research, July, and corres- pondence re explosives for the expedition. D.349 'Seismic work at sea. The constitution of the Continental Shelf" Extensive typescript draft on work of 1938 and 1939 expeditions. Miscellaneous ms. diagrams and notes. D.350 'On the Atlantic Shelf’ Two articles on the 1939 expedition, by Tom Hepworth, Yachting Monthly, 8, July and August 1946. made available by D.H. Matthews. Photocopy (Hepworth was the part-owner with R.C. Byng of the Arthur Rogers , the Brixham trawler used to carry the explosives. Hepworth himself skippered the second trawler used for the instruments, named by him 'Redcar' and elsewhere named as 'Renown' and 'Terminist'.) D.351 ‘Proposals for a geophysical survey of the oceans' 5pp. research proposal + 2pp. list of gear, submitted by Bullard with covering letter to J.D. Cockcroft, August 1949. Mainly related to work on echo-sounding, seismic reflections and seismic refraction to be undertaken on an expedition by M.N. Hill from the Cambridge Department. 122 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.352-D.426 HEAT FLOW Research Heat flow on land, 1937-58 D.352-D. 398 With an introductory note Heat flow at sea, 1951-58 D.399-D.426 With an introductory note D.352-D.398 HEAT FLOW ON LAND, 1937-58 Bullard's interest is documented from 1937, when he was concerned, in collabora- tion with A.E. Benfield, with measuring thermal conductivity in boreholes at various sites, and especially in the area of Cambridge (D.352-D.358). In 1938 he accepted an invitation to spend a few monthsas the first 'guest researcher’ at the Bernard Price Institute of Geophysical Research at Johannesburg, where he investigated geothermal heat in South African rocks, working with L.J. Krige (D.359-D.371). During the early years of the Second World War, the thermal conductivity apparatus was recon- structed at Cambridge and used to continue work on the conductivity of rocks from Persia and elsewhere; this work was carried out by Margaret Bullard (D.372-D.378). After the war, Bullard took up the work again with special reference to sites in Britain (D.381- D.389) and Switzerland (D.390-D.393). D.352-D.358 Early work on boreholes D352 D. 353 Ledger-type notebook, listing boreholes in the eastern and midland counties of England. later entries are by Bullard and many of the earlier entries have annotations by him. In various hands. Most of the Miscellaneous notes and drafts, originally stuffed into the front cover of D.352. Includes data, lists of boreholes, calculations, graphs, narratives, few dated, almost all by Bullard. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.354-D.357 ‘Geothermal (Condy of Gault, etc.)' 123 Contents of a bulky folder so described, and dealing mainly with work on boreholes at Cambridge, 1937-38. D.354 'Report on the work of the committee for the measurement of the thermal conductivities of rocks', sent to British Associa- tion, June 1938 (Bibliog. 1938c). Two copies, both with ms. corrections or annotations by Bullard. D.355 Notes, tables and calculations by Bullard on boreholes through gault. Work runs June 1937-June 1938 and includes summaries of data and tabulated results. D.356 D.357 Graphs, calculations, charts, almost all by Bullard but some in another hand, probably that of A.E. Benfield. Brief correspondence with equipment suppliers and engineers re borehole in gault, 1938. D.358 ‘Topographic corrn. to heat flow' Measurements, calculations, miscellaneous notes on various named boreholes in Britain and Europe, some referred to in Bibliog. 1938c. Two paginated sequences of notes and drafts, 6pp. and 7pp., ‘Topographic Correction to Heat Flow ina finite hole’. nsdis, €. 1937-38. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.359-D.371 Visit to South Africa See also D. 645. 124 D.359 D.360 D.361 Correspondence, 1937-39, from B. J. Schonland (Director, Bernard Price Institute of Geophysical Research), inviting Bullard to visit as the first ‘guest researcher’ of the newly- established Institute, and discussing research and publications. Bullard's letter (carbon only) to Royal Society, requesting permission to take up invitation to Bernard Price Geophysical Institute and outlining proposed investigations, September 1938. Also included is another letter re temperature measurements. Correspondence, 1938-39, from L.J. Krige (Bullard's principal collaborator on South African research). D.362-D. 367 "Geothermal (South Africa)! Contents of a bulky folder so described. D.362 Extensive charts and graphs of measurements, all in Bullard's hand. Ms. notes and drafts by Bullard. D.363 D.364 3pp. ‘Abstract’ for paper at Royal Astronomical Society, November 1938 (not by Bullard) describing current research on thermal conductivity. 'Report of Thermal Conductivity Committee’ (1938-39). Not by Bullard, but describes work of Bullard, A.E. Benfield, L. Krige, etc. 3pp. with Ip. ms. notes by Bullard on Benfield's work. D.365 'Why is it hot underground?! 6pp. draft for short lecture given by Bullard during his stay in South Africa. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.366 Research 125 Correspondence and data from L.J. Krige, re Bullard's paper Heat flow in South Africa, Bibliog. 1939e. 1939. ‘experiences with the lions’. Krige's letter of 16 January refers to Bullard's January-June Also included is letter from B. J. Schonland. D.367 Report on 'Cooling of City Deep Mine', by H.L. Callendar, 1923. D.368-D.371 Notebooks D.368 Small black notebook, inscribed 'South Africa. E.C. Bullard's Petty Cash’. Ip. only, accounts for November and December 1938. Rest of book contains data, not all in Bullard's hand. Most entries are at back of book. D. 369 D.370 D.371 Hardbacked notebook, inscribed with Bullard's name, address at Bernard Price Institution, dated November 1938, pages numbered 1-78. Data and calculations. Hardbacked notebook, similarly inscribed, dated December 1938, pages numbered 1-46. Data and calculations. Hardbacked notebook, similarly inscribed, dated January 1939, pages numbered 1-48. Data and calculations. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 126 D.372-D.378 Thermal conductivities, 1940-41 This was a continuation of the work begun in the 1930s to determine the thermal conductivities of various kinds of rocks, and included specimens from Persia, Scotland Ata time when mostof the activity of the Cambridge Department and Switzerland. was restricted by the war (Bullard himself being engaged in work for the Admiralty), this research was carried on single-handed by Margaret Bullard with his advice and direction. See the Annual Report for 1941 in B.4 in which her contribution is described as 'The only practical research that has been done in the Department’. D;3/2 D.373 D.374 Spiral-back brown notebook, only 1 page dated (March 1940), mainly by Margaret Bullard with some notes by Bullard and occasional additions from their children. Notes on Persian rocks and on ‘Anderson's specimens' (Scottish rocks). Black hardback notebook. all in Margaret Bullard's hand with a date '1940' added later by Bullard. Similar material, on Persian rocks, Blue hardback notebook. all in Margaret Bullard's hand. Similar material, on Scottish rocks, D.375-D.378 ‘Geothermal (Persian)! Contents of a bulky folder so described. D375 D.376 Notes, graphs, calculations by Bullard and Margaret Bullard. Includes 8pp. tabulated sequence of tests on 'Conductivity of Rocks', in Bullard's hand, various dates, April-October 1940. Correspondence, July-November 1940, from E.M. Anderson to Margaret Bullard, re research and specimens of Scottish rocks. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 127 Research D377 Miscellaneous correspondence. Includes letter from Bullard to his wife, August 1940, setting out method of research, and miscellaneous shorter correspondence not all dated. Also included is Bullard's carbon letter, 1941, requesting further information on Persian rocks. D.378 ‘Report on Geothermal work, 1940-41' 6pp. typescript on results of measurements of 30 Persian and 6 Scottish rocks. corrections by Bullard. By Margaret Bullard, with a few ms. Brief report on research for 1940-41 sent by Bullard to Royal Society. D.379-D.398 Later work, c.1944-58. D379 D.380 Small red notebook of notes on wells and boreholes, some by Margaret Bullard but almost all by Bullard, some pages with various dates, 1944, 1945. Blue hardbacked notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard Sept. 1945', graphs, notes, calculations on rocks and boreholes, various dates, 1945-48, includes (at rear) Ip. ‘Accounts of work at Wilton July 1946'. Both these books are of very mixed content, some referring N.B. to work on Persian rocks (see above) and some to Nottinghamshire sites (see below). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.381-D.389 '1.C.1. & Notts. Temperatures’ Research 128 Contents of a bulky folder so described. Continuing work on boreholes, mainly on sites sunk by I.C.1. Limited and by D'Arcy Exploration Company, onsites in Nottinghamshire. The work covers a considerable time-span and includes material dated 1940-51, but is mainly 1946-48. D.381 Mapsand charts of wells provided by I.C.1. and D'Arcy Exploration Company and mainly dated 1943-45. Many annotated by Bullard. D. 382 Notebook of 'Experimental data’. Few entries only, 1940, 1944, on Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire wells. D.383 Small blue notebook of data and calculations. book used. Most entries dated 1948. Both ends of Certificates of thermometertests, 1946. D.385 D.386 D.387 Extensive notes, charts, tabulated data, etc., all by Bullard. A few pages bearing various dates, 1944-51. Correspondence with I.C.1. re project, arrangements to visit and measure boreholes, etc., 1946-49. Correspondence with D'Arcy Exploration Company on subject, 1946. D.388 Shorter correspondence on boreholes, 1944-46. Includes data. D.389 Shorter correspondence on conductivity, etc., 1950-51. Includes data and letter from E.R. Niblett on collaborative paper on thermal conductivity (Bibliog. 195le). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 129 D.390-D. 392 "Geothermal (Swiss)' Contents of a folder so described. Continuing work on conductivity, 1947-51. D.390 D.391 Maps and charts of sites studied in Switzerland, most annotated by Bullard. Notebook of sites and specimens in Switzerland, few pages used, dated September 1947. Miscellaneous ms. notes and diagrams. D.392 Correspondence and data from E.R. Niblett, 1950, 1951. D.393 Includes list of conductivity measurements on Swiss rocks, charts, etc., some annotated by Bullard. Bullard's tagged folder of correspondence with E.R. Niblett, March 1954-October 1955, on thermal conductivity of Swiss rocks, research and publication. of conductivities in Simplon Tunnel (taken in 1947). Includes Bullard's ms. data D.394-D.396 "Geothermal Odds and Ends' Contents of a folder so described. D.394 D.395 D.396 D.397 D.398 Miscellaneous ms. notes and calculations by Bullard, variously paginated, some dated 1948, 1949. Correspondence with colleagues, on conductivity, 1946-49. Research notes, reports, etc. by others. Later shorter correspondence on boreholes, 1956, 1958. Notes, calculations, diagrams, apparently on effect of snow cover on heat flow, n.d. but folder contains paper on similar topic by L.W. Gold, 1957. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 130 D.399-D.426 HEAT FLOW AT SEA, 1951-58 Bullard's first work on marine heat flow was at the Scripps Institution of Oceano- graphy in 1949 (see Section C. passim but especially C.12-C.14). The continuation of his collaboration with A.E. Maxwell at Scripps and with E.R. Niblett at Toronto can be seen in correspondence at D.406, D.415. Most of the material below is concerned with the construction of apparatus, its use during sea-going expeditions and the analysis of results 1950-58, when Bullard was at the National Physical Laboratory and then at Cambridge. For logs and accounts of expeditions on R.R.S. 'Discovery II' during and after this period, see Section B. Titles and descriptions on the folders have been retained and appear in inverted commas (not always in Bullard's hand); the contents of bulky folders have sometimes been sub-divided for ease of reference, and very decrepit folders have been discarded. D.399-D. 403 Notebooks, 1951-56, 1958 All these are similar hardbacked books with alternate graph and lined pages, almost all in Bullard's hand with occasional inter- leaved or pusted-in additions. Physical Laboratory books, the last is from the Cambridge Department. The first four are National The content consists of notes, diagrams, measurements, procedures, analyses of results, in preparation for and in the course of sea- going expeditions. D.399 Inscribed 'Heat flow at sea. Book I'. Pages numbered 1-72. Entries run 5 June 1951-December 1952. D.400 Inscribed 'Heat flow at sea. No.2'. Pages numbered 1-49. with later additions, 1961, on pp.48-49. Entries run 28 August-September 1952 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 13] Research D.401 Inscribed 'Heat flow at sea (book 3)' Pages numbered 1-71. Entries run 9 July-November 1954. D.402 Inscribed 'Sea work 1956' Entries run 16 June-27 August 1956. Back page has notes dated 30 November 1958. D.403 Inscribed 'Heat flow at sea. Book 5. Sea work 1958' Pages numbered 1-40. 1958. In more than one hand, some by Belinda Bullard. Main entries run 12 June-19 October D.404-D.409 "Geothermal sea' Contents of a bulky folder so described, the folder itself being too decrepit to be retained. The material covers a considerable time-span (1949-54) and includes information or correspondence from colleagues in U.S.A., Canada and Japan as well as from various divisions of N.P.L. There is considerable overlap with other folders, but Bullard had kept this material as a unit. There are also Bullard's own extensive notes. D.404 Notes, diagrams and drafts on design of apparatus and evaluation of results. Almost all by Bullard, but not dated or paginated. D.405 Shorter ms. notes and information sent to Bullard. Includes notes on 'Thermal Conductivity Apparatus' from Earthquake Research Institute, Japan. D.406 Correspondence from colleagues. A.E. Maxwell E.R. Niblett L.H.N. Cooper unidentified 1949 1949 1953 1951] E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 132 D.407 Reports and correspondence from colleagues at N.P.L. Test results Report on 'Deep Sea Thermometer' Test results of 'T' ‘Heat Conduction Problem' 1952 1953 1953 1953 D.408 Reports on the analysis of Atlantic floor sediments, sea-bed clays and fused silica, mainly from E.H. Ratcliffe, 1953-54. D.409 Photographs of apparatus, and of observations. D.410 Two diagrams of 'Ocean bed temperature measuring apparatus’, drawn by Metrology Division, N.P.L., no.1877. n.d. D.411-D.413 Reports and correspondence re apparatus, from N.P.L. D.411 D.412 D.413 'Sea-bed apparatus’ 1951 'Tests on a Deep Sea Thermometer’, N.P.L. Report 1953 'Experiments to find the Best Adhesive for Attaching a Galvanometer Mirror to its Support’. Draft for N.P.L. Report. 1955 D.414 D.415 D.415A Shorter correspondence with suppliers re equipment. 1954-58 "Heat Flow Work at Sea, July 1952 "R.R.S. Discovery II"' Tagged folder of correspondence and papers re organisation of expedition, supplies, programme of research, Bullard's letters of thanks. Bullard's letter to R. Revelle, 30 June 1952, re apparatus, forth- Includes press-cuttings. coming 'Discovery II' expedition, etc. Photocopy of originals in Archives of the Scripps Institution, kindly made available by the Archivist, April 1984. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 133 D.416 ‘Bottom Temperature Measuring Apparatus’ Tagged folder of correspondence and papers, 1953-54. Includes 2 copies of Bullard's 'Notes on Bottom Temperature Equipment', n.d. but probably intended for M. Ewing to whom the apparatus was lent in May 1953; miscellaneous corres- pondence with firms re repairs and supplies; correspondence with colleagues and others re expedition on 'Discovery II’ in November 1954. D.417 'Thermal Conductivity Work (Mr. E.H. Ratcliffe)’ Tagged folder of correspondence, graphs, reports, etc. on ocean floor sediments (1955) and on fused silica discs (1954). D.418 "Heat flow 1954' Calculations, graphs, etc. all by Bullard. D.419 'Thermal Conductivity Ocean Seds.' Calculations, graphs, etc., some comparing 1952 and 1954 results, most dated 1955 and including Ip. graph dated 1960. D.420 Untitled folder of notes, calculations and graphs, all by Bullard, some paginated. n.d. but includes note on 'Heat flow problem’, by G.F. Miller and report on thermal conductivity by E.H. Ratcliffe, both dated 1955. D.421 "Heat flow 1956' Extensive calculations and graphs for samples taken on 1956 "Discovery II' expedition. Folder includes Ip. dated 1954, Ip. dated 1960, and some computer data. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.422 "Heat flow 1958' Research 134 Calculations, graphs, etc. (almost all by Bullard) on samples taken on 1958 expedition. D.423, D.424 "Heat flow 1954-58 (general papers)! D.423 Notes, graphs, calculations, mainly comparing results of observations in 1954, 1956, 1958. Includes letter from A.S. Laughton on expedition data, 1958. D.424 8pp. 'Calculations for paper on Moho temps. June 1961’, originally included with above. D.425 D.426 'The flow of heat through the floor of the Atlantic Ocean', by Bullard and A. Day. Typescript draft with ms. corrections by Bullard, drawings, etc. for paper (Bibliog. 1961a). Annual Report, Volcanological Research Department, 1956-57 (sent for information). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 135 D.427-D.429 AIRBORNE MAGNETOMETER, 1947 D.427 'The compensation of an airborne magnetometer for the magnetisation of the aircraft’ 13pp. typescript and ms. report by Bullard, not dated but using the calculations and formulae of D.428 below. D.428 'Corrn. of Airborne Magr.' 7pp. ms. calculations dated '1/1947'. There is no indication of the origin or destination of the report, but it would seem to form part of the 'Early History’ referred to in Bullard's report to the Ministry of Supply in 1957 (see E.169). D.429 Report on ‘Surveying from the air', produced by Photographic Survey Corporation Airborne Profile Recorder, Toronto, 1949. D.430-D.433 FIGURE OF EARTH, ¢.1947 Notes and calculations relating to methods of determining the ellipticity of the Earth, using variation of g with latitude, the Moon's parallax, triangulation, etc. D.430 Ip. (only) 'Contribution to RAS discussion on the Figure of the Earth' (perhaps Bibliog. 1948a). D.431 D.432 Paginated sequences of notes and calculations, pp. 1-22, pp.1-22, pp.2-7. Shorter unpaginated notes and drafts. inscribed 'Figure of Earth’. —_In original folder 'The application of the International Figure of the Earth to the different countries surveys and maps' épp. typescript and ms. report sent to Bullard, n.d., relating to D.433. D.433 Translation of 'Commander Schmidt's paper’. 60pp. typescript, n.d., referred to especially in ms. addition to D.432 above. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 136 D.434-D.476 DYNAMO THEORY, 1947-79 The earliest documents date from 1947 when Bullard was at Cambridge immediately after the Second World War. The work continued at Toronto and then at the National Physical Laboratory. Several publications resulted during the 1950s, in particular with H. Gellman in 1950, 1954. Although Bullard consulted members of the NPL staff and other colleagues, and also made use of the ACE computer at NPL, it is noteworthy that virtually all the calcu- lations and graphs in the folders - for what he himself described as a 'long and elaborate paper' (see A.7) - are in his own hand, and most of the calculations submitted by others are checked or corrected by him. The material was received crammedinto folders or filing-drawer dividers with only a summary indication, usually 'Dynamos 1950-54'. The contents are now sub-divided for ease of reference though the contents of each named section are respected and pre- served as such; this has sometimes resulted in an overlap of material, but it was thought best to retain Bullard's overall divisions. Paginated sequences of notes are preserved, but many loose pages remain. Bullard continued to investigate and publish on dynamos; see D.474-D.476 for later work on disc dynamos. D.434-D.438 ‘Rotating Spheres’ Contents of a bulky folder so described. D.434 Extensive sequence of notes and calculations, paginated 1-46 with many intercalations. D.435 Shorter sequence 'For sphere’, paginated 1-5. D.436 Shorter sequence ‘For cylinder’, paginated 1-3. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.437 D.438 137 Research Similar material, not paginated but usually with heading or indication of content. Calculations and graphs, some on University of Toronto paper. In original folder. D.439 ‘Dynamos 1950-54' Extensive folder of drafts, calculations and graphs, all in Bullard's hand except for a few printouts with his note 'tabulated by ACE' (The Automatic Calculating Engine at NPL). The material is paginated 1-156 with a very few pages missing and many intercalated pages. for pp.1-140. printouts bear various dates in 1951. bered pages and graphs at end. The work is not dated, but some of the ACE There is a rough ms. index There are some unnum- All in original folder. D.440-D.444 ‘Dynamo Theory 1950-54!' Contents of a bulky folder so described. D.440 D.441 Paginated sequences of notes and drafts. of his two short papers on spherical dynamos of which the originals are at D.449, D.450. Includes photocopies Unpaginated sequences of calculations. of 'Prelim. results' and extensive bundle of calculations and notes dated 8 May 1953 with a note 'These are believed to be final results’. Includes 1p. chart D.442 Unpaginated sequences, mainly graphs and tabulations. D.443 More fragmentary notes, graphs and calculations. In original folder. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 138 D.444 Correspondence and data from colleagues, 1951-53. from NPL, but includesletter from G.K. Batchelor on his and Bullard's views on dynamos (April 1953). Mainly D.445-D.448 ‘Earth's non-dipole field ...' Contents of a bulky folder so described. D.445 Correspondence with H. Gellman on research and publication, January-March 1950. D.446 D.447 D.448 Includes data. Notes, calculations, graphs by Bullard. Tables of calculations in another hand, several annotated or with additions by Bullard. Tables of data on non-dipole field, typescript and numbered 1-6 by Bullard. In original folder. D.449-D .464 ‘Dynamos 1950-54! Contents of folder (now at D.456) and of filing-drawer divider so described: a very extensive assembly of material, some dating from 1947, now sub-divided for ease of reference. D.449 'On the impossibility of a liquid sphere acting as a dynamo' 6pp. pencil draft. D.450 'On the possibility of spherical dynamos' 13pp. pencil draft, commenting on above. These two notes by Bullard form the basis of much of his work on dynamo theory and photocopies of part or all of them were included by him in several other folders. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 139 Research Paginated drafts and sequences. D.45] 2pp. ‘Boundary conditions’ 13pp. 'Resistance of core for dynamo paper', etc. 24pp. calculations. D.452 15pp. calculations 22pp. calculations Spp. calculations D.453 6pp. calculations 13pp. calculations 11 pp. calculations D.454 17pp. calculations 11 pp. calculations D.455 Miscellaneous pages of calculations, some with page numbers, but not forming a sequence. Ms. diagram for sphere and cylinder. Table of results - 'Prelim. - not to be believed’. D.456 Extensive loose pages of diagrams, charts, calculations and drafts, some with headings, a few with page numbers. In original folder. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 140 D.457-D.463 Correspondence with colleagues and collaborators, 1947-53. In alphabetical order. Several of the early letters refer to P.M.S. Blackett's paper 'The magnetic field of massive rotating bodies' (Nature, 159) D.457 Batchelor, G.K. Blackett, P.M.S. Chapman, S. n.d. 1948, 1949 1948 D.458 Elsasser, W.M. 1948, 1949 E.T.S. D.459 Gellman, H. neds 1950 Includes report on 'spherical dynamo problem' D.460 Hales, A.L. 1947 Gravity and magnetic research in South Africa. D.461 Hartree, D.R. Inglis, D.R. Mott, N.F. 1949 1949 1948 On thermal conductivity, but with Bullard's heading 'file geomag.' D.462 Olver, F.W.J. 1952 Runcorn, S.K. Vestine, E.H. D.463 Woodger, M. 1947, 1949 (Bullard's carbon only) 1948 1952-53 Mainly re results of calculations made in NPL Mathematical Division, but includes Bullard's ‘Child's guide to results in dynamo problem’. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.464 'Suggestions to the authors’ Research 141 10pp. typescript detailed comments on paper submitted for publication. No author or date, but perhapsrefers to paper with Gellman (Bibliog. 1954e). annotated by Bullard. Very heavily Included here are pp. 14-18 of draft paper, with many ms. additions and corrections. D.465-D.468 "Eigen Values' Contents of a folder so described. Mainly notes and drafts for a paper arising from problems of calculation involved in dynamo theory. D.465 'Real eigen values of certain linear differential equations’ 13pp. ms. draft, very heavily corrected, n.d. but Ip. draft references lists Bullard's paper Bibliog. 1954e. In original folder. 6pp. earlier draft for paper, same title. 28pp. and 2 unnumbered pages, drafts and calculations. Shorter drafts, calculations and notes. No separate paper of this title is listed in the Bibliography . D.466 D.467 D.468 D.469-D.471 'Disc Dynamo 1954-5' Contents of a folder so described. Paginated drafts and calculations by Bullard. D.469 25pp. headed 'Disc Dynamo’, May 1954. Research 142 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.470 7pp. App. 3pp. 3pp. tables 'Comparison of ACE and DA Solutions', by Bullard, comparing methods of solving problem by computer and by differential analysis. D.471 Charts, diagrams, printouts (annotated). Correspondence and information from members of NPL staff, 1955. In original folder. D.472 Drawing 'To illustrate Bullard's theory of the earth's magnetic field', with various notes and queries. No authoror date, but refers to model with 'magnetic axis coincident with rotational axis’. D.473 ‘Oscillating dynamos' Miscellaneous research material. paginated notes by Bullard, and three sets of notes by others, one dated 1967. Includes three sets of D.474-D.476 ‘Dynamo Theory' Contents of a folder so described. D.474 Research data, from 'Program LOOKSE', in collaboration with D. Gubbins at Scripps, some annotated by Bullard. Various dates, January-March 1975. D.475 Correspondence with D. Montgomery, 1978. Includes two ms. notes by Bullard, on 'Two-dimensional dynamos' and 'Non-existence of a dynamo with a two- dimensional magnetic field’. D.476 Correspondence with colleagues, 1979. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 143 D.477-D.483 EARTH DENSITY, ¢c.1951-56 The folders cover various topics such as temperatures in the earth's core, resistivity of molten iron, seismic velocities. Some of the material is related to publications, in particular to Bullard's contribution 'The Interior of the Earth' to The Solar System, ed. G.P. Kuiper (Bibliog. 1954g). See also G.30. D.477-D.479 "Solar System Chap. 2' Contents of a folder so described. Bibliog. 1954g.) (The reference is to D.477 Very extensive calculations, charts and diagrams on earth's mantle, core, etc. all by Bullard, n.d. In original folder. D.478 Correspondence and data from colleagues; dated letters are all 1952. In alphabetical order. D.479 Miscellaneous photographs of seismic velocities, various dates, 1948-51 (not by Bullard). D.480 Untitled folder of notes and drafts on the melting point of iron. Includes 2pp. ms. draft by Bullard 'The melting point of iron at high temperatures', and miscellaneous notes on the subject by members of NPL staff, various dates, 1951, 1952, 1955. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.481-D.483 "Density in Earth’ Research 144 Contents of a folder so described, mainly relating to testing of theories of H. Jeffreys and others on seismic velocities and density in earth. D.481 Extensive notes, charts, diagrams by Bullard. Includes 26pp. sequence on ‘Constants adopted’. Some of the diagrams bear various dates, 1955, 1956. In original folder. D.482 Printouts, all headed and some annotated by Bullard, c.1956, done on NPL Computer. in the folder, to Superintendent, Mathematics Division, explains his research and wish to use 'Pilot ACE or DEUCE to get solutions of the equations connecting the seismic velocities and density within the earth' (June 1955). A letter from Bullard, included D.483 Correspondence and data from 8. Gutenberg on velocities, and notes and calculations by Bullard arising, 1955. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 145 D.484-D.506 PROTON MAGNETOMETER, 1956-66 Most of this work derives from research expeditions in R.R.S. 'Discovery II’ (in 1956 and 1958) and in 'Sarsia' (1957). (See also expedition reports in Section B.) The material continues to 1966. The material, which includes printouts of computer data as well as Bullard's manuscript accounts, notes and calculations, was received in filing-drawer dividers and there are in consequence feweroriginal folders. D.484 D.485 D.486 Chart of 'Discovery II' expedition, July-August 1956, showing observation stations for the various research projects undertaken. With several annotations by Bullard. Listings, 10pp. and 6pp., of observations off Brittany and in Channel, August 1956. Bullard's list of tapes made on 1956 expedition, of work to be done on them, notes on computer data, ms. charts and graphs based on tapes, etc. D.487 'Abstract of Navigator's Notebook' 10pp. ms. notes and calculations by Bullard. D.488 ‘Extracts from rough log 16/8/56! App. ms. notes and calculations by Bullard. D.489 ‘Astronomical Observations’ 8pp. ms. notes and calculations by Bullard, July-August 1956. D.490 Miscellaneous notes, diagrams and calculations on 1956 expedition, and magnetometer survey. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 146 D.491 Extensive folder of computer printouts of various measure- ments on tapes of 1956 expedition. All the printouts are headed, and many are annotated or checked by Bullard. Some are dated December 1959. D.492-D.496 "Heading Correction' Contents of a filing- drawer divider so labelled. comparative data based on expeditions of ‘Discovery II’ and 'Sarsia'. Mainly D.492 ‘Effect of ship's heading on magnetometer' 12pp. ms. draft. D.493 D.494 D.495 Drafts, diagrams and calculations on subject. Pages numbered 19-32 with many intercalated pages, mainly on 1956 expedition. Miscellaneous ms. diagrams of proton magnetometer readings, most dated July 1956. Similar but more extensive material, mainly relating to readings on 'Sarsia' expedition, 1957, and comparison with 1956. D.496 Similar, shorter material, for 1958 expedition. D.497 Bullard's list of 100 magnetic tapes made on 1958 'Discovery II' expedition, with details of time, place and comment on content. Miscellaneous ms. notes re tapes, ‘Things to be checked’, annotated printout. Two diagrams of readings, May 1958. D.498 Calculations and charts on magnetometer readings from 1958 expedition, almost all by Bullard. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 147 D.499 Calculations and printouts on 'Daily variation’, May- July 1958. D.500, D.501 ‘Magnetics Atlantic 1958' Contents of a folder so described. D.500 Ms. charts and diagrams by Bullard. D.501 Printouts, some annotated by Bullard, mainly magnetic reductions. D.502 D.503 D.504 Similar material - printouts of magnetic reductions for 'Discovery II' and various stations, May-July 1958. Notes and diagrams by Bullard, mainly on secular variations. Spring-back folder of notes, calculations and printouts, not all in Bullard's hand. Folder is labelled (in another hand) 'Fit Function - Atlantic. Determination of Regional Gradient for North Atlantic’. Material related in part to collaborative paper with M.N. Hill and C.S. Mason 'Chart of the total force of the earth's magnetic field for the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean' (Bibliog. 1962b). D.505 Shorter correspondence from colleagues forwarding data for magnetic research, 1956-62. Correspondence with colleagues on magnetometer design, 1957, 1959. Correspondence with manufacturers re costs of supplying magnetometers, 1960, 1963. D.506 Later observations, diagrams and printouts, mainly by Bullard or annotated by him, various dates, 1965, 1966, re computer program to reduce data from a proton magnetometer. Related to, and including a copy of, a paper describing the program, by J. Bath, dated 7 October 1966. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 148 D.507-D.518 SEISMIC REFLECTION/APPLIED SEISMOLOGY, 1956-58 Most of the material was received in a filing-drawer divider labelled 'Seismic Reflexions'. proposal on the subject by Bullard in 1949. See D.351 for a research D;507-D.510 Research proposals by Bullard: D.507 ‘Research in applied seismology’ 6pp. typescript and ms., October 1956. D.508 ‘Appendix to "Research in applied seismology" ' Spp. typescript and ms., December 1956 (2 copies). D.509 ‘Computation of reflexion seismogram from geological structure’ 3pp. typescript and ms. note based on appendix above, n.d. D.510 ‘The evaluation of the Fourier integral representing the ground motion due to reflected waves' App. typescript and ms. note improving on above, March 1957. All in original folder. D511 Correspondence with colleagues at Shell Laboratories, Delft, who were collaborating in the work, December 1957- April 1958. Included here are computer data found with the correspondence, copies of Bullard's EDSAC programs for seismic reflection, épp. ms. notes and related offprints. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 149 D512 Extensive folder of ms. notes, graphs, calculations. Includes computerised data, all headed, annotated or checked by Bullard. D.513 ‘Projection of fields’ Two sequences of ms. notes by Bullard so described, 8pp. and 9pp., and miscellaneous shorter loose pages. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 150 D.514-D.517 ARGON DATING, 1956-61 This was part of an investigation into the earth's atmosphere in the past, analysing argon in rock salt and atmospheric argon. The test data were computed ona program written by Bullard for the EDSAC machine. Most of the correspondence requesting samples or discussing results dates from 1959 and 1960, but see letter from T.R. Scott on the project, April 1956, and Bullard's letters to H. Borchert, May 1958. D514, 0.815 Correspondence with colleagues, firms, etc., requesting samples and discussing research. D.514 A-H DoS 1-5 D.516 Draft programs by Bullard for processing argon data on EDSAC computer. llpp. n.d. Test printouts, some dated 1961. D.517 'EDSAC' Ms. notes and calculations, test printouts annotated and checked by Bullard, most dated 1960. In original folder. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 15] D.518-D.522 SECULAR VARIATION, c. 1958-59 Contents of a filing-drawer divider so labelled. Very little of the work is dated; some of the paper format used by Bullard in his notes and drafts is similar to that used at the N.P.L. in the 1950s, and may originally have been part of the ‘Dynamo Theory' material, but the draft paper at D.522 is 1959 or later. Bullard's Chree lecture, 'The secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field’, was published in 1958 (Bibliog. 1958a). Acollaborative paper with D.W. Allan, ‘Origin of the secular variation’ is listed as ‘abstract only' (Bibliog. 1960c); the paper at D.522 is unlisted. See D.146, D.275-D.281 for Bullard's first work on secular variation in 1933-34. D.518 D.519 D.520 D.521 Miscellaneous ms. notes and calculations by Bullard. 3lpp. App. 7pp. 3pp. 7pp. (later work) Miscellaneous unpaginated notes, diagrams, calculations. Research notes and information provided by collaborators (more than one hand). D.522 'The Secular Variation of the Earth's Magnetic Field' 7pp. typescript and ms. draft for paper by D.W. Allan and E.C. Bullard, n.d., latest reference 1959, not listed in Bibliog. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 152 D.523-D.576 COMPUTER APPLICATIONS, c. 1959-76 Research EDSAC BOMM c.1959-62 c.1960-76 The presentation and dating of this sub-section are somewhatartificial, since Bullard had been interested in mechanical methods of calculation and data-processing from very early in his research career. Some of the work on explosion seismology during the 1930s was processed on an early adding-machine, and Bullard himself was active in designing automatic recording instruments for gravity measurements. Similarly, many of the folders for research projects of the 1950s contain work making use of the computer resources of the National Physical Laboratory and the University Mathematical Laboratory at Cambridge. It is nevertheless the case that during the 1950s Bullard came increasingly to seek ways of automatically reducing large quantities of observational data, and thus to write his own programs, using the Cambridge EDSAC machine. Later, in collabora- tion with colleagues at the Scripps Institution he shared in the major project known as BOMMfor time-series analysis. D .523-D .527 EDSAC c.1959-62 This was the computer (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) developed and built at the University Mathematical Laboratory, Cambridge. process much of the data from the 'DiscoveryII’ expeditions and other research projects during the 1950s. He wrote several programs himself, descriptions of which are retained Bullard usedit to at D.525. D.523 ‘Least Squares’ 2 ms. draft programs for EDSAC, 4pp. (dated May 1959), and 3pp. Miscellaneous test printouts for program, June 1959. Included here is a copy of the instructions for the completed program, another copy of which is included in D.525. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.524 D525 Research 153 Correspondence, 1960, re ‘magnetic programme’ at University of Durham, with 7pp. ms. notes and calculations by Bullard using Durham program. Tagged folder of 'EDSAC PROGRAMS', containing 18 descriptions of programs by Bullard, as follows: — H N H W L F A A N A O 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15, 16. 17. 18. Attractions Sum Series Fit function Read or punch alpha-numeric characters Reduce magnetometer (4 BP) and (5 BP) Power spectrum Read magnetometer Difference magnetometer Check magnetometer Total field Daily variation Removetrend (1) Seismic reflection (2B) Remove trend (2) Field from count Least squares (1) and (2) Argon (1) Seismic reflections (1) and (1x) D.526 D527 The folder has a ms. note ‘about 1958', though probably some of the work is rather later. Copies of nos. 7, 9, 16, 17 with alternative material from above, perhapsearlier or later versions. Two additional programs not included in D.525. ‘Proton Precession', 3pp., dated December 1962. "Short description of the programme "Seismic Reflection (3)"', 2 pp., n.d. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 154 D.528-D.576 BOMM, 1960-76 This was a program for time-series analysis. Its name is derived from the initials of those principally involved: B(ullard), O(glebay), M(unk), M(iller). The acronym makes clear the collaborative nature of the work, which was funded by American research grants and conducted chiefly at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California (see Section C). A 'User's Guide to BOMM ... preliminary version' appeared in 1962, followed in April 1964 by a revised version and a second edition in January 1966. Bullard's copy of the 1966 version is included at D.560. In a short biographical sketch of Bullard (Earth-Science Reviews, 4, 1968), D. Davies writes: ',,. in collaboration with a group from Scripps Institution ... he developed a 'super-program' for time-series analysis, reducing the programmerseffort from the punching of thousands of cards to the punching of tens. He didn't just act as genial overlord to the project - he took an equal share in the programming, punching and testing. chievous sense of humour need only borrow the program andtry and insert a time series including the non-existent days when we changed calendar in the eighteenth century. Anyone wanting evidence of his mis- The result is surprising.’ The surviving material corroborates this account of the active part played by Bullard throughout, including his joke program for the calendar change in 1752 (see D.558). There are two principal sections: Bullard's own draft programs and notes (D.528-D .559) and the correspondence with colleagues 1960-76 (D.561-D.576). The correspondence, as well as complementing the notes and drafts for the 'User's guide’, continues after publication and includes comments by other laboratories and institutions using or adapting BOMM on various machines. Ata later stage (see D.569 et seq.), BOOM was developed; see D.574-D.576 for 'thoughts' and notes on this by Bullard, 1968, 1976. See also E.21. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 155 D.528-D.559 Drafts and notes These are Bullard's own notes, calculations and narratives for BOMM, the majority in his own hand but some by collaborators; printouts of trial routines are also sometimes included. The material remains in Bullard's original folders, some very bulky, each bearing his designation of the topic dealt with. They were originally kept in two very large filing-drawer dividers labelled 'BOMM A - P' (D.528-D.546) and 'BOMM Q - Z' (D.547-D .559), but are now ina single sequence. It will be seen that the first sur- viving folder of the 'A - P' group is now ‘Subroutine CB' which includes one problem codenamed 'ARTHER'. Most of the material bears various dates, 1960-64. It is Bullard's 'half' of the work on BOMMwhich was going forward in collaboration with the Scripps Institution where the principal co-worker was Florence E. Oglebay (later Dormer) and should be consulted in conjunction with the detailed transatlantic correspondence on the subject at D.561-D.576. D.528 ‘Subroutine CB' Notes and calculations by Bullard, some dated September 1960. 9pp. ms. routine, n.d. Computer printouts, April 1962. Also included here is 2pp. routine 'ARTHER', January 1962. D.529 "Subroutine CH' Notes, narratives, programs by Bullard, some dated August, September 1960. Computer printout, April 1962. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.530 "Check' Research 156 Extensive folder of notes, narratives and programs, almost all by Bullard, a few in the hand of F.E. Oglebay. Some dated July, September 1963, November 1964, and includes 48pp. ms. sequence for various 'Check' routines. D.531 "CHGVAR' 2pp. only, ms. draft program by Bullard. D.532 'CONVL' 3pp. ms. draft program by Bullard. D.533 "Subroutine CYCLE' Notes, narratives and programs by Bullard, some dated August, September 1960, April 1962. "END! Notes, narratives, draft program by Bullard, some dated August 1960, March 1962 (by F.E. Oglebay). D.535 "ERROR' Notes, narratives, draft program by Bullard, none dated. D.536 "INSERT! 2pp. only draft program, dated November 1961. D.537 "INTPL' Notes, calculations, draft program by Bullard, some dated September 1962. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.538 "FETCH! Research 157 Notes, programs, printout, some dated August 1961 and several in the hand of F.E. Oglebay. D.539 ‘Subroutine LET' Narratives and programs by Bullard, August 1960, February 1962. D.540 "LIBR' Notes, narratives, programs, various dates, August 1960- April 1964, some in the hand of W.H. Munk. D.541 "NUB' Extensive folder of notes, narratives, programs, test printouts, various dates, September 1960-April 1962, mostly by Bullard, but a few in the hand of F.E. Oglebay. 'NUM' Notes, narratives, test printouts by Bullard, mainly dated August 1960. 'O PER' Ms. notes and draft programs by Bullard. 'OPTION' Narrative, notes, draft program by Bullard, August-September 1960. D.545 "OUTPUT' Notes, narrative, draft programs by Bullard, dated December 1961, January 1961 (perhaps an error for 1962). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.546 "PRERROR' Research 158 Notes and draft program by Bullard, August 1961. D.547 "Subroutine RE’ Miscellaneous notes by Bullard. Computer printout June 1964, with ms. note by Bullard 'Test of revised RE. Works correctly’. Also included is letter, 1960, from D.P. Moore, aboutthis subroutine. D.548 "READ 1' Notes, charts, draft programs by Bullard, one dated August 1961. Includes letters from F.E. Oglebay, December 1960, January 1961. D.549 ‘READ, WRITE ETC. ' Extensive folder of notes and drafts by Bullard, several dated May 1961; draft programs by Bullard and D.P. Moore, May- July 1961; several test printouts annotated by Bullard (some programmed to produce text of 'Good King Wenceslas’). D.550 "RERROR' Notes and programs by Bullard, only two dated (November 1961, January 1962). D.551 "RESUME' Ip. only, dated March 1962, in the hand of F.E. Oglebay. D552 "SBERP' Notes, narratives, draft programs by Bullard (dated May 1962). Test printouts annotated by Bullard, n.d. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.553 "SEV' Research 159 Notes and draft programs by Bullard, dated December 1960. D.554 "STARTING DECK' Ip. only ms. draft program by Bullard, n.d. DB,555 "STRSER' Ip. only ms. draft annotated program by Bullard, May 1961. D.556 "TEATYM' Ip. draft program by Bullard. 2pp. draft program in the hand of F.E. Oglebay, dated March 1962. D.557 "TIM' Narratives, notes, draft programs, all by Bullard, some with various dates, March and October 1961, January 1962. D.558 "TNAME' Miscellaneous notes and draft routines by Bullard, some dated January 1962, April 1964. Includes page headed 'Joke about 1752', a reference to Bullard's program for the calendar change of that year. See the article by D. Davies in Earth-Science Reviews, 4, 1968, quoted in part in the introductory note to 'BOMM' above. D595? 'TRANSF' 2pp. ms. draft routines by Bullard, n.d. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 160 D.560 . 'A User's Guide to BOMM' Bullard's own initialled copy of the version published in January 1966. D.561-D.576 Correspondence on BOMM and BOOM Bullard was based in Cambridge for most of the academic year while the other members of the BOMMteam were at the Scripps Institution. There is therefore unusually full documentation for the development of BOMMandits programs. The principal correspondent is Florence (Flicka) E. Oglebay (later Dormer), with whom letters are exchanged sometimes several times a week in bursts of activity over a particular problem. On the other hand, there are total gaps for the periods when Bullard was himself resident at Scripps. The main theme is the development of BOMM,its use, and its successor, BOOM; in letters exchanged with W.H. Munk there are also references to other research projects, expeditions, Bullard's posts at Scripps, etc. Some of Bullard's own notes and draft programs, similar to those in the main sequence q Pp at D.528-559 above, also appear occasionally in the correspondence. D.561 1960, December only. 1961, August-December 1962, January-May 1962, June-December D.562 D.563 Bullard's letter of 31 December to a prospective user explains the state of the project and the machines for which versions of BOMMwere to be produced. D.564 1963, January-June E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 161 D.565 D.566 D.567 D.568 Research 1963, July-December Includes correspondence, July, re adapting BOMMforTitan. 1964 Includes correspondence with users of BOMM on adaptations for other machines and languages, and correspondence with collaborators re ‘User's Guide' and modifications required. An extensive folder. 1965 1964- 68 Correspondence with G.W. Lennon on the use of BO MMat IBM Data Centre and elsewhere. See also E.60. D.569 1966- 67 Letter of January 1967 explains the origin of BOOM (Bullard, Oglebay, Oglebay and Munk). D.570 1967- 68 Correspondence re use of BOMMat Atlas Computer Laboratory. Letter to Bullard of 19 December speaks in very favourable terms of the value of BOMMas an analytical tool in power system problems. D.571 1968 D.572 1969 Includes correspondence on possible use of BOMM at Tata Institute, Bombay, and at CERN; also on development of BOOM, the CDC 3600 version of the successor to BOMM. Includes various draft papers for BOOM, copy of ‘User's Guide to BOMM on Atlas', and correspondence rea version for IBM/360. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.573 1970-73 Resea rch 162 Correspondence about BOMM and BOOM. D.574-D.576 Miscellaneous reports and work by Bullard on BOOM. D.574 'Thoughts on BOOM', 15 July 1968. 'Decisions based on thoughts on BOOM', 23 July 1968. D.575 'Note on the present state and prospects of BOOM onthe CDC 7600 at Berkeley’, with a trial printout and a circular letter from W.H. Munk on the BOOM project, February 1976. D.576 Ms. narrative and printout, on 'Meta-statements in BOOM', n.d. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 163 D.577-D..585 CONTINENTAL DRIFT, ¢.1962-65, 1975 Bullard researched and published extensively on this and allied topics, but the surviving manuscript documentation is relatively scanty. D.577-D.580 relate to his collaborative paper with J.E. Everett and A.G. Smith 'The fit of the continents around the Atlantic’ (Bibliog. 1965a); D.583-D.585 date from 1975 when he began a re-examination of the subject. See also D.646. D.577 D.578 D.579 D.580 Draft for 1965a paper, few pages only, some ms. annotations by Bullard, Ip. comments by A. G. Smith, and 4pp. 'data notes on continental fit, by Smith. Ms. notes, calculations and charts by Bullard. Computer printouts of data for paper. Correspondence (addressed to J.E. Everett), re statistical methods for solving problems of continental fit, 1962. D.581 'A mechanism for diastrophism' 8pp. draft for a paper on orogeny by M.J.S. Dewar, dated 1 September 1947 and found with material. D.582 Incomplete ms. for a paper on continental drift, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics, p.4, pp.37-54. n.d. but latest reference 1971. There is a ms. note by Belinda Bullard that the paper was "found in cupboard at Madingley Rise [Cambridge J July'. D.583 "Atlantic Fit' Miscellaneous notes, charts, a few dated October 1975. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.584 D.585 Research 164 Correspondence with colleagues, mainly sending information on Atlantic fit in response to Bullard's requests, June-July 1975. Miscellaneouslists of maps, reports, etc. requested or ordered by Bullard for work. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 165 D.586-D.592a PALAEO MAGETISM, 1964-67 This is mainly concerned with the analysis of rock samples collected during expeditions in the Pacific Ocean organised by the Scripps Institution: to Easter Island and the Juan Fernandez Islands in July 1964 and 1966, and to Fiji and other Pacific islands in July 1967. Bullard wrote a collaborative paper on the subject with J. Booker and R.L. Gasty (Bibliog. 1967g). For further correspondence about the expedition and research, see C.17, C.20. D.586 Green notebook, with Bullard's name and addresses at La Jolla and Cambridge inside front cover, and labelled '6/64. Rocks. Easter Is. & Juan Fernandez’. Includes list of sites of samples, diagrams, description of collection methods, analysis of magnetisation, etc., mainly but not all in Bullard's hand. 1965, and a note of samples 'Sent to Blackett 8/4/65’. (P.M.S. Blackett, who was working on magnetic reversal at that time.) Includes some later material, D.587 Similar notebook, with Bullard's name and address and date, July 1967, inside front cover and labelled 'NOVA Leg 3 July 1967’. Entries run 31 June-20 July 1967 and are described Pages numbered 1-16, with several loose pages of maps and diagrams. as 'Collection of oriented rock samples for palaeomagnetic and age determinations’. of expenditure. At rear of book, Ip. only account All in Bullard's hand. D.588 Bullard's list of rocks collected on 1964 expedition. Typescript ‘Description of work on Easter Island’ taken from Bullard's diary. Maps and charts indicating sites of rock specimens taken. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.589 Bullard's notes and calculations. Research 166 D.590 D.591 D..592 App. sequence 'Track of R.V. Baird during Ist leg of Carousel’ (code name for 1964 expedition). Notes, drafts, charts, mainly on Alijos rocks. Miscellaneous computer programs (using BOMM) for processing data on rocks, July 1964. 2pp. shorter notes on ‘Easter Is.'. Charts and diagrams, probably for a publication, all drawn or annotated by Bullard. Charts of rock samples, by Bullard and others. Correspondence and reports from colleagues. 'Work report on measurements of the magnetic properties of basalts from Easter and Juan Fernandez Islands', by A.|. Rees, February 1965. J.A. Miller, August 1965. J. Booker, September 1965 'Preliminary petrological report on rocks from Easter Island and the Juan Fernandez Islands', by F.J. Fitch, n.d. D.592a Printout with ms. note ‘Easter Island, magnetisation of rocks', July 1966. In original folder, inscribed 'Pacific Track and Easter Islands 1964', E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 167 D.593-D. 609 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF OCEANS, 1965-71 The material was received as the contents of a filing-drawer divider labelled "Induction in Ocean’. Bullard began work on the topic in 1965 (see D.593) but most of the dated notes and drafts are 1967, 1968. They include some computer programs andprintouts, and little material from R.L. Parker and other colleagues. Bullard published a collaborative paper with Parker, ‘Electromagnetic induction in the oceans' (Bibliog. 1970a). See G.54. D.593 D.594 D593 Correspondence with R.A. Cox, in which Bullard explains the purpose of the research 'to calculate the effect of the oceans on magnetic variations’ and requests information, December 1965. Notes, data, programs, etc. on temperatures andsalinity in Indian and Pacific Oceans, various dates, January, March, May 1967. Miscellaneous notes, research ideas, diagram by Bullard, related to 1967 work. D.596 Correspondence from colleague and collaborator, with data. Includes research notes from R.L. Parker, 1967-68. D.597 Miscellaneous shorter data, annotated bibliography, 1967 and 1968. D.598-D.609 Drafts and notes by Bullard. D.598 'The electrical conductivity of the oceans' Typescript with ms. corrections (photocopy), dated 'August 1967', witha ms. note 'This note is intended as a summary and will not be published’ . E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D 897 D. 600 D.601 D.602 Research Extensive draft, paginated 1-74 with several intercalated pages, headed 'Induction in a sheet’. 168 "Induction in spherical shell’, pp.1-10. "Induction by motion in a disc', pp. 1-8. ‘Induction in a strip conductor’, 2pp. (photocopy). D.603 "Induction in a half space’, pp.1-26. 'The general problem’, Ip. pp.15, 16 only of a sequence. "Induction in ocean for short periods', 4pp., dated July 1971. Photocopy of part of a paper on induction, heavily annotated and revised by Bullard. D.605 D.606 D.607 D.608, D.609 Unpaginated notes, drafts, diagrams by Bullard relating to conductivity research, 1967-68. 2 folders. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 169 D.610-D.612 MAGNETIC VARIATIONS, 1967-69 D.610, D.611 ‘Removal of Trend’ Contents of a filing-drawer divider so labelled. published a paper 'The removal of trend from magnetic surveys' (Bibliog. 1967b), though some of the material here is later. Bullard D.610 Ms. drafts by Bullard, 19pp., 2pp., 2 pp. Diagrams (perhaps for 1967 paper). D.611 Letter and data from L.R. Alldredge, with Bullard's notes and data on the subject, February 1967. Includes letter to Members of Working Group on ‘Analysis of the Geomagnetic Field’ (Bullard was a member), November 1967. D.612 "Magnetic Variations’ Contents of a filing-drawer divider so labelled. Ms. notes and diagrams, charts (various dates, December 1968, January 1969), brief correspondence. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 170 Research D.613-D. 643 ENERGY SOURCES / NUCLEAR WASTE, 1976-80 Most of this work consists of drafts and background material for Bullard's contribu- tion to collaborative publications of JPL where he was a consultant (Bibliog. 1977c, 1977d). Of interest are the fragmentary drafts for an uncompleted book on the subject on which Bullard was engaged at the very end of his life (D.626-D.629). The work on abiogenic methane at D.640-D.643 represents Bullard's contribution to the discussion of T. Gold's hypothesis on the viability of abiogenic methane as a fuel source, and was undertaken at the request of the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy. For contracts and terms of Bullard's consultancy at JPL, and other related material, see E.99-E.113. The material is presented as follows: D.613-D.625 Drafts for publications and papers D.626-D.636 Ms. drafts, notes and calculations D.637-D.639 Background statistics and information assembled by Bullard D.640-D.643 Abiogenic Methane E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.613-D.625 Drafts for publications and papers Research 171 D.613 D.614 D.615 'Notes on the problems of waste disposal from light water reactors' 9pp. typescript, 4 January 1976. 'The central problem in waste disposal, notes by Edward Bullard' 5pp. typescript, n.d. 'Effect of Radioactive Heat on Seabed Disposal of Nuclear Waste' 3pp. typescript research proposal by Bullard 'to examine the stability of clay containing buried heat sources’, n.d. D.616 'Waste disposal - a brief review, by Edward Bullard’ Versions of a paper, all with variants, dated 17 October 1976, 21 October 1976, and a second amended copy with 1 page dated 23 March 1977. D.617 'Summary' App. typescript and ms. (photocopy), for collaborative publication, probably Bibliog. 1977c. D.618 "Appendix A. Energy’ 9pp. typescript unsigned but by Bullard, n.d. D.619 ‘Appendix B. Units of energy' 6épp. typescript and ms. n.d. D.620 'Appendix. Level Nuclear Waste Management' Effect of Plutonium Recycle Options on High- App. typescript, no author or date. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 72 D.621, D.622 ‘Origin, nature and disposal of high level waste' Paper written as 'Appendix A', described by Bullard as ‘a background paper Ewhich_] does not go into the detail of the main report', n.d., but 1977. D.621 Ms. and heavily-corrected typescript draft (photocopy) D.622 Typescript version of above, 36pp. D.623 "High-level Waste' 25pp. typescript + 7pp. figures, with a few ms. corrections dated 2 June 1977. (Uses some similar material to D.622.) D.624 ‘Notes on Waste Disposal’ App. typescript with a ms. note 'For Adm. Long's daughter', dated 8 December 1978. Enclosed here is a copy of a letter from W.H. Munk forwarding the material. D.625 Letter to Bullard (JPL Interoffice memo.) from J. Klimberg commenting on Bullard's seminar at La Jolla on ‘Lasting Engineered Structures for Disposal', February 1977. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 173 D.626-D.635 Ms, drafts, notes and calculations D.626-D.629 Drafts for an uncompleted book on energy, with special reference to nuclear power. hand, very heavily revised and corrected, sometimes fragmentary and noteasily attributable. The work is all in Bullard's D.626 Preface’, 10pp. Here Bullard outlines the scope of the book as follows: Chapter1 ‘an outline of the world's energy needs and resources and of the reasons for considering nuclear energy as a major source’ Chapter 2 'the nuclear fuel cycle of the Light Water Reactor' Chapter 3 'the nature of the waste and its radioactivity' Chapter 4 (omitted) Chapter 5 ‘biological effects of radioactivity' Chapter 6 ‘options for disposal’ Chapter 7 ‘effect of alternative fuel cycles on waste disposal' Chapter 8 ‘possibilities of the diversion of materials from the fuel cycle either by non-nuclear states or by terrorists’ Chapter 9 summary and conclusions D.627 ‘Chapter 1 'How much will be enough' 18pp. + lp. progress 1980. There isa ms. note at the head 'book in D.628 Miscellaneous drafts for chapter 5 on biological effects of radiation, pp.1-4, 8-14, 9-13. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 174 D.629 Shorter paginated drafts, pp.5-7, 6-8, 17-25 (perhaps for Chapter 1), D.630 'The generation of radioactivity by a reactor’ 4pp. ms. note 'to prove a theorem which seems not to be widely known’. D.631 Shorter paginated sequences of notes and calculations. D.632-D.636 Shorter notes, statistics, references, etc., a few with dates, 1976-79. 5 folders. D.637-D .639 Background information andstatistics Miscellaneous material assembled by Bullard on nuclear waste and energy sources in America, a few with ms. annotations. 3 folders. D.640-D.643 Abiogenic Methane Correspondence and papers examining the proposal by T. Gold that 'methane ... and other hydrocarbons may have been significant components of primordial Earth'. Bullard was asked for his views and comments, which he conveyedin a paper (D.641) and which were considered in preparing its report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy by the ad hoc Committee on Abiogenic Methane of the National Academyof Sciences. D.640 Correspondence, July-November 1979. Includes invitation to forward comments, exchanges with colleagues. Also included is a copy of a letter by T. Gold on methane deposits, February 1979, sent to Bullard for information. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 175 Research 'Abiogenic Methane’ Bullard's report on the subject, 9pp. typescript, dated 10 September 1979. With covering letter, and a ms. note of others who received copies. 'Abiogenic Methane: scientific and practical considerations of its potential as an energy source’ Report of ad hoc Committee, with background papers, 8 October 1979. ‘Alternative Gas Workshop' Papers and correspondence re meeting at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, September 1979, which Bullard attended. Includes programme, list of participants, brief correspondence, and a few brief notes by Bullard. D.644-D.651 MISCELLANEOUS D.644 Maps for gravity survey in Britain. Maps of boreholes, for work on heat flow in South Africa, 1937-39. See D.359-D.371. Maps and drawings on continental fit, c.1964. D.577-D .585. See Ms. notes and drawings. early pendulum paper. Includes original figure for an Shorter ms. notes, on spherical harmonics and other topics (from later part of Bullard's career). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.649 D.650 D.651 176 Research Ms. diagrams and charts by Bullard. Data and diagrams by others. Typescript material, with ms. annotations by Bullard, on 'The Cambridge Supermap Programs’. CONTEMPORARYSCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of SIR EDWARD CRISP BULLARD, FRS (1907-1980) Compiled by Jeannine Alton and Peter Harper VOLUMEII Sections E - H Deposited in the Churchill College Archives Centre, Cambridge CSAC 100/4/84 All rights reserved E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 177 SECTION E COMMITTEES AND CONSULTANCIES E.1 - E. 23] INTRODUCTION TO SECTION E The material is presented in alphabetical sequence and covers both govern- ment and private commercial work. Bullard undertook consultancy and committee work for a number of government departments. His connection with the Admiralty dates from the mid-1930s when the Navy cooperated with the Cambridge Department of Geodesy and Geophysics in marine geophysical research and Bullard joined the Admiralty Research Department during the Second World War. There is virtually no record of the wartime work in the collection. * After the war he was a consultant and served on government committees on atomic energy, atomic weapons, nuclear disarmament and maritime defence and served as the chairman of Lord Hailsham's Space Steering Committee. Bullard also had a number of important consultancies with industrial concerns. The most fully documented are those with Shell and IBM UK where he was a director for ten years. * For unpublished wartime papers, see G.19. SOME OF THE MATERIAL IN THIS SECTION MAY BE SUBJECT TO RESTRICTION E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 178 Committees and consultancies LIST OF CONTENTS ADMIRALTY ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT, HARWELL ATOMIC WEAPONS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT, ALDERMASTON BRITISH PETROLEUM BURMAH OIL COMPANY LIMITED CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION COMMITTEE ON COLONIAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS FOREIGN OFFICE GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATIONS HEADQUARTERS, CHELTENHAM IBM UK JET PROPULSION LABORATORY, CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNO LOGY METEOROLOGICAL OFFICE MINISTRY OF DEFENCE MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND NATIONAL SERVICE MINISTRY OF SCIENCE MINISTRY OF SUPPLY OSCAR WEISS, CONSULTING GEOPHYSICIST, (JOHANNESBURG) PHYSICAL DYNAMICS, INC./LA JOLLA INSTITUTE RIO TINTO COMPANY LIMITED SHELL OIL COMPANY SMIDTH, F.L., & COMPANY LIMITED WARBURG, S.G. & COMPANY LIMITED 8 Y@ = 4, PraerE pPpirz, e771 H.3. 3, Broa Tha Ties Je 772, ple, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 List of publications Part 3. Book reviews (*~ ~~" pK Aut) 334 1955 Review of Gesammelte Arbeiten by R. Edtvos in Nature, Lond. 176, 228. Isotope geology by K. Rankawa in Endeavour 14,107. aw é Seismology, historical survey and catalogue in Discovery. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Erkenntnis des Erdmagnetismus by H. Balmer in Endeavour 16,174. Scientific uses of earth satellites by J.A. van Allen. Physics and Chemistry of the earth (ed. Ahrens et al.) in Nature, Lond. 179-986 1958 Annals of the International Geophysical Year Vols. 3,4, & 5 in Endeavour 17,163-164. The earth and its gravity field by W.A. Heiskanen & F.A. Vening Meinesz in Nature, Lond. 182, 1580-1581. Hendbesk der Physik Vols. 47 & 48 in Nature, Lond. 182, 1582. 1960 Physics of the earth's interior by B. Gutenberg in Phil. Mag. Ser. 8, 5, 421-422. Physics and chemistry of the earth (ed. L.H. Ahrens et al.) Vol. 3 in Geophys. J. 3, 284-285. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 335 List of publ ications The Geoffrey Taylor Papers Vol. 2. in New Scient. July 14, p. 164. 1961 Rotation of the earth by W.H. Munk & G.J.F. Macdonald in Geol. Mag. 98, 352 and in Phil. Mag. Ser. 8,7, 1255: Lead isotopes in geology by R.D. Russell & R.M. Farquhar in Geol. Mag. 98, 174. 1962 A hole in the bottom of the sea by W. Bascom 1963 1964 1966 1967 1968 in Endeavour:..21,196. . Applied geophysics in the USSR (ed. N. Rost) in Geol. Mag. 99, 576 Continental drift (ed. S.K. Runcorn) in Geophys. J. 8, 147. Nutation and forced motion of the earth's pole by Yl. P. Fedorov in Phil Mag. Ser 8,9, 177. Soviet advances in nuclear geophysics (ed. F.A. Alekseev) in Geol. Mag. 103, 181. Edmond Halley by A. Armitage in Endeavour 26,111. The testban treaty by H.J. McBride in Survival 9. Sydney Chapman - eighty - from his friends (ed. S. Akasofu et al.) and of Physics of geomagnetic phenomena (ed. S. Matsushita & W.H. Campbell) in Nature, Lond. 220, 1361-1362. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 336 - List of publications . I ot i ls 5S joe ST? iy otahieey jer 1G fa _ ee Cra = Copnapea eM a ——IPG . T ” pares oe % The earth's mantle (ed. T. Gaskell) in Endeavour fe Ev daa 1969 1970 " 1972 —. " iv _/p” 1973 - . " 7 7 " " " " " as " 27, 102-103. "Oceans by K.K. Turekian in Endeavour 28, 101-102. " Einfthrung in die Geophysik by H. Israel in -Endeavour 29, 50-51. "Physics of the earth by T.F. Gaskell in Endeavour 29, 158. "Computers and their roll in the physical sciences, (ed. S. Fernbach & A.H. Taub) in Endeavour 31, 49. "Rutherford: recollections of the Cambridge days by M. Oliphant in Endeavour 31, 154. "Topics in geophysics by P.J. Smith in Nature, Lond. 246, 432. "Medieval chronicles and the rotation of the earth by R.R. Newton in Endeavour 32, 150. "The collected works of Leo Szilard (ed. B. Feld & G. Szilard) in Endeavour 32, 151. " Geomagnetism in marine geology by V. Vacquier in Nature, Lond. 242, 64. eee pureit le Lex of annie f 97% 419757 ett eneSette. rple £6,622 ae , Lek RS oor SS ope AR Seth & TD, Bonpsd wn Neher, bord 259, 161 BBimabett | Eegereflint, mturete ky Bo Levit purnwir oe [petaot an Netenn 26), 352, Las ap ee PDD DE ee ert lo cremugrephy Une wae * off \a15 ) { dey - dd A om Unhywnrain pr Sanaaun ae” t x E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Pere List of publ ications 337 ae “x NeAwns Let\ ae, 75-778. PAY ts as Mot Sreret Wey Ry RV Jerss An Nabe Leal, Vet 27 p17 Pawnee aft From Apes Se Werkends fySeQhy aCe RR Son Dass Urren I~, 23, Lore, 1974 i yy Pea of Semfpe neRe of Comeney =p Spreng A meen + xh £ ; ar ‘y AS = 2 . me ig EC. LZ >6¥ 7? Y . 7t. Se ef i hy Ake SAS aA ae ‘ — KG atbonn ES CR aft Cert, 2S, ~3 . Dd- ” “4 e i Rayner ET Ri - No “te. 5 Lanes - Dib bp) IG — bo Be gry ! ar De Sh. 154 _ nd if Ve Wow “f 7 lhe rf KU wred se Tok i , 2 * a] mR by Cc + Dunye ou, Melwe bol ~ - . cr te Kinand Aa . 106 > m m .112, F.64, J.56 .186, E.187 155, F.94, F.113 .478 ] .28 -66, J.5/ .514 114 20 VW F.8 See also G.66 A.86, A.87 F.119 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 354 Index of individuals, organisations and firms JACKSON, John JACOBS, John (Jack) Arthur JAEGER, John Conrad JAMES, Ronald William JEFFREYS, Bertha, Lady JEFFREYS, Sir Harold D.152 A.120, B71, €.27, H.7, J.49, J.60 J.61 J.62 J.63 D.478, F.107, J.63, J.107, J.108 See also A.92, D.481-D.483 JENKINS, Romilly James Heald J.64 JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) E.77-E.113 JOHNSON, R. JOHNSON, R. L. JOLY, WH. LL. Ps JONES, Aubrey JONES, Ernest John Wallace JONES, Sir Harold Spencer JONES, Reginald Victor JONES, W. P. JUDSON, Sheldon KAITERA, Pentti KALB, Jon E. KALLMANN, Hilde Korf KAPITZA, Pyotr Leonidovich KAPLAN, Joseph KARPEN, N. Vasilesco KEE, Charles W. KEEN, Charlotte KEESING, R. G. D.515 H.2 D.33, D.46, D.82, D.148 See also D.32, D.39, D.40, D.47, D.52, D.83 E.175 J.189 F.94, G.23, J.94 A.106, J.65 G.207 G.95 J.66 G.90, J.66 G.207 J.67, 5.139 F.24, G.203, G.207 J.67 E.100 D.584 F.49 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Index of individuals, organisations and firms 355 KEILIS-BOROK, Volodya KELLY, Anthony KEMP, Stanley KENDALL, P. C. KENDREW, Sir John (Cowdery) KENNEDY, George C. KENNEDY,William Q. KENT, J. L. KENT, Peter KERMODE, (John) Frank KERR-GRANT, Colin KERWIN, Larkin KHAN, Mohammed Asadullah KIBBLEWHITE, Alexander C. KIMBALL, T. KING, Anthony J. KING, Basil Charles KING-HELE, Desmond George KINNEAR, R. H. B. KITCHENER, J. A. KLIMBERG, Joe KLOOT, Peter L. KNOPOFF, Leon KNOX-SHAW, H. KOHLSCHUTTER, KOLM, Henry H. KORFF, S. A. KRAUSE, Dale C. KREISEL, Georg E.81, J.68 F.110 D.346 J.68 A.88, A.112, D.640 J.69 F.88 G.21 D.570, D.572 G.256 J.70 See also D.92, D.94, D.297, D.300 F.118, H.24 Jt) H.28, J.71 A.15]1 D.294 B.67 E.142 D.339 Ja72 See D.625, E.101 D.569 H.10 F.94 D.147 See also D.157, D.289, J.45 J.72 didZ dude D.106, J.73 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Index of individuals, organisations and firms 356 KRIGE, L. J. KUBASCHEWSKI, Oswald KUIPER, Gerard P. KURTI, Nicholas KYNTERA, F. LABORDE, E. OD. LACHENBRUCH, Arthur H. LAMB, Sir Horace LAMB, Hubert H. LAMBERT, Walter D. LAMDEN, R. J. LANDSBERG, H._ E. LANE, Alfred C. LARMOR, Sir Joesph LARSEN, Jim LAUGHTON, Anthony Seymour LAWS, J. B. LAWVER, Lawrence A. LEATHERLAND, T. M. LEATON, Bruce R. LE BORGNE, E. LEE, Sir (Albert) George LEE, E. 4H. LEE, Willie H. K. LEES, Lester LEGGET, Robert F. LEHMANN, I. LENNON, G. W. D.361, D.366 F.47 G.30 A.88 H.12 J.74 J.74 B.1 A.91 J.75 E.16 A.93 J.76 B.1 C,.20, D.612, G.57 B.68, D.423, E.202, F.37, F.38, F.54, G.65, G.89 See also B.41, E.135 See D.25-D.29 J.77 J.77 E.30, E.34, E.59, J.77 J.78 D.148 G.201 C.15, C.16, €.18-C.20 See E.101, E.103 G.199 D.478, G.203 D.568 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 357 Index of individuals, organisations and firms LENOX-CONYNGHAM,Elsie Margaret, Lady J.82 LENOX-CONYNGHAM,Sir Gerald Ponsonby A.54, A.66, B.2, B.14, B.23, D.33, D.99, D.154, D.155, E.27, J.79-J.82 See also B.9, D.24-D.29, D.32, D.39, D.72, D.89, D.145, D.274, E.1, F.87 LE PICHON, Xavier G.232, J.83 LEWIS, Jack LEWIS, Vaughan LEWIS, W. L. LIBBY, Leona M. LIBBY, William F. LIEBER, Paul B.91 A. 66 G.201 J.83 J.83, J.133 J.83 LIGHTHILL, Sir (Michael) James E.100, E.166, E.176, F.111 LILLEY, E. (Ted) LILLEY, G. M. LIMOND, J. M. LINDSEY, Jack B. LINES, Albert Walter LISTER, Clive RR. LOCHNER, R.A. B. LOCKSPEISER, Sir Ben LOGAN, Nelson A. LONCAREVIC, Bosco D. J.84 E.146 G 237 J.84 See E.147, E.155, E.156 F.82, J.84 E.5 A.63, A.80 G.214 D.566, D.584, G.56, G.233, J.85 LONGUET-HIGGINS, Michael Selwyn E.71, Eu/2p Js 9? LOTHIAN, Peter Francis Walter Kerr, Marquess of LOVE, John LOVELL, Sir (Alfred Charles) Bernard E.45, E.46 A.66 A.66, A.112, G.111, G.196, G.197, G.199, G.256, J.15 See also E.151, F.103 LOWE, A. Barbara LOWRIE, Allen A.152 J.85 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Index of individuals, organisations and firms 358 LUBIMOVA, Elena A. LYONS, Dennis John (Joe) LYONS, Sir Henry George LYTHALL, Basil Wilfred LYTTLETON, Raymond Arthur McCANCE, Robert Alexander McCREA, William Hunter MACDONALD, Gordon J. F. McELHINNEY, Michael W. McELROY, William D. McGHEE, George C. McGILL, William J. McHENRY, J. J. MACKAY, J. Ross McKEE, Edith M. MACKENZIE, C.J. McKENZIE, Dan Peter MACKERETH, F. MACKIN, R. J. J. McLELLAN, A. G. MACLEOD, Roy M. McNAB, John McNAIR, Sir Arnold D. MADDOX, John (Royden) MALIN, Stuart R. C. MARLAND, E. F. C.18, H.5, J.86 J.4, J.87 Bal, D157 E.134, E.136 See also E.90 J.88 B.14 E.154 C.20 J.88 C.8 J.89 A.94, J.184 D.116 J.60 D.515 A.67 A.120, C.27, F.109 See also A.3 J.90 E.106 H.28 J.90, J.96 J.90 A.54 G.252, G.264 G.100-G.102, J.91 D.397 MARSHALL, Sir Walter Charles G.207, G.208, G.210, J.91 MARSTON, Hedley R. MARTIN, Archer John Porter F.100 J.91 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 359 Index of individuals, organisations and firms MARTIN, Sir David (Christie) MASON, Sir (Basil) John MASON, John T. MASSEY, Sir Harrie Stewart Wilson MATTHEWS, Drummond Hoyle MATTHEWS, Paul Taunton MAUDLING, Reginald MAXWELL, Arthur E. MAXWELL, (lan) Robert MAYNE, K. I. MEDARIS, John B. BAT, AT 1, El 14, E4135, E. 154, £.156, E.259,+ F223, F.28, F.46, F.113, G.127-G.129 See also E.128, E.155 F.114 A.8 A.11, £.146, E.154, F.95, J.91 See also D.18-D.23, E.155, G.244 A.120, B.37, F.56, F.61, F.67 See also B .34, B.36 F.106, J.188 E.163 A.106, C.13, D.406, D.415, F.4, G.35, G.55-G.59, H.21, H.26, J.152 See also A.121, G.25, G.3], 30, G37 E.124, G.44, G.244, G.246, G.253 J.92 E.164 MENARD, Henry William C.16-C.18, €.22 MENZEL, Donald H. MERZER, Anthony M. MESTEL, Leon METEOROLOGICAL OFFICE METRO POLITAN-VICKERS ELECTRICAL COMPANYLIMITED MICHAELIS, Anthony R. MICHEL, J. G. L. MILES, John W. MILLER, G. F. MILLER, Gaylord R. MILLER, John Alfred J.139 J.188 G.215, G.217 E.114 D.85 J.93 F.47 C.27 See D.420 D.562 D.592, F.110 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 360 Index of individuals, organisations and firms MILLER, Stephen P. MINISTRY OF DEFENCE C.28, G.90 E.115-E.143 MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND NATIONAL SERVICE E.144 MINISTRY OF SCIENCE (OFFICE OF THE MINISTER OF SCIENCE, later DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE) MINISTRY OF SUPPLY MITCHELL, Sir (Seton) Steuart Crichton MOFFATT, Henry Keith MONTGOMERY, David MOON, Philip Burton MOORBATH, Stephen Erwin MOORE, Donald P. MOORE, George W. MOORE, Richard MOOY, H. #H. MORAN, P. A. MORELLI, Carlo MORGAN, Paul MORPURGO, Jack Eric MORRIS, Hans R. MORRISON, Peter R. MORSE, Robert W. MORTH, Hans T. MORTIMER, Clifford Hiley MOSELEY, Russell MOSSOP, S.C. MOTT, Sir Nevill (Francis) E.145-E.161 E.162-E.176 E.163 D.476 D.475 G.2-G.18 F.58, G.234-G.237 D.547 D.515 D.566 D.511, E.197-E.200, E.202, E.204-E.212 A.67 F.42, J.94 J.94 F.48 J.94 J.188 F.119 J/95 D.566 J.96 D.395 A.60, A.79, A.80, B.90, C.23, D.461, E.49, F.77, F.78, F.94, F.120, G.142, G.194-G.198, G.203, G.205- G.207, G.211, J.97, J.143 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 361 Index of individuals, organisations, firms MOUNTFORD, Sir James (Frederick) J.98 MULLER, Max MULLEY, Frederick William, Baron MUNBY, Alan Noel Latimer MUNK, Walter Heinrich MUNSEY, D. F. MURRAY, Bruce NAFE, John E. NARAIN, Hari NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATURAL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH COUNCIL NEEDHAM, Roger NELSON, J. NEUBERT, H. H. K. P. NEWALL, Hugh Frank NEWITT, Dudley Maurice NEWLEY, Edward Frank NEYMAN, Jerzy NIBLETT, E.R. NIERENBERG, William Aaron See E.50, E.5] E.43, E.44 A.75 A, 82, €.5, £6, C8, C211, C.. 13, €.18, €.16, C18, C.20, C.21, C.24, €C.27, D.561-D.576 passim, D.640, F.4, F.50, G.55, G.205, G.226, J.99 See also A.7, D.624, G.201 See D.66 E.99, E.101, E.103 See also E.105, E.106 B.68 H.8 Foo F.36-F.38 See also E.159, F.54 F.39-F.49 See also A. 63-A. 77 F.50 See also F.54 F.51-F.74 See also E. 159 B.91 H.9, J.100 G.206, G.209 B.2 B.11 E.132 See E.100 D.389, D.392, D.393, D.406 A.106, A.112, C.2, C.7, C.11, C.21, C.24, J.99 See also A.121 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 362 Index of individuals, organisations: and firms NIMKOVICH, Charles Dragan J.190 NIXON, Sir Edwin Ronald E.70+E.98 passim, J.161 NOBLANC, O. NOEL-BAKER, Philip J. NORGAARD, G. N@®RLUND, Niels Erik NORRINGTON, Sir Arthur (Lionel Pugh) NORWICH, John Julius Cooper, Viscount NOZIERES, P. NYE, John F. D.505 See F.77 D.74 See also D.89 D.74, J.100 A.67 E.124 D.476 G.220 OATLEY, Sir Charles (William) OCCIALINI, Giuseppe Paolo Stanislao OGLEBAY, Florence E. (later DORMER) B.11, B.14, J.133 J.101 D.561-D.576 passim See also D.528-D .559 passim OGSTON, Alexander George O'KEEFE, John A. OLDHAM,Richard Dixon J.101 J.101 B.1 OLIPHANT, Sir Mark (Marcus Laurence Elwin) OLOWIN, R. P. OLVER, Frank W. J. OROWAN, Egon OSBORNE, Eric A. A.63, G.260 See also F.120 O.573 D.444, D.462, F.47, J.101 J.102 A.185, A.186 OSCAR WEISS, CONSULTING GEOPHYSICIST, (JOHANNESBURG) OWEN, Paul Robert OWEN, Tim E.177-E.184 E.171, E.174 A.120 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 363 Index of individuals, organisations and firms PAL, FP. °C. PAPWORTH, K. M. PARKER, Eugene N. PARKER, Robert L. PARKIN, David W. PAUL, DD. K. PAYNTER, Henry PEIERLS, Sir Rudolf (Ernst) PEKERIS, Chaim Leib PENNEY, William George, Baron J.103 F.101 J.103 D.596, G.56 F.63, J.104 See also E.153 J. 405 J.105 C.40, J.105 See also C.41, F.114 G.214, J.106-J.109 See also E.132 A.67, E.128, E.130, E.132, F.105, J.110 See also E.10 PERUTZ, Max Ferdinand A.67, J.111 PETLEY, B. W. PETTERSSON, Hans PHILLIPS, D. W. PHINNEY, Robert A. PHYSICAL DYNAMICS INC./ LA JOLLA INSTITUTE PICKLES, Alan PINA, Luis da Camara PIORE, Emanuel Ruben PIPER, Sir David Towry PLASKETT, Harry Hemley PODMORE, Frank POLKINGHORNE, John Charlton POLUNIN, Nicholas POTTER, William F. POTTS, A. POWELL, R. PRATAP, R. W. F.41 J.112 Jat 2 G.50 E.185-E.187 J.177 J.112 E.80 J.31 G..213, G.217, J.89, iJ.113 J.114 A.113 See F.90 H.12 E.117, E.127, E.129-E.133, E.135, E.142, E.143, F.114 F.4] J.114 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Index of individuals, organisations and firms 364 PRESS, Frank PRESS, Robert PRICE, Albert Thomas PRICE, Alfred PRICE, (Benjamin) Terence PROUDMAN, Joseph PRYOR, Matthew PUGH, Sir William (John) PUGWASH RABI, Isidor Isaac RACE, Robert Russell RANDELL, Brian RANKINE, Alexander Oliver RATCLIFFE, E. 4H. RATCLIFFE, John Ashworth RAYNER, E. H. REDMAN, Roderick Oliver REES, A. I. REICH, Hermann REITZEL, John REVELLE, Roger Randall Dougan D.478, D.640, E.126, F.3 See also F.76 F.44, E.118, £.123, E128 Je 118 J.116 E.124 F.84, F.85, J.116, J.177 J.117 D.397, J.178 F./5-F 8! G.197, G.199 See also J.118 F.100 J.118 E.181, F.87, G.21 See also F.86 A.186, D.417, F.41, F.42 See also D.408, D.420 Awl13, 8.11, E. 133, F.103, G.251 See also E.157 D.71 A. 67 See D.592 D.295, E.50 F.63 C.12, C.18, F.118, G.247, J.118 See also C.11, D.415A, G.33, 6.35 REYNOLDS, John H. RICHARDS, Sir Rex (Edward) LI. RICHARDS, T. RICHARDSON, W. Norman B. H.20 FelZ F.82, J.118 A.113 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 365 Index of individuals, organisations and firms RICHTER, Beryl RIDLEY, Joan M. A.153 F.46 RINGWOOD, Alfred Edward F.109, F.111, J.119 RIO TINTO COMPANY LIMITED (later RIO TINTO-ZINC CORPORATION) RITCHIE, George Stephen RIZZOLI, Paola Malanotte ROBERTS, Glyn ROBERTS, Paul H. ROBERTSON, Eugene C. ROBIN, Gordon de Quetteville ROBINSON, Allan R. ROBINSON, Sir Robert ROBSON, GG. R. ROCHESTER, Michael G. ROEDERER, Juan G. ROGERS, D. J. ROGERS, Lorene L. ROSBAUD, Paul ROSENHEAD, Louis ROSS, David A. ROTBLAT, Joseph ROTHSCHILD, Evelyn de ROTHSCHILD, Nathaniel Mayer Victor, Baron ROWAT, R. M. ROWLEY, Graham W. ROY, Amalendu E.188 B.69 C.27 J.120 G.217, J.121 G.78 E.101, J.121 See also F. 64 H.33 A.63 J.121 G.228, J.121 G.247, H.30 J.121 A.109 G.200 A.67, B.11 G.89 F.75, F.76, F.79, J.122 E.90 E.205-E.209, J.123 D.515 A.61, G.201 J.124 ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY F.82 ROYAL SOCIETY RUDE, G. T. RUDWICK, Martin J. S. RUNCORN, Stanley Keith F.83-F.116 D.346 J.124 A.120, C.22, D.462, F.7, F.60, F.61, F.63, F.105, F.106, F.109, G.231, J.34, J.125, J.126 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 366 Index of individuals, organisations and firms RUSSELL, Bertrand Arthur William, Earl RUSSELL, Richard Joel RYLE, Sir Martin F.75 J.127 See G.215 SABATIER, P. C. SAGAN, Carl SAHASRABUDHE, P. W. SALAM, Abdus SALISBURY, Sir Edward (James) SALMON, Rick SANDYS, Duncan Edwin SATTERLY, John A. SAULL, V. SAUNDERS, B. SAUNDERS, J. R. T. SAXENA, Mahendra Nath SAXON, David S. SAYCE, L. A. SCHAEFFER, Vincent J. SCHMIDT, Arnold J. SCHONLAND, Sir Basil John SCHOVE, D. Justin SCHRAGER, GuyR. SCHURMEIR, H. M. SCHUSTER, Sir Arthur SCHYTT, Valter SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON OCEANIC RESEARCH (SCOR) SCLATER, John G. SCOLLAR, Irwin SCOTT, T: &. F.114, H.17, J.127 J.127 J.127 A.113 See F.87, F.88 C.27 E.117 A.59 F.42 F.100 A.56, A.62, B.11, B.14, B.24, B.29 F.106-F.109, F.111 Awl15 B.14, F.41 G.199 F.7 D.359, D.366, F.100, G.199 See also F.90 D.573 J.129 See E.101 B.1 F.19 F.117-F.119 A.11, J.129 Js 129 D.515 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 367 Index of individuals, organisations and firms SCOTTISH IRON AND STEEL COMPANY D.339, D.340 SEATON, Michael John SELLARDS, E._ H. SERBY, John Edward SHACKLETON, Robert M. SHAPIRO, Ralph SHAW, J. J. SHEA, James H. SHELL OIL COMPANY SHEPARD, Francis P. SHIRE, Edward S. SHOENBERG, David SHOR, Elizabeth N. SHOR, George G. SHOTTON, Frederick William SIEDNER, Gerard SILVERLEAF, Alexander SIMON, Sir Francis (Eugen) SIMPSON, E. S. W. SKEAT, William O. SLICHTER, Louis B. SLOAN, Pat SLOUKA, Zdenek J. SMIDTH, F.L. AND COMPANYLIMITED SMITH, Alan SMITH, Charles H. SMITH, (Francis) Graham SMITH, Sir Frank (Edward) SMITH, George Frederick Herbert SMITH, Sir (James) Eric E.76, E.78 See also E.77 J.150 E.163-E.174 passim A.113 J.129 B.1 J.15, J.130 E.189-E.229 J.131 B.11 A.68, J.102 C.26 See also A.4 C.24 F.106 di TT E.91 See also E.89 A.68, G.196 J.132 J.132 A, 69, Go12, J.133 A.68 J.134 E. 230 A.120, J.134 hess See E.153 A.82 F.89 G.59 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 368 Index of individuals, organisations and firms SMITH, R. Michael SMITH, Sidney SNODGRASS, James M. SNOW, Charles Percy, Baron SOCIETY FOR VISITING SCIENTISTS SOWARD, Andrew SPEAKMAN, J. B. SPEAR, Ruskin SPIESS, Fred N. SPILSBURY, Rs Ss J, SPINKS, Alfred SPOONER, Edward Tenney Casswell SPROUL, Robert G. SRIVASTAVA, B. J. STAFFORD, Catherine STEPHENS, William Henry STEWART, Emily (née Bullard) STEWART, Sir Frederick (Henry) STEWARTS AND LLOYDSLIMITED STOCKWOOD, Anne STODDART, D. R. STOICHEFF, Boris P. STOMMEL, Henry Melson STONELEY, Robert STONEMAN, H. F. STORETVEDT, Karsten M. STRATTON, Julius Adams STRENS, M._ Rosalind STRIDE, Arthur STRONG, W. W. STUART, J. S. D.524 A.59, A.61 See C.12 E.26 E.51, F.120 J.134 G.21 A.197 call F.47 G.243-G. 245 A.68 C.14 J.135 A.154 E.147, E.174, E.175 See also E.171 A. 134 J.180 D333 A.155 G.193 A.113 G.201 F.106 See also F.115 D.151 G.232, G.236 A.83 J.136 A.113 D.377, D.389 D.444, D.471 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Index of individuals, organisations and firms 369 SUCKSDORFF, C. SUESS, Hans E. SULLIVAN, Walter SUMMERHAYES, David Michael SUTHERLAND, Sir Gordon (Brims Black Mclvor) SUTTON, George H. SUTTON, John SUTTON, Sir (Oliver) Graham SUTTON, Robert G. SWALLOW, John Crossley SWANN, Michael Meredith, Baron SZILARD, Leo SZILARD, Trude J.136 C.18 J.126, J.137 E.46-E.48 F.39, G.205 H.18 F.106 E.114, F.51, F.52, F.54, F.56, F.60, F.61 J.180 E.193, F.111 See also E.192 J.138 See J.139 J.139 TARLING, Don H. TARRANT, Gerald TAYLOR, Angus E. TAYLOR, Sir Geoffrey Ingram TAYLOR, Sir George TAYLOR, Harold M. TAYLOR, James Howard TAYLOR, William H. TAYLOR-SMITH, D. TEAL, Gordon K. THELLIER, Emile THERMAL SYNDICATE LIMITED THIRKILL, Sir Henry THIRLAWAY, H. I. S. THISTLETHWAITE, Frank C.22, J.140 J.140 C.24 J.141 See also J.9 B.72 A.81, B.29, B.72 F.52 G.218-G. 220 E.69, J.142 A.201 J.17 D.84 A.57, A.68 E.16 See also E.19, E.158 A.89, A.90 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Index of individuals, organisations and firms 370 THODE, Henry George THOM, W. Taylor THOMPSON, Roy THOMPSON, W. THOMSON, David THONEMANN, P.-C. TILLEY, Cecil Edgar TILLOTSON, Ernest TITTERTON, Sir Ernest (William) TIZARD, Sir Henry Thomas TIZARD, Richard TODD, Alexander Robertus, Baron TOOME, Alan TRINAST, Elizabeth M. TRUEMAN,, Sir Arthur Elijah TRUESDELL, C. TUCKER, Patricia TUCKER, R. TUKEY, John W. TURNER, Herbert Hall TURNER, John Stewart TUTIN, Thomas Gaskell TYNDALL, Arthur Mannering F.109 J.142 J.142 G.208 J.143 G.205, G.206, G.215, G.217 A.80, J.144 A.68 J.145 E.29, F.90 A.85 E.154 J.146 J.146 G.23 J.146 A.156 F.41 J.147 B.1 H.5 F.62 A.68, J.147 See also F.85 UREY, Harold Clayton UYEDA, Seiya J.147 J.148 VACQUIER, Victor VALLIANT, H. G. VAN ANDEL, Tj. H. (Jerry) VAN BEMMELEN, RR. W. Cslé, S214 125 J.149 J.149 J.149 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Index of individuals, organisations and firms 371 VAN ORSTRAND, C._ E. VAN WEELDEN, Arie VARGHESE, T. G. VELDKAMP, J. J.150 B.26, D.288, E.190-E.199, F.90, J.151 See J.151 D.505 VENING MEINESZ, Felix Andries See A.92, D.24 VERHOOGEN, John VERNON, John Gordon VESTINE, E. H. VICK, Sir (Francis) Arthur VINE, Frederick John VINEN, W. F. VINOGRADOV, M._ E. VOLKOFF, G. M. VON HERZEN, Richard P. VON NEUMANN, John VRAILVAYAM, A. W. WADDINGTON, Conrad Hal WAGER, Lawrence Rickard WAINERDI, Richard E. WALKER, A. Morris WALLIS, Sir Barnes (Neville) WANSBROUGH-JONES, Sir Owen (Haddon) WARBURG, S.G. & COMPANY LIMITED ‘WATSON, David WAYLAND, Edward James WEAVER, John T. WEGENER, Peter G. WEIGHTMAN, J. A. WEISS, Nigel H.20 J. 151 D.445, D.462 E.86 A.114, A.120, G.156 G.209 H.4-H.6 G.199, G.201 H.4-H.6, J.148, J.152 A.69, G.201, J.152 J.152 G.257 E.159, J.183 J.153 D.580 J.154 See also F.48 E.163, E.168, E.169, E.174, E.175 B.23! A.69 D .287 H.25 J.180 J.155 D.476, J.155 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 372 Index of individuals, organisations and firms WEISS, Oscar WEISS, R. J. WELLS, R.A. WESTOLL, Thomas Stanley WHEILDON, Jim WHIDDINGTON, Richard WHITE, Antony WHITE, Donald E. WHITNEY, Paul WHITTINGTON, Harry Blackmore WHITTLE, Peter WICHMAN, Brian A. WIESNER, Jerome B. WILKINSON, Sir Denys (Haigh) E.177-E.184 J. 155 dx 158 F.106 J.156 A.69 J. 157 G.89 J.75 F.106 G.215, G.217 F.45 J.157 G.211 WILKINSON, James Hardy A.114, F.41, F.47, F.111] WILLIAMS, Alwyn WILLIAMS, Sir Frederic (Calland) WILLIAMS, Trevor Illtyd WILLIS, Bailey WILLIS, J. Christopher T. WILLMORE, Patrick L. WILKES, Maurice Vincent WILSON, Sir (Archibald) Duncan WILSON, C. D. V. (‘Noggin’) WILSON, Henry Moir WILSON, John Tuzo WILSON, Peter WILSON, Peter R. WILSON, Robert WILSON, Roderic Leith E.87, F.64 E.166, E.171 G.125, G.240-G.247 passim See also G. 257 D.157 D.39, D.45 See also D.33, D.83 D.478, E.65, J.157 G.217 E91 J.157 E.168-E.170 A.69, C.27, J.158 A.114 J.62 A.114, C.7 J.159-J.161 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 373 Index of individuals, organisations and firms WINTERBOTHAM, Harold St. John Loyd WINTERER, Edward L. WISEMAN, J. D. H. WOODGER, Michael WOODWARD-NUTT, Arthur Edgar WOOLLARD, George Prior WOOLLEY, Sir Richard (van derRiet) WOOSTER, Warren S. WORDIE, J. L. WORTHINGTON, Edgar Barton WORZEL, J. Lamar WRIGLEY, Walter WYATT, Woodrow Lyle WYNNE-EDWARDS, Vero Copner D.40, D.46 C.25 D.345 D.444, D.463 J.162 A.106, J.163 See also H.18 J.164 C.20 F.90 D.346 See also J.165 D.416, G.56, G.57 G.206, G.221 E.145 F.37 YODER, Hatten S., Jr. YORK, Derek YORK, Herbert F. YOUNG, Hugh S. YOUNG, John Zachary F.35 J 168 A.180, A.201, C.1 See also J.165 E.115-E.120, E.122-E.125 J.178 YOUNG, Wayland Hilton, later Baron Kennet S20 ZETLER, Bernard D. ZIMAN, John Michael ZMUDA, Alfred J. ZOLTAI, Tibor ZUCKERMAN, Solly, Baron C27, 3.99 J.167 F.30-F.34, H.17 See also G.62 J.178 A.201, E.121, E.122, E.125- E.129, E.131, E.147, G.48, J.168 See also E.124, F.76