WEIS-FOGH, Torkel v2

Published: 20 November, 2023  Author: admin


PHS ROYAL: COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS tl Report on torresvondence and papers of TORKEL WEIS-FOGH (1922-1975) Zoologist 1941-1976 deposited in Cambridge University Library Archives Centre London WC2A 1HP THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HIS ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS IN (csAC 65/3/79) Quality House, Quality Court, Chancery Lane, Reproduced for the Contemporary Scientific All rights reserved by 1979 CSAC 65/3/79 CONTEMPORARY SCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE British National Committee for the History of Science, Medicine and Technology under the guidance of the Royal Society’s Catalogue of the papers of TORKEL WEIS-FOGH (1922-1975) Zoologist Deposited in the University Library, Cambridge, 1979 Compiled by: Jeannine Alton Julia Latham- Jackson T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 LIST OF CONTENTS Each Section is prefaced by an introductory note General Introduction BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL EARLY WORK AND RESEARCH ON LOCUST FLIGHT, 1941-58 B.1-B.143 Bot. = Ba Early research and work in August Krogh's laboratory B.50 - B.66 Work on locust flight muscle B.67 - B.143 Locust Flight' C.1-C.103 C.1 - C.11 C.12 - €.30 Early work onresilin Material relating to the Other research (mainly "Biology and Physics of RESEARCH IN COPENHAGEN, 1957-66 in insects C.31 - ©€.103 Research on the properties on insect physiology) of resilin and elastomers T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 RESEARCH IN CAMBRIDGE, 1966-75 Dv s- D.34 Research on resjlin and elastin Material relating to the Biological Microprobe Laboratory D.36 -*» De38? Research on 'Intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins' D.40 - D.57 Research on animal flight D.58 - D.62 Project for research on 'Fluid dynamics in biology' List of publications COP RESPONDENCE Cal - Gil97 LECTURES, ADDRESSES, PUBLICATIONS, 1948-76 CONFERENCES, VISITS, LECTURE TOURS, 1955-75 Index of correspondents T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE COLLECTION Torkel Weis-Fogh was born in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1922, the son of a banker In 1940 he became a student at Copenhagen University and his and accountant. earliest researches were in soil microbiology, as research assistant to the distinguished Danish physiologist and Nobel prizewinner However, in 1947 he started work ‘August Krogh, and the study of the desert locust Schistocerca Gregaria, begun in Krogh's laboratory, was to occupy Weis-Fogh for much of his life. After Krogh's death in 1949, Weis-Fogh continued as head of the laboratory until 1953,amassing a wealth of data relating to the flight mechanics of the desert locust (see Section B). was followed by four years at Cambridge with a Rockefeller Fellowship followed A year at the Copenhagen Institute of Neurophysiology At the endofthis period Weis-Fogh wrote to Sir James by a Balfour Studentship. Gray: 'Hanne [Weis-Fogh's first wife J and I know very well how much we have to thank you and Lady Gray for. Cambridge just reshaped us and in such a pleasant way that we did not protest in the process. It was an immensely valuable time for us and one we shall never forget and often remember'. (See G.47.) time was concentrated on analysing the new protein. In 1966 he returned to ously (see introduction to Section D). Aninvestigation into the mode of documented in this collection. See especially Section C. in insect cuticle. The discovery was announced at the XVth International Congress During his last year at Cambridge, in the course of his research into the work- ings of insect flight muscle, Weis-Fogh isolated a new type of rubber-like protein of Zoology, July 1958 (see B. 136), and the protein was later named 'resilin' (from The years 1958-66 were spent in Copenhagen as Professor of Zoophysiology (a chair specially created for Weis-Fogh), and most of his research during that Both the work surrounding the discovery of the Latin resilire - to spring back). resilin and subsequent research into its physical and chemical properties are well formation of insect cuticle, mainly carried out during 1967 - 69, led to a study Cambridge as Professor of Zoology and Headof the Department of Zoology, and this position enabled him to pursue several related research interests simultane~ T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 of the molecular basis of resilin and elastin, and the discovery of a new contractile In connection with these studies mechanism in the spasmonemesof protozoa. Weis-Fogh was also instrumental in the setting up of the Biological Microprobe Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Cambridge, to develop techniques of electron~ probe X-ray microanalysis on frozen-hydrated soft biological material. These projects are not so well documented as Weis-Fogh's earlier work, since much of the research was continued after his death. Weis-Fogh never lost his early interest in the problems of insect flight and he In 1973 he publishec returned to them with renewed vigour during this period. a paper containing a mathematical explanation for the flight of very small insects which orthodox aerodynamic theory had been unable to account for. ground material to this paper see D.48- D.53. Sir James Lighthill 'the Weis-Fogh mechanism of lift generation’. was to have collaborated with Lighthill in a major project to study biological For material fluid dynamics, but plans for this were interrupted by his death. This discovery was named by Weis-Fogh For back- relating to this see D.58 - D.62. Sadly The correspondence for 1972-75 documents Unhappily, in 1971 Weis-Fogh's wife was killed in a car accident in which Although he returnedto his laboratory after only he himself was badly injured. a few months and was committed to extensive research projects, it seems unlikely that he ever recovered from the shock and bereavement, or indeed from the physical damage which he sustained. several relapses of health during this period (see especially F.45, F.61, F.65), and the obituary of Weis-Fogh by E. Bredsdorff (see A.1) mentions bouts of depression that at times 'could be so deep thet we feared forhis life'. these fears turned out to be only too well-founded, and Weis-Fogh committed suicide in Cambridge on 13 November 1975. In 196] he was invited to give the Prather Lectures in Biology at Harvard To the end of his life Weis-Fogh retained strong links with Denmark. He remained a Danish citizen (see A.9) and maintained a cottage at Tibirke to which he returned whenever he could. wouldtrensfer at random from English to Danish and back again. material in the collection is in Danish and this has normally been indicated in He also maintained close links with colleagues in the United He was bilingual and when thinking on paper Much of the the catalogue. States. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 University, and his subsequent tour of universities and laboratories in the US pro- vided many valuable contacts with whom he continued to maintain close ties through correspondence and through meetings at conferences and symposia (see Sections F and G). Weis-Fogh's papers were received from the Department of Zoology, by courtesy of Dr. D.A. Parry, Head of the Department, in instalments during 1978 after the removal of departmental material or that related to continuing research projects. This meant that Weis-Fogh's ordering, especially of the later correspondence, had However, been broken and there are some omissions (see especially Section D). the collection still comprises a very full range of working papers, photographs and Weis-Fogh kept some correspondence with data and some unpublished material. the papers to which it related, and this has been left in place; general scientific correspondence is presented in alphabetical order in Section G and an index of correspondents will be found on pp. 108-120. Titles and descriptions in inverted commas are those which appear on the documents. Danish titles are usually translated or summarised for the benefit of the English reader. The help of Mr. George Mewis and Mr. Barry Fuller in identifying photographs and documents, and of Dr. P.C.H.Wernberg-Mgller in advising on some of the Danish material is gratefully acknowledged. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL A.1-A.30 Very little personal material survives, This can largely be attributed to Weis-Fogh's personal circumstances towards the end of his life and in particular after the death of his first wife in 1971. Fortunately the correspondence in Sections F and G contains many exchanges of a more personal nature interleaved with scientific matters. Of particular interest is the correspondence in A.9 conveying Weis-Fogh's decision to retain Danish citizenship after the death of his first wife, even though if could have been more advantageous to his career to become a British citizen. He retained a cottage in Denmark and returned there when- ever possible for holidays or to write; many of the drafts and correspondence in the collection are headed 'Tibirke', the location of his Danish home. Material relating to Cambridge University 1966-75, when Weis- Fogh was Professor of Zoology and Head of the Department of Zoology is also included here (A.10 - A.22). T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Biographical and personal Xerox copies of obituaries from The Times, Politiken (by T. Norman) and Christ's CollegeMagazine (by E. Bredsdorff). 3 pp. typescript by J.W.S. Pringle 'The research work of Professor T. Weis-Fogh', and concluding remarks delivered by D.A. Parry at the Society for Experimental Biology Memorial Symposium to Weis-Fogh, 4 January Wit. Xerox copy of a memorial address (in Danish) by C. Overgaard Nielsen, delivered to the Royal Danish Academy, 7 May 1976. Curricula vitae, mostly prepared for entries in bio~ graphical dictionaries. miscellaneous bibliographies. Folder also includes See pp.101-107 and introductory note for the most complete bibliography of Weis-Figh's scientific pub- lications. Apart Miscellaneous collection of photographs, mostly taken in August Krogh's laboratory where Weis-Fogh worked 1947-53. and several of Weis-Fogh. Includes a photograph of Krogh himself See E.75 for a collection of reprints of papers by Weis-Fogh and colleagues. Notebook belonging to Hanne Weis-Fogh, containing laboratory notes in her hand dated 1956. from a few (mostly unsigned) carbons of letters (see, e.g., F.12, G.4, G.8) this is the only item in the Her collection relating to Weis-Fogh's first wife. death in a car accident in 1971 was a blow from which, according to E. Bredsdorff (see A.1), Weis-Fogh never really recovered. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Bibliographical and personal Membership of societies. Correspondence re Weis-Fogh's election to the following societies: Institute of Biology 1968-69, 1971 Royal Entomological Society 1969-70 Royal Danish Academy (in Danish) 1970-71 (re transfer from Danish to foreign membership) Society of General Physiologists American Society of Naturalists 1974 1975 Correspondence re Weis-Fogh's election as a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 1974 Weis-Fogh's reply indicates that he was con- Correspondence with Otto Lowenstein who wanted to initiate Weis-Fogh's candidature for foreign member- ship of the Royal Society. Ina letter of 17 March 1971 he wrote: 'l am convinced that were you a British National you would already be one ofus in the Fellow- ship, and so | feel that there is a very good chance that your candidature will be successful in the not too distant future', sidering applying for British citizenship at that time, but the correspondence wasinterrupted by the accident in which his wife was killed and he himself badly Asa result, he decided to retain Danish injured. nationality, while continuing to work in Cambridge because, as he wrote to Lowenstein, 'I feel a great need for continuity in my life which otherwise could become too fenuous'. The folder also contains an assessment by Weis~Fogh of his scientific work up to 1971. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Biographical and personal Cambridge University, 1966-75 Folder labelled 'Fitting of TWF rooms, 1966'. Contains correspondence (mainly with J.W.L. Beament) and plans re alterations to the professorial rooms in the Department of Zoology, Cambridge. Xerox copies of newspaper reports on an explosion in the Department of Zoology, 17 August 1970. Folder includes a letter from Weis-Fogh re temporary arrangements for a study while repairs were being carried out on the damaged floor of the building. Xerox copy of an article by Weis-Fogh about Danish Universities, entitled 'The Wizard's Cauldron’, written for the Cambridge Review, 9 May 1969. This is not mentioned in the list of publications on pp-101-107. Cambridge Philosophical Society. Correspondence 1967-68 and 1974 (re William Bate Hardy Prize). See also G.154, Cryobiology Discussion Group. and notices of meetings, 1970-72. Brief correspondence Scandinavian Studies Fund. grant applications, etc. 1967-73. Correspondence re Heads of Department Dining Club. Correspondence 1967, 1973. Not indexed. re renewal of Weis-Fogh's work permit, 1968, 1969. Brief correspondence, reports, etc. re two Cambridge University Expeditions (to Malindi and Quintana Roo) of which Weis-Fogh was a patron, 1974, Society for the Application of Research, served on the Board of Advisers.) and notices of meetings, 1968-69. Correspondence with the General Board of the Faculties re leave of absence 1969-70, 1971, and (Weis-Fogh Correspondence T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Biographical and personal - oll ———s Miscellaneous correspondence re university or college matters and the Department of Zoology, 1967-75. Not indexed. Correspondence re proposal to award an Honorary Degree to Mogens Fog, 1969. tributes by Weis-Fogh and E. Bredsdorff. Includes biographical Correspondence with colleagues, and with Cambridge University Registry re award of Honorary Degree to Hans Includes biographical notes and H. Ussing, 1969-70. tributes to Ussing's work by Weis-Fogh and others, and arrangements for Ussing's visit. A.23-A.26 Miscellaneous correspondence of biographical and personal interest (in alphabetical order), 1956-73. A.23 D.J. Bradley 1958 (on Weis-Fogh's wind tunnel) Sir Alan Cottrell 1973 (Weis-Fogh's carbon only) C. Ellenby 1956 (on Weis-Fogh's election to a O.R. Frisch -. Nielsen U. Smith Balfour Scholarship) of George de Hevesy) early botanical teachers) T.R.R. Mann 1967, 1974 Sir Alan Hodgkin 1963, 1964 Sir Harry Goodwin 1973 (Weis-Fogh's carbon only, on his Lady May Mellanby 1955 (on the death of Sir Edward 1967 (Weis-Fogh's carbon only, on mss. g trip to Denmark with his 82-year old mother) 1961 (on a visit to Cambridge by Weis- 1972 (on Weis-Fogh's second marriage) g 1973 (Weis-Fogh's carbon only, on a M.G.M, Pryor 1960 Lord Rothschild Fogh and his wife) Mellanby), 1961 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Biographicalandpersonal Miscellaneous personal correspondence: social invitations, brief personal exchanges, etc., 1955-75. Not indexed. A- J B= R ae Folder labelled 'Plans for Sabbatical 1975/6'. Includes correspondence with D. Davenport, N.V. Kokshaysky, K. Schmidt-Nielsen and T.Y.-T. Wu, 1974-75. Several of the letters mention the highly successful symposium organised by Weis-Fogh and Sir James Lighthill in Cambridge, September 1975 (see F.66 - F.70 and introduction to Section F) and reveal him making detailed plans for research and travel less than two months before his death. See also G.69, G.139. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 SECTION 86 EARLY WORK ANDRESEARCH ON LOCUST FLIGHT 1941-58 8,1 ='8.143 ss - | he material is presented as follows: ee ee ey Early research and work in August Krogh's laboratory, 1941-53 B50) * abs 00 Work on locust flight muscle, 1953-56 B.67 - B.143 Material relating to the 'Biology and Physics of Locust Flight', 1948-58 Each sub-section is preceded by an introductory note. This Section covers Weis~Fogh's research up to the discovery in 1958 of a hitherto unknown protein in insect cuticle, which was later named resilin (see B.136 and Section C). Much of the research done during this period remained an important basis lished results in later papers (see C.26, D.40 - D.42). The majority of the material is in Danish and this is usually noted as part of the description of each item. Titles and descriptions in inverted commas are those which appear on Weis~Fogh's folders or notes, but the words 'in Danish' indicate that the original title has for further experimental work, and Weis-Fogh used some of these hitherto unpub- been translated. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 B.1-B.49 EARLY RESEARCH AND WORK IN AUGUST KROGH'S LABORATORY1941-53 Weis-Fogh's earliest scientific work, on soil micro-biology, was carried out at the Molslaboratoriet, Aarhus, while he was studying for his Mag. Scient. at Copenhagen University. Medal of Copenhagen University, anda paper ‘Ecological mites and collemboles in the soil' (1948) which laid new foundations for detailed The work resulted in the award in 1944 of the Gold investigations on research in this subject. Virtually no papers survive for this period (though see B.1). In 1947 Weis-Fogh became research assistant to the distinguished Danish physio- logist August Krogh in his private laboratory at Gentofte, and on Krogh's death in 1949, Weis-Fogh became head of the laboratory until its closure in 1953. main subject for study in the laboratory wasthe desert locust Schistocerca Gregaria, The with which most of the papers in this Section are concerned. interest was in physiology and metabolism, Weis-Fogh undertooka study of the mechanics and energetics of locust flight using a specially constructed roundabout While Krogh's main to which specimens were attached (see B.6, B.13, B.49), and a wind tunnel of 'I believe | was the first to study animal flight in the wind the results obtained. been kept as a sequence (see, e.g., B.30 - B.43). An extensive amount of material has survived from this important period in which he wrote in 1971: tunnel under conditions sufficiently close to those of free flight to be practicalle (sic) and biologically meaningful’ (see A.9, letter to O. Lowenstein). Weis-Fogh's life which provided the foundations of his later research. Some of it was reworked and transferred to other Sections (see C.27, D.40, D.41) but enough remains to give an idea of the quantity and variety of data collected. The material is presented chronologically except where a group of items on the same subject has See also A.5 for photographs of Weis~Foghin the laboratory. Item B. 49 relates to a film ‘How locusts fly' made by Weis~Fogh and Martin Jensen in 1952 which illustrated some of the apparatus used in the laboratory and T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 B.1 Early work and research on locust flight Small light brown notebook containing notes in Danish on experiments with flying locusts 4 September 1949-15 May 1950. These occupyonly the first few pages of the book, while the rest is empty except for one page of notes dated 16 July 1942. Inside the front cover is a list of headings relating to Weis-Fogh's earliest work on soil biology and there is evidence that some pages have been torn out. The original title of the notebookis illegible, but Weis-Fogh subsequently labelled it 'Measurement of thoracic pressure. Primary! (in Danish). See also B.7. Also included here is correspondence re Weis~Fogh's 1948 paper 'Ecological investigations on mites and collemboles in the soil’, mainly requests for reprints but with some scientific content (not indexed), 1948-49, 1955-64, 1972. See also G.7, G.16, G.50. Envelope labelled ‘Cuttlefish drawings' (in Danish) with a note by Weis-Fogh'1946?'. It contains several biological drawings, presumably done while he was working for his Mag. Scient. at Copenhagen, 1941-47. There is also a much smaller envelope containing rough pencil drawings with ink notes on tiny pieces of card. These are undated. Three reports prepared for the Anti- Locust Research Centre on work in August Krogh's laboratory. They are: A.L.R.C.S.C. 13/48. laboratory of Professor Krogh, Copenhagen’. 2 pp. typescript by R.C. Rainey, 18 May 1948. ‘Report on a visit to the A.L.R.C.S.C. 7/48. 2 pp. typescript by Krogh and Weis-Fogh, 9 January 1948. ‘Research on locust flight’. powers of observation and planning of experiments’. Folder also includes a copy of a letter, dated 29 October 1947, from August Krogh to the Director of the Anti-Locust Research Centre in which he writes: 'Mr. Weiss Fogh began work on the 16th after obtaining his degree as M.Sc. on the 10th. Weiss extremely good, with muchinitiative and very conspicuous A.L.R.C.S.C. 14/48. 'Report on locust research carried out in Professor Krogh's laboratory, Copenhagen, January to June 1948'. 3 pp. typescript by Krogh and Weis-Fogh, 9 June 1948. | find T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Notes and drawings mostly dated 1948, and some photographs of experimental apparatus. The work covered in this folder resulted in the publication of a paper entitled 'An aerodynamic sense organ stimulating and regulating flight in locusts' (Nature, 1949). Folder containing anatomical drawings of locusts by Weis-Fogh. These were reproduced and the copies were used exiensively by Weis-Fogh in experimental work, lecturing and published papers. Photographs of experimental apparatus, flying locusts, etc. Includes several photographs of the laboratory's wind-tunnel and of the specially constructed roundabout on which suspended locusts could be induced to fly for several hours. B.13, B.49. See also Two envelopes containing records of changes in intrathoracic pressure of a tethered 'flying' desert locust, 1949-50. See also B.1, D.40. 3 envelopes containing photographsof locusts, dated 24-26 January 1950. 2 envelopes labelled 'Schistocerca gregaria. Ventilation! containing photographs, tables, graphs, calculations, etc., mostly dated 1950. Set of cards containing notes re conditions for photography of Attached to some of flying locusts and dragonflies, 1950-52. these are locust wings marked with white paint as described in the draft commentary to the film 'How locusts fly! which Weis- Fogh made in collaboration with the engineer Martin Jensen. (See B. 49). of the first paragraph. Correspondence with K. Sawyer and N.W. Wootten re method of suspending flying locusts in the laboratory. Folder includes: Letter from Sawyer and Wootten dated 22 March 1950, enclosing several drawings. Copyof a report on their research at the Chemical Defence Establishment, Porton, dated 14 December 1949. Weis-Fogh's notes for his reply to the letter, andhis draft T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Correspondence with Leigh E. Chadwick. correspondence re locust flight, 1950-52. Folder also contains notes on articles by Chadwick and others on insect flight. Detailed scientific See also G.27 for further correspondence with Chadwick. Envelope containing data re experiments with locusts flying on a specially constructedroundabout, November 1951- October 1952. See also B.6, B.49. Set of notes in Danish on wing inertia. February-March 1951 and paginated from 1-18. They are dated Further notes on wing inertia. Those at the front of the folder continue the pagination of B.14, but there are also additional diagrams, tables and calculations, mostly dated 1952. ‘Odonata. Small direct wing muscle! "Odonata. Pterothorax [viewed ] from in front with varying wing positions' Set of notes in Danish containing aerodynamic calculations based on data derived from photography, 22 July 1952. ‘Odonata. Small flight muscle under contraction! The negatives of these photographs, which are filed at B.47, are dated September 1951. 3 envelopes containing photographs of dragonflies (Odonata). The envelopes are labelled (in Danish) as follows: (3 pp.) are dated 1957, Notes on dragonflies 1951, 1952, labelled (in Danish) ‘Aeshna, Flight, heat production and ventilation'. The notes have been sorted into sections at a later date anda summary added by Weis=Fogh,. .Notes onflight, ventilation and heat production of Vesspa Crabro and Sphinx(in Danish). Most of the notes on Vespa|Crabro are dated 1952 with 2 pp. of later additions. The notes on Sphinx Envelope containing photographsillustrating the anatomy of the dragonflies Sympetrium and Aeshna. negatives in B.47 dated September 1951. folder are some earlier notes and drawings, 1948, 1950. These correspond to Also included in this T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Earlyworkandresearch on locustflight Folder containing notes, diagrams and some printed matter in Danish and English comprising a survey of the literature relating to glycogen. Laboratory records of experiments re the hydration of glycogenes, 1952. Miscellaneous notes, graphs, etc. reglycogen, some dated 1952. Ms. and typescript drafts on the subject of fuel storage and weight economy. topics in 1952 (see bibliography included in A.4). Weis-Fogh published 2 papers on these Ms. headed 'Work in progress' dated October 1952. various lines of research currently being pursued in the laboratory, with a brief indication of their state of completion. Lists the Folder labelled 'Lift regulation’ (in Danish) containing notes and diagrams, some dated 1952, and a draft headed 'The regulation of the lift’ in a mixture of English and Danish. Set of cards containing data from experiments with flying locusts. The cards are numbered 1-11 and dated 13-16 January 1953. Folder labelled 'Resistance' containing notes and graphs re locust flight experiments, many dated 1953. Folder containing notes, graphs and experimental data (in Danish), 1948, 1949, re the effect of temperature changes on the flight performance of locusts. Folder labelled 'Vingeorgan'. Contains laboratory data re experiments to determine conditions for locust flight, dated August 1953, and brief drafts in a mixture of English and Danish headed ‘Induction of rhythmical wing movements! and 'Wind and lift as inductive flight stimuli’. contains a graph dated 1954. Folder containing notes, graphs and experimental data (in Danish), some dated February 1950, re the effect of temperature on locust flight. Laboratory records (in Danish) of experiments on thorax temperature and metabolic rate, October-December 1952. Folder also T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Notes, graphs and drawings (in Danish) for experimental work on thorax temperature, 1952. Includes information re equip- ment, etc. 1-15b headed (in Danish) 'Thorax temperature. Muus and TWF'. Fogh on this subject, 1956. See F.6-F.8 for paper by Muus and Weis- Also included here is a set of notes paginated 14.8.52. Notes and graphs re calibration of experimental equipment, December 1951-January 1953 (in Danish). Notes, tables and graphs on thorax temperature and radiation, paginated 1-60, and dated 16 December 1952- 7 January 1953 (in Danish). Notes, graphs, drawings and tables on thorax temperature, paginated la-25, and dated 7-12 January 1953 (in Danish). Undated draft in a mixture of Danish and English headed 'What can we say about radiation? ' Notes and graphs re experiments with flying locusts, 1949-50, originally includedwith B.37 above (in Danish). Folder headed records of experiments (in Danish). ‘July 1953. Abdominal ventilation’ containing Laboratory notes on thorax ventilation, pages 55-118, dated 10-24 June 1953 (in Danish). Laboratory notes on thorax ventilation, pages 5-54a, dated 11 April-9 June 1953 (in Danish), Notebooklabelled 'Thorax temperature versus heat production (in Danish) containing tables and calculations dated June 1953. There are also a number of graphs on loose sheets at the front of the book. articles on insect flight, some dated 1953, Miscellaneous ms. drafts in English and Danish for a paper or papers on the metabolic rate and ventilatory mechanism of flying locusts. The folder also includes a typescript headed 'The ventilatory mechanism during flight of insects in relation to the call for oxygen', a paper delivered at the XIV Inter- national Zoological Congress, Copenhagen, 1953, andlater published (see List of Publications, pp.100-107 and E.75). Notebook containing notes and drafts in Danish for various T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research onlocust flight Album of negatives most of which are records of laboratory work with locusts, 1948-49. Several of the negatives are annotated in Danish with details of the photographic equip- ment used, etc.; and some are dated. labelled 'Album no.1. Negativ No.1-276'. The front cover is ‘Album no.2. records of laboratory work. appears on negative no.461. Negativ No.277-522', containing further The date 20 September 1950 ‘Album no.3. taken in the laboratory c.1950-52. No.523-723'. Negatives of photographs See also B.17, B.18. ‘Album no.4. No.724- taken in 1953 and 1957. ', Negatives of photographs Folder containing material re a film entitled 'How locusts fly' made by Weis-Fogh and Martin Jensen in 1952. The film was distributed by Dansk Kulturfilm and wonfirst prize for scientific documentary films at a congress in Pisa a year or two later. lt lasted for 25 minutes and showed locusts flying on Weis-Fogh's specially constructed roundabout (see B.6, B.13) and suspended on an aerodynamic balancein front of a wind tunnel. included a section in slow motion so that the sequence of wing positions could be observed. It The contents of the folder are as follows: Herr Erik Olsen’, con- Typescript with ms. Typescript set of Danish captions. Notes in Danish re apparatus and conditions for photography, 1952. Set of English captions for the film. corrections. Envelope labelled ‘Dansk Kulturfilm. taining 2 sets of photographs of flying locusts. For further material re Martin Jensen, see Index of Correspondents. Correspondence with Dansk Kulturfilm (in Danish) 1953-56, and with people wishing to show the film, 1956-71. Not indexed. Includes a letter from Weis-Figh to A. Berbenni, 7 August 1961, which contains a clear statement of the purpose and results of the film. See also G.27, G.108. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 B.50-B.66 WORK ON LOCUST FLIGHT MUSCLE 1953-56 In 1953 August Krogh's laboratory was closed down and Weis-Fogh wentto work at the Institute of Neurophysiology at Copenhagen where he collaborated At the end of 1954 with Fritz Buchthal in experiments on locust flight muscle. he moved to Cambridge where he continued the experiments, and the work resulted in the publication of 3 joint papers in 1956 and 1957. Laboratory notes and data from both Cambridge and Copenhagen have survived andthere are also several drafts of one of the published papers (B. 64- The arrangement of the material is chronological, in so far as this is B.66). possible. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 B.50-B.55 Early work and research on locust flight The following items were originally kept together in a bulky folder labelled (in Danish) ‘Muscle experiments, Cambridge’. For ease of reference some material has been removed and put into The original folder remains at B.55 with some separate folders. The papers are ina mixture of its more miscellaneous contents. of English and Danish, the latter being predominant. Not all the experimental work covered here was done in Cambridge; some of the folders contain papers dating from 1954 when Weis-Fogh was still working with Fritz Buchthal in Copenhagen. Description Notes on apparatus and method, 20 March 1954. and drawings of a vacuum myographspecially constructed for Some of the drawings are this set of experiments on muscle. in another hand. See also G.29. Set of notes labelled ‘Tetanus. containing records of experiments April-October 1955. Shortening and force at 10-12° C', Set of notes dated 7 July 1954, paginated 1-8 providing a general introduction to the experiments. lists of symbols for mathe- illustrating the principles involved, matical calculations, examples of layout for tables containing results, etc. Contains sketches Set of notes describing experiments to determine the optimum conditions for the survival of locust flight muscle once it had been dissected out, 1953-54. The majority of the notes relate to the composition of the saline in which the muscle was kept. 1955. The original folder with its remaining contents, which include notes, graphs, drawings, tables, 1954-55, and 2 letters from Fritz Buchthal (see introduction to Section, p. 20). one of which is dated 26 January ‘Maximum force and shortening during tetanus of locust flight muscle! (English and Danish) 'Tetanic force and shortening in locust flight muscle' 2 undated ms. drafts: T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight B.56-B.66 The following items were kept with the above folder and are obviously related to it. experiments with locust flight muscle. follow 'G' stands for 'grasshopper' which is Danish for locust. The majority of the material is in Danish. They all contain further data re In the titles that Folder labelled 'G.57 to G.71. at 10°C! (in Danish). data and some graphs, all undated. Average of all experiments Contains tables of experimental Folder labelled 'G.59-71. at 10°C! (in Danish). Average of all experiments Contents similar to previous folder. Folder labelled 'Average curves at 10°C. G.63-G.71'. Folder labelled 'Average. Danish). Laboratory notes and tables. Temperature experiment! (in Folder labelled 'Average of G.70 & 71 at different temperatures’. Contains graphs and tables. Folder containing graphs illustrating average shortening of muscle at 10°C. Folder containing graphs and tables re the abdominal muscles. Much of the material is in another hand. Folder containing typescript notes and tables dated 14 September 1954, summarising the results of some of the muscle experiments, with comments added in red, 2 August 1960. Ms. and typescript draft headed 'Twitch contraction of isolated The draft is in flight muscle of locusts', dated 13 July 1956. a mixture of English and Danish and was very extensively revised before publication. the incomplete drafts is dated 21 November 1956. Further ms. draft of the same paper, dated July 1956, in Both English, and muchcloser to the published version. this and the ms. portions of B.64 above are entirely in Weis~ Fogh's hand although the authorship of the paper is ascribed to him jointly with F. Buchthal and P. Rosenfalck. 2 incomplete typescript drafts of the same paper with ms. Oneof corrections and 1 copy of the finished typescript. 5 a seh i eave T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Earlyworkandresearchonlocustflight B.67-B.143 MATERIAL RELATING TO THE 'BIOLOGY AND PHYSICS OF LOCUST FLIGHT' The material is divided into 2 sections. B.67 - B.77 covers Parts | - V all of which were published in R. Soc. Lond. Phil. Trans. B, and B.78 - B.143 covers Parts VI - IX of which only Part VIII was published (in J. exp.Biol.), although Weis-Fogh later produced several papers based on material collected for Parts VI and VII (see, e.g., C.26, D.40-D.42). See aiso G.60, G.76. Parts | V The original concept, formed in about 1952, was for a series of 10 papers to be written by Weis-Fogh in collaboration with Martin Jensen, covering all aspects of the biology and physics of locust flight. Parts | - IV were published in 1956, but the discovery of resilin by Weis-Fogh in 1958 (see B. 136 and Section C) followed by his return to Copenhagen as Professor of Zoology disrupted work on Part V with the result that it was finally published only in 1962, after major revision (see B.74 - S577). 2 pp. ms. notes headed 'Whypositive criticism is badly needed’, explaining the difficulties of getting the results of experimental work done in Krogh's laboratory into a form suitable for publica- tion. The ms. ends by itemising the material in preparation on 'The flight of locusts' as 2 paners on flight muscles, 3 on physio~ logy and 10 on biology and piiysics 'which are in the process of preparation and are approaching theirfinal stage'. The notes are undated but probably belong c. 1953-54. journals re the form in which papers are to be submitted. Ms, draft of titles for the 10 papers with an indication of the number of pages, figures and tables for each paper. differs considerably from that published with Papers | - IV in 1956. The date is probably 1953-54. The arrangement Also filed with the above is an undateddraft of a letter to the editor of the Proceedingsof theRoy! Danish Academy about the possibility of publlishing the paper: , andiinstructions from various T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Correspondence with Weis-Fogh's collaborator, Martin Jensen, and with the Royal Society about the publication of the papers. Ms. draft of references and acknowledgements for Parts | - VIII. Folder also includes brief notes for the typist, and cards (one dated 21 March 1955) listing the number of words, legends to figures and tables for each part. ‘Basic principles in insect flight. Typescript draft of Part | with ms. corrections by Weis-Fogh. This draft corresponds in broad outline to the published version but there are several detailed differences. A critical review'. Folder also includes typescript draft of a preface to the series anda ms. introduction to Part |. Ms. and typescript The typescript, which is in Danish, has 'The aerodynamics of locust flight'. draft of Part Ill. corrections by Martin Jensen (the author of the published paper) and there is also a draft of the introduction in his hand. The first item in the folder is a heavily-corrected summary of chapter and section headings for the paper by Weis-Fogh, in a mixture of Danish and English. "Strength and elasticity of locust cuticle’. of Part V by Martin Jensen. notes by Weis-Fogh for Part V. Early typescript The folder also contains some For correspondence re this paper see under M. Jensen in Section G. Several drafts of the final section of the paper that was pub- lished as Part IV, although it was originally to have been Part III (see B.68). There are 2 uncorrected typescripts, a third typescript with extensive ms. corrections, and several ms. versions, mostly unfinisiied and some in Danish and/or note form. andphotographs on which some of the drawings were based. Ms. of the second version of Part V written by Weis-Fogh in September-October 1958, after he had discovered resilin (see B. 135) but before it had been named (see C.5). Some related notes and drawings are included at the back of the folder. Part of the typescript of Part V as sent to the Royal Society in February 1959 with the figures that were omitted from the Folder also includes the final typescript published version. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work andresearchonlocustflight Correspondence with J.W.S. Pringle and the Royal Society, 1956, 1959-62 re preparation of Part V for publication. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locustflight B.78-B.143 Parts VI - IX The bulk of the material in this Section relates to Part VI. Items B.78 - B.98 consist of drafts and notes for this part written c.1952-58, and these are followed by a large amount of background material (laboratory notes, etc.) which was originally filed with the drafts. A few of these items overlap with material in the first part of Section B (see especially B.99 - B.102), but most relate to ex- periments performed while Weis-Fogh was in Cambridge 1955-58. The work for Part VI on elasticity (see B. 103 - B.132) is closely related to the experiments on locust flight muscle described in B.50 et seq. There is also quite a lot of background material for Part VII, but very little for Part VIII (which was finally published in 1964) or Part IX. Part X was to have been a final summary, but there Part VI - drafts - background material The disposition of the Parts is as follows: are no traces in the collection of any draft for such a paper. Parts VI, VII, IX Part VII Part VIII Part IX T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Earlyworkand research on locustflight B.78-B.98 PartVI drafts B.78 Early ms. notes and drafts for Part VI variously headed as follows: "Knowledge on the basic flight process of insects' ‘Principles of the flight system of the desert locust' 'The morphological, mechanical, and elastic principles of the flight system of the Desert Locust’ Ist 74pp. ms., written when Weis-Fogh was at the ‘Principles of the flight system of the desert locust. draft'. Institute of Neurophysiology, Copenhagen (1953-54). Included in the folder is a letter dated 27 January 1954 from Weis-Fogh to T.H.C. Tayler of the Anti-Locust Research Centre in which he promises to send the first draft 'in a few days' for Taylor to read. Chapters 5 and 6 of this draft were later transferred to Part VII. Typescript of the above with corrections and alterations by Weis-Fogh. Folder labelled 'Figures for Principles of the flight system' (in Danish). Contents include rough and finished drawings, graphs and photographs numbered to correspond with the list of figures for each section in B.79 and B.80 above. Notes for a revised version of Part VI dated March 1956. This is almost certainly the draft referred to by 'Old Ms. Cambridge’. Draft of second version of Part VI, entitled 'Wing movements and elastic deformations in flying locusts'. Weis-Fogh in a note to J.W.S. Pringle dated 20 April 1956 (see B.85). iy 00. Typescript of the above with corrections and comments by Weis-Fogh in Danish and English, some dated 7 September T. Weis~Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research onlocust flight Primary for Folder labelled 'Elastik: for Discussion. discussion of model and comparisons with Hawk-moth and dragonfly and fly'. Contents include graphs, tables and calculations, and several ms. drafts of the Discussion which is missing from the version of Part VI at B.83 and B.84. 1956, anda note in Weis-Fogh's hand: 'Dear John [Pringle], Here is a draft of part VI, plus the following disposition of the discussion ... The first item in the folder bears the date 20 April Yours ever, Torkel’. The model referred to in the title was exhibited at Royal Society Conversaziones in May and June 1956. See F.4, F.5. Set of notes headed 'Part VI. Wing movements and elastic deformations in flying locusts. (With a general discussion.) (Cambridge 18.11.57.)', ouilining a third draft of Part VI. This outline does not correspond with the full ms. drafts which follow. Various ms. drafts of an introduction to Part VI. Three of these are dated 28 November 1957 (with a note 'not used but some details to be extracted'), 30 November 1957 and 6 December 1957 (headed ‘Alternative Solution’). 3 ms. drafts of Chapter 2 of Part VI, dated 8, 23, 24 December ors Ms. draft of Chapter 4 'Wing inertia and work' and notes for tables related to this chapter. Ms. draft of Chapter 3 'Movements and morphology: the basis of analysis' written between 28 December 1957 and 18 January 1958 (although the final date is given as 18 January 1957 this is clearly a slip of the pen). Contents of folder include a few other notes that were filed with this draft. includes a set of notes onlateral stiffness, dated 31 May 1957. Ms. draft of Chapter 5 'Quantitative approach and methods' dated 2 February 1958. notes, one of which is mostly in Danish. Several ms. drafts of Chapter 7 written between 21 February ‘Thetitle varies but the subjectis and 18 March 1958. elasticity, mainly of the pterothorax. Oneof the drafts Folder also includes 3 sets of related Ms. draft of Chapter 6 'Reactive components and elastic efficiency'. Notes for a table are also included. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Brief ms. outline of Chapter 8, dated 18 March 1958. Typescript of Chapters 1-6 of Part VI. of each chapter are filed above (B.87-B.92) but the whole typescript is included here as the final and most accessible version of this unfinished and unpublished paper. Ms. versions Miscellaneous notes re Part VI. Folder containing notes, graphs, tables, calculations, drawings, etc. for the figures for the 1957-58 version of Part VI, with a few brief notes dated 1961, 1962. Envelopes containing photographs and diagrams of layout for plates for Part VI. They are labelled as follows: 'Plate 1. Simple demonstrations' ‘Plate 2. Movements and morphology' ‘Plate 3. Types of elastic torques (mainly)' Each envelope was also briefly annotated in pencil in August 1961. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight B.99-B.123 Part VI - background material B.99 Folder containing notes, graphs and calculations re early experiments on elasticity, some dated May 1948. Folder labelled 'The elastic behaviour of the pterothorax of locusts (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal).. Oktober-November 1953. of experiments, graphs and notes on the results. Contains records pp.1-31'. Elastik: Set of notes paginated 32-79 covering the period November 1953-March 1954, and continuing the record of experiments begun in the previous folder. bered from 5 to 11. 22 February 1954 were found with this material and are included in the folder. The experiments are num- 2 pp. of ms. notes in Danish dated Contents of folder originally labelled 'Elastik - primary 1953-55 torque of thorax (no direct use)'. Results of experiments undertaken in May 1955, and some calculations. Folder labelled 'Elastik: general concepts 1957'. Contains: Notes on the literature. Notes for the Introduction to Part VI dated 16 November 1957 3 pp. ms. notes in Danish dated May 1957 headed ‘Altering and verifying of VI' 10 pp. ms. notes in Danish and English dated 13 September 1957 re principal ideas emerging from the work for Part VI later (1958), Folder labelled 'background for experiments 1957' contain- ing material similar to that in B.103 above, mainly in Danish. In particular there is a set of notes dated May 1957 and headed 'What have we discovered?! (in Danish). Set of papers labelled (in Danish) 'Standard stroke. wings'. 1957, though some are earlier (1953) and a few are Graphs and tables, mainly dated April-May (in Danish). of its delapidated condition. The original folder has been discarded because B.105-B.107 Contents of a folder labelled 'Elastik: standard stroke’ Hind- T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Set of papers labelled (in Danish) 'Standard stroke. Forewings'. Contents similar to those of B.105 above. Set of papers labelled 'Kinematics'. calculations, some dated 22 October 1954. Mainly notes and Folder labelled 'Elastik: ness’. 4 June 1952, a drawing, and data from experiments, May-June 1957. Contains 3 pp. of notes in Danish dated primary 1957 lateral stiff- B.109-B.111 Contents of a folder labelled 'Elastik: primary. The original folder remains at 1957'. Damping. B.109, but it has been split into 3 parts because of its bulk. in locust flight muscle, paginated 1-327. appear to be missing. It contains records of experiments on damping Pp.58-60 Pp.1-57, experiments 1-3, June 1957. There are also a few unpaginated notes and calculations in English and Danish at the front of the folder. June-July 1957. Pp.6la-193, experiments 4 and 5, Pp.194a-327, experiments 6 and 7, July 1957. Folder labelled 'Elastik: temperature', containing notes, graphs and data from experiments performed in July 1957. {In Danish. primary 1957, effect of Folder containing notes, tables and graphs summarising some of the results of experiments on damping, 1957. In Danish and English. experiments, September~-October 1957. Folder labelled 'Elastik: calculations’. notes in English and Danish, paginated 1-35. page is dated 4 September 1957. folder is a group of unpaginated graphs andtables. Muscular torque: Contains diagrams, calculations and Folder labelled 'Elastik: elasticity, experimental'. The first At the back of the primary. primary, finals, passive muscle Contains graphs and data from T .. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight various insects'. Folder labelled 'Elastik: records, in English and Danish, of experiments on Aeshna, Sphinx and Schistocerca, with graphs, calcu- lations and notes on the results. were carried out in October 1957, but there is one page of notes on Aeshna_grandis dated 21 March 1971. Most of the experiments Contains Folder labelled 'Elastik: thoracic box'. October-November 1957. primary, finals. Coupled Contains graphs and data from experiments, Folder labelled ‘mainly on wing inertia. interest’ containing a set of notes and calculations dated 22 January 1958, and another set, possibly earlier. May be of primary. Folder labelled 'Elastik: imitation and lateral stiffness, experiment. Contains notes and data from experiments and a rough sketch of experimental apparatus headed 'Muscle-action~ torque’, all dated March 1958. Muscle-torque - March 1958". the rest Cards containing miscellaneous data, found with material relating to Part VI. The first Album of negatives labelled 'Cambridge I'. part of the album contains observations of locust flight is a record of a muscle under a microscope; series of experiments with flying locusts and weights. One of these negatives is dated 4 July 1957. The first Album of negatives labelled ‘Cambridge II'. part continues directly on from the previous book, after which there is a series of pictures of the elastic tendon in the dragonfly Aeshna Cyanea as seen under the polarizing microscope, dated25June 1958. mately one third of the album is: empty.) locust flight muscle. 3 envelopes containing phorographs of experiments on (Approxi- T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Earlyworkandresearchonlocustflight B.124-B. 137 Part VII B.124 Various parts of the first typescript of Part VI which were extracted and re-ordered to form a basis for Part VII. They carry ms. corrections by Weis-Fogh and comments They are accompanied by a letter in another hand. to J.W.S. Pringle dated 19 April 1956 asking him to look at this early draft. Notes and diagrams for Part VII in the form of a letter, dated 7 September 1956, and probably intended for sub- Also further notes outlining a scheme mission to Pringle. for Part VII dated April 1957. Letter from Anker Nielsen in Danish dated 23 May 1956 re the morphology of the wing systems of various insects. Various anatomical drawings of locusts, particularly of the wing hinge. 2 sets of photomicrographs illustrating locust anatomy. The first set corresponds to negatives in B.47 which are dated 24 May 1952. The folder also includes various data re con- 1957. ditions, etc. for the photography, some of which are dated March 1957. The second set probably dates from 2 envelopes containing data re wing area in male and female locusts. Undated, but probably c.1950. 1 page draft in Danish with references and notes headed 'The functional architecture of the pterothorax of Schistocerca gregaria in relation to flight'. The bibliography is dated 17952. data from experiments, January-March 1957. in English and Danish, dated 2 sets of notes on wings, Included here is brief correspondence December 1956. from John Smart, 1956-57, and related reprints, one of which is heavily annotated by Weis-Fogh. Notes in Danish and English headed 'Re-investigation of wing-mechanism', dated 27 June 1956. Folder labelled 'Primary on wing and notal movement: Contains various may be of Copenhagen’. interest. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and researc h_on locust flight Folder labelled 'Notal movements and wing folding spring: primary'. Contains notes and calculations, 1957-58. Folder labelled 'Locust thoracic mechanism in relation to the evolution of winged insects. February 1957'. draft dated 27 February 1957. Preliminary summary, Contains miscellaneous notes and a Folder labelled 'On evolution of winged insects’. Contains notes and drawings, and drafts for a paper delivered at the Fifteenth International Congress of This was probably the first Zoology, July 1958. announcement of the discovery of resilin which was not given the name until 'a new rubberlike component of insect cuticle’ and 'a protein, probably of a new type’. is referred to here as later. It See also F.11. For further material on resilin see Section C. Miscellaneous notes relating to Part VII. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Earlyworkandresearchon locustflight B.138-B. 142 Parts VINI_andIX B.138 'Lift and metabolic Background notes to Part VIIi, rate of flying locusts', published in J. exp.Biol, Most of the notes in this folder were written 1964. in 1963 but there are also laboratory notes and graphs dated 1952, 1953. Notes on evaporation of water during flight. notes are in Danish, paginated 1-23, undated but They are annotated in red ‘For possibly c.1952. part VIII and ventilation papers’. The 'Studies on the energetics of locust flight’. corrected typescript of a lecture given in Bristol, April 1954 (see E.34). 'IX' along with B.141 below. This was in a folder marked Heavily- Miscellaneous material relating to Part IX. includes an undated ms. draft in Danish on the energetics of flight, various notes, drawings and graphs, and 1] pp. of aerodynamic calculations in another hand. Folder Folder also includes brief correspondence about Original typescript of a paper 'The flight of locusts’. by Weis-Fogh published in ScientificAmerican (1956). The typescript differs considerably from the published version which was heavily edited (see letter from Weis- is included here Fogh to J.W.S. Pringle, B.124). because it was originally filed with papers for Part IX above. the article, 1954-56. for these 3 parts. 2 sets of notes dated 8 and 12 August 1970 headed Lists 6 or 7 possible ‘Revision of Parts VI, VII, papers to be derived from material already assembled It IX'. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 SECTION C RESEARCH IN COPENHAGEN1957-66 C.1 - C.103 The material is presented as follows: Coo =e, oe Early work on resilin, 1957-64 C2) = 30a Other research (mainly on insect physiology), 1958-65 G.dbjek” C.103 Research on the properties of resilin and elastomers in insects, 1964-66. (Includes correspondence to 1969.) Section C roughly corresponds with the period during which Weis-Fogh was Professor of Zoophysiology at Copenhayen 1958-66, although there is some material that overlaps with Section B (see, e.g., C.1 - C.6, C.20). Weis-Fogh's work on muscle and elasticity in Cambridge for Parts V - VII of the 'Biology and Physics of Locust Flight' led to the discovery in 1958 of a new rubberlike protein in insect cuticle which was later named Weis-Fogh also worked on several aspects of insect physiology including the tracheal system and muscle action potential in locusts (see C.12 - C.30). A grant from the United States Air Force European Office of Aerospace (see especially C.5 for material on nomenclature) and, more indirectly, in the latter part of Section B. Research during the years at Copenhagen was mainly Research in 1965 helped to support further investigations of resilin through different resilin. Background material to this discovery may be found at C.1 - C.6 devoted to an investigation of the physical and chemical properties of resilin, but types of microscopy, and the results of some of this research appear at C.37 - C.103. G:A6, 6.29, G87 10, G.95.-C.99, G12, Gt 133. The work was continued in Cambridge after Weis-Fogh's appointment to the Chair of Zoology in 1966 (see D.1 - D.26). Further material on resilin is to be found at E.39-E.44, E.49, E.52, SyOepsOoe BiG, Feely Pa opi) 215. bs ep. Fe 27dete 00, eae, Gace, T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen EARLY WORK ON RESILIN 1957-64 Photographs. Water content. Folder labelled 'Rubberlike materials. Morphology and function’. Histology. The photographs have been removed (see C.6 below) but the other contents remain, describing experiments, 1957-58, on the elastic tendon of various insects, including locusts. There are also some notes on the histology of Aeshna elastic tendon dated 5 January 1960. Folder labelled 'Elastic tendon. Contains notes on experiments with elastic tendon from Aeshna cyanea and Aeshna grandis, Primary material’. 1957-58. Folder labelled 'Experiments with prealar arm'. Contains laboratory notes and comments on experimental results, June 1958. Folder labelled 'Damping of prealar arm'. laboratory notes, diagrams and calculations, July-September 1958. Contains It. [Latina resilio - This refers to the naming of the Folder labelled 'Elastic material: Chemistry and digestion’. On the front of the Contains notes on experiments 1957-60. folder, in Weis-Fogh's hand, is written 'Resilin. to spring back, to rebound’. new protein discovered by Weis-Fogh in 1958 (see B.136). Also included is a Xerox copy of a paper on resilin by K. Bailey and Weis-Fogh published in Biochim.Biophys.Acta, 1961, in which it is stated that the name was suggested by Professor D.S. Robertson, Cambridge. which were originally attached with sellotape. Envelope containing photographs of prealar arm and elastic tendon and some data re conditions for photography, etc., This may originally have been filed with the other 1958. contents of C.1 above. Large notebook labelled 'Resilin. laboratory notes and drawings 1959-61 and many empty pages. Includes set of notes headed'First successful "taming"/stabilization of resilin' 17 February 1961. There are several loose pages T. Weis-Fogh. Contains T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen Material relating to paper 'A rubber-like protein in insect cuticle’ (J.exp.Biol. 1960), referredto by Weis-Fogh as Includes graphs, drawings, notes and a few 'Resilin I'. photographs, 1959-60, with ¢ copy of Weis-Fogh's letter submitting the paper for publication. Material relating to paper 'Thermodynamic properties of resilin, a rubber-like protein’ (J.mol.Biol. 1961). paper is referred to by Weis-Fogh as Resilin IV (later changed to Ill). This Folder labelled (in Danish) 'Elastic tendon. Thermo-elasticity'. Contains notes, graphs, calculations and experimental data, 1958-60, collected together as a basis for the figures illustrating the paper. Folder containing similar material to the above, 1959-61, including parts of a ms. draft of the paper and correspon- dence with the Editor of the Journal of Molecular Biology oe. 1961. Material relating to paper 'Onthe structure of resilin' by G.F. Elliott, A.F. Huxley and T. Weis-Fogh (J.mol.Biol. 1965). Folder includes: Correspondence with G.F. Elliott and G.N. Ramachandran (Weis-Fogh's carbon only). Ms. drafts in Weis~Fogh's hand including one dated 12 September 1964 with corrections by Elliott and himself. Miscellaneous background notes and photographs. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Researchin Copenhagen CH12-€ 0 OTHER RESEARCH (MAINLY ON INSECT PHYSIOLOGY) 1958-65 oe ¥- Large notebook labelled ‘Muscle and nerve. (Microscopy until 19.7.61). T. Weis-Fogh'. Much of the book is empty, but there are some notes in English and Danish and diagrams of experimental apparatus at the front. 19.1.61.-64. Large notebook labelled 'Microscopy. Torkel Weis-Fogh'. he book is largely empty, but the first few pages contain notes on techniques for various types of microscopyin English and Danish, 1961, 1962, 1965, 1968-69. Started 1987.61. Notes, graphs, diagrams and calculations re muscle. They are prefaced bya letter from Weis-Fogh in Danish dated 3 November 1960 beginning 'Dear E.G. EErik Gettrup J Herewith the "data book" with the insertion "Experiment 15 Folder also includes Weis-Fogh's removed for calculation". ‘Comments on Gettrup's calculations’ 18 February 1961, 'Exp. 15' with corrections and a ‘Scheme for revision' possibly in Gettrup's hand. CeO Their collaborative workis C.18 Laboratory notes on muscle experiments, 1960. Folder contains: Work with D.M. Wilson on locust muscle. D.M. Wilson worked in Weis-Fogh's laboratory 1959-60 and Weis-Fogh spent 3 weeks with him at Berkeley, November- December 1961, in order to write up a joint paper (see C.19) which was published in 1962. well documented in the following items. See also under Wilson in Index of Corres pondents. in mesothorax of Schistocerca gregaria’. 'Post mortem dissections'. "Miscellaneous flight recording situations’. Ms. notes by Wilson and Weis-Fogh. Laboratory notes re filming of 'pronator-supinator action Typescript description of experimental aims and techniques with additional notes by Wilson and Weis-Fogh. 'Muscle action potential recordings', 16 June-8 September 1960. Typescript laboratory notes. Laboratory notes in Wilson's hand. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Coper Various notes on experimental results by Weis-Fogh and Wilson, August-September 1960, including records of a discussion 10 September 1960. ‘Summary of results to date on dorsal longitudinal flight muscle of metathorax of Schistocerca gregaria’ by A.C. This summary was presumably Neville, 6 October 1961. written for Weis-Fogh's visit to Berkeley laterin the year. Neville worked in Weis~Fogh's laboratory September- December 1959 and 1961-63. of Correspondents. See C.20-C.22 and Index Typescript of the above with annotations by Weis-Fogh and Wilson, and some photographs and drawings. ‘Patterned activity of co-ordinated motor units, studied Summary of in flying locusts. experimental results, and outline for draft of the joint Typescript with annotations by Weis-Fogh and paper. Wilson and some additional ms. notes by Weis-Fogh dated 2 December 1961. Berkeley 1.12.61 .' Work with A.C. Neville 1959-65. Odonata’. Folder labelled 'Functional morphology. Includes: 'Statement on joint work concerning homologies in locust and dragonfly pterothorax by A.C. Neville There and T. Weis-Fogh, 30th November 1959". is another copy of this, with figures, at G.82. Notes on dragonflies labelled 'A~E' 1957-58. Note E is headed 'TWF - Neville - discussion Cambridge 11.2.58'. Several pages of notes, November 1959, headed 'TWE - Neville - discussion’. onlocust flight muscle! (J.exp. Biol. 1963). See also under Neville in Index of Correspondents. Folder labelled 'Neville and Weis-Fogh. Tp. and flight muscle 1962'. and two drafts of a joint paper Contains notes, graphs, calculations 'The effect of temperature T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen Envelope containing typescript draft of a paper by Ak. Neville 'Circadian organization of chitin in some insect letter from skeletons', with comments by Weis-Fogh and Neville to accompany the ms., 22 April 1965. A draft of Weis-Fogh's reply appears on both sides of the envelope. Also included is a set of photographs with typescript captions. Notes on ‘Aeshna flight muscles. Weis-Fogh paginated these notes but later put some of them out of sequence. incorporate some earlier material. They mostly date from 1962 but may Tracheal supply’. ‘October 1962-December 1962. paginated 1-70. Diffusion’. Set of notes Further material on diffusion, December 1962. calculations, notes, diagrams and a set of notes in Danish. Includes 4 sets of notes as g fF t ‘Functional design of thetracheal systemof flying insects Typescript with ms. as compared with the avian lung'. corrections of paper published in J.exp.Biol. 1964. Included is correspondence with V.B. Wigglesworth, 1963-64. Notes on insectflight, 1960, 1963. follows: Folder marked 'Original material for Tracheal System! (in Notes, drawings, photographs, etc., 1949-62. Danish). re airscrews. 6 pp. in Danish, but headed ‘Current problems in research, etc. etc.', 3 April 1960. Set of notes in English headed ‘Flapping flight. Dimensional considerations’, 8 January 1963. Set of notes in English headed 'Lift and sower' 13 May 1963. 3 pp. notes, undated, headed 'Three limitations each with ownset of rules’. Also included here are some undated notes and calculations T. Weis~Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen Folder containing miscellaneous notes and diagrams re equipment and techniques,mostly 1962-64, but some undated andprobably earlier. Typescript in Danish 'Carbohydrate in haemolymph of Schistocerca gregaria’ signed 'Svend Olav Andersen, 11 April1962'. For further material re Andersen, ee ' see Index of Corres ondents. Pp T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen GigeG 10g RESEARCH ON THE PROPERTIES OF RESILIN AND ELASTOMERS ININSECTS 1964-66(includes correspondenceto1969) C.31-C.3 European Office of Aerospace Research. United States Air Force Grant to Weis-Fogh for research on 'Properties ofresilin and elastomers in insects', 1965-69. The work was begun in Copenhagen and continued in Cambridge after Weis-Fogh's appointmentto the Chair of Zoology in 1966. Correspondence 1964-65, mainly withofficials of the European Office of Aerospace Research. Fogh's application for the grant and a copy of the contract. Correspondence 1966, mainly re conditions for transferring research work to Cambridge in Autumn 1966, and routine administrative matters. Includes Weis~ Correspondence 1967-69. Invoices, Accounts, etc. 1965-69. Notes re equipment, quotations, catalogues, etc. Progress reports on research, submitted by Weis-Fogh to European Office of Aerospace Research, 1965-69, with some background material. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen C.37-C. 103 The following items contain the results of a compre- hensive surveyof resilin using different types of microscopy All the work was done and comparing the results obtained. in Copenhagen 1965-66. Items C.37 - C.96 consist of photographs of the locust i ar prealar amandwing hinge viewed underthe electron microscope. The photographs are grouped in envelopes bearing their numbers the date, and notes in Danish (not in Weis-Fogh's hand) re type and provenance of section, magnification, and any pointsof re photographic interest in the photographs. conditions, etc. are included inside the envelope. Other data uv c f t The photographs are presented as received but it will be seen that the sequence of numbers is not complete. The reason for this is not known. 379-398 410-429 433-452 28.6.65. 14.7.65. 28.8.65. 24.9.65. 24.9.65. 24.9.65. &. 10.635. 495-514 516-533 536-555 455-466 469-480 587-606 608-627 3 Rt0e. Sint Ons 21.10.65. Parts of 512-533, at greater magnification + is Gos 21.10.65. 24.11.65. 24.11.65. Za: peas 23. 11260+ 21.10.65. 21.10.65. 764-783 786-797 677-682 688-707 629-648 650-669 +1. 13260. 713-732 734-742 743-762 8.11.65. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen e CG C c. e © CG G . e C Cc Cc 829-847 23-30 31-50 51-63 68-87 89-107 130-149 151-170 172-190 191-207 208-227 305-311 318-327 Cy 330 (000-011) 4.1.66. BD. 1-60. 26.1.66. af ii 06. 2 62 100% 212-06: 17 2060. lhe 66. 10.2. 00. 12.06, 2112.00. 8.3.66. 2a Smith, S. LOe7x t Ségaar a .. Cc Sotavolta, ce. 1957 1957 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Stegwee, D. on Hydrophilus beetles Taube &. Taylor, B. Thamdrup, H. M. (in Danish and English) Theron; J. Ws Thurm, U. Treloar, Lyk. on resilin Tucker, V. A. Turner, B. M. (in Germanand English) 1962-64 1961-62 1966, 1973 19a, 1951-53, 1956- 57 1965 1956 1959, 1961 1965, 1969 / 1962-63 1949, 1961, 1964-66 1969 1958, 1961 Tuxen, S».. 4; (in Danish) Vague, J. Vogel, S. Tyson, d2°8. Ussings-H.,,.. 1. Uvorov, Sir Boris & Vincent). Fee V. on locust cuticle on high flying locusts. See also D.42 1961-62; 1965, 1967 1968-69 1963-65, 1973- ID onrespiration of flying insects Wainwright, S. A. on insect flight on locusts Wald, G. Von Brand, T. 1966 1972 1963-65 1952 Waje, E. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Waterhouse, D. F. Waterman, T. #H. The Wellcome Trust 1960-65,:1969;, ae) 1962, 1964 Westergaard, M. (in Danish) 1959-61, 1969 Wiersma, C.. A. G. (Weis-Fogh's carbons only) .144,G.145 G.144 Wigglesworth, Sir Vincent 1953-56, 1959-60 G.145 1961-63, 1967 . 146 Wilkie, D. Wilkin’. R. «J. 1953, 1956, 1960-61 1953-56, 1959-63, bias 1972 1968-70, 1972- 74 Wingstrand, Karl G. (in Danish) 1958, 1964 on elastin Zebe, Exo 1973 1969 1961-&2 1964 Wark oti. $< on insect flight Yannas, John B. Wootten, Robin J. Yurkiewiez, William J. . 169 -170 Oliver and Boyd Limited OxfordBiologyReaders Polymer 1967-68 1969-75 1972, 1974 1965-72 1969-71 1974 .171, G.172 Miscellaneous shorter correspondence. Not indexed. 1956-76 Griz] A-E F-T Invitations to Weis~Fogh from colleagues to write books/ articles, serve on editorial boards, etc. Brief unindexed correspondence re 2 articles by Weis- Fogh published in Politiken, March 1965. In Danish T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence G.175-G.181 References and appointments. 1960-75 7 folders in alphabetical order. F175 176 HAEe .178-G. 180 181 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence G.182-G.197 Shorter scientific correspondence. The coritents of each folder are in alphabetical order. ~ Not indexed. G.182-G.184 Arrangements forvisits to and from colleagues; requests to work in Weis-Fogh's laboratory. GAB? Fn G.182 D~'L 100 MZ G.185-G.187 Reprint requests and exchanges. Some letters contain very brief personal references. 1948-75 G85: A= G G.186%. H.-.O Gora ee 2 1956-74 G.190 1950-75 1962-65 G.188 G.189 @. tY! G.192 G.193 G.194 Correspondence re external examining of theses. Requests for advice on academic appointments. Postcards requesting reprints from Weis-Fogh. Unsorted Requests for information or advice on research methods, specimens, etc. Requests for permission to quote or reproduce material in Weis-Fogh's publications. 1968-75 Correspondence with firms and individuals re supply of laboratory equipment, etc. Miscellaneous Danish correspondence. Fogh's carbonsonly. Correspondence with societies re subscriptions dates of meetings, etc. In English and Danish. t | I Brief exchanges of correspondence with colleagues. Letters from members of the public. Mainly Weis- 1953-66 1962-75 1954-71 1949-73 1959-70 G.195 G.196 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS This list is essentially the one produced by the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, with a few editorial alterations in the interests of consistency, and some additional bibliographical indications in the case of the more recent publica- tions. A copyof the original on whichthis list is based is included in A.4. Papers in brackets refer to work carried out in association with Weis-Fogh and of particular relevance to his research, but of which he was not co-author. A collection of reprints of most of Weis-Fogh's publications can be found in g P p BivDe Note: For other publications by Weis-Fogh, not included in this list, see Ay)2,D.32, 0.34, F.38; GPE Na. 1a. T. T. T. T. Weis-Fogh, Ecological investigations on mites and (1948). collemboles in the soil. Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, T. (1951). Nat.Jutland 1, 135-270. Vandregrdshoppernes flugtfysiologi. An aerodynamic sense organ in locusts. August Krogh. Ent.Medd. 25, 435-445. (1950). Nat.Verd.Kbh. 34, 19-26. (1949). regulating flight in locusts. An aerodynamic sense organ stimulating and Nature, Lond. 164, 873. (1950). Proc. VIII Int.Congr.Ent. 1948, 584-588. Phil. Trans. B. 237, 1-36. desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) before, during and after flight. (1952). locusts (Schistocerca gregaria Forskaal). Fat combustion and metabolic tate of flying flight of locusts. J.exp.Biol. 29, 211-219. (1952). A roundabout for studying sustained Krogh, A. & Weis-Fogh, T. Krogh, A. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1951). The respiratory exchange of the J.exp.Biol. 28, 344-357. Weis-Fogh, T. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 (1952). Dansk oversigt til 8. Weis~Fogh, T. (1952). Trans. IX Int.Congr.Ent. 1, 341-347. Weight economy of flying insects. Weis-Fogh, T. The ventilatory mechanism during flight of insects (1956). in relation to the call for oxygen. Zool.1953, 283-285. Proc. XIVInt.Congr. M Haarl8v, N. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1953). A technique for studying the undisturbed microscopical texture of soils. Oikos, 4, 44-57. Haarl’v, N. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1956). A technique for studying the undisturbed microscopical texture of soils. Proc. XIV Int.Congr. Zool. 1953, 409. Weis-Fogh, T. (1954). 29-31. Anmeldelse af Boas-Thomsen. Nat.Verd.Kbh. Haarldyv, N. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1955). studying the undisturbed texture ofsoils. ed. D.K.McE. Kevan, 429-432. A microscopical technique for Soil Zoology, Weis-Fogh, Buchthal, F. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1956). Contribution of the sarcolemma flight. review. Weis-Fogh, T. (1956). Biology and physics of locust flight. (1956). Biology and physics of locust Basic principles in insect flight. A critical The flight of locusts. Sci.Amer. 194, 116-124. to the force exerted by the resting muscle of insects. Acta physiol. scand. 35, 345-364. Weis-Fogh, T. & Jensen, M. 1. Phil.Trans. B, 239, 415-458. Il. Flight (1956). performance of the desert locust. (Schistocerca gregaria). Phil.Trans.B, 239, 459-510. XX Congr. Int.Physiol. 1956, 954-955. Elastic properties of the insect thorax. (1956). Demonstration at the Royal Society London, 10 May & 21 June Biology andphysics of locust flight. (1956). on sensory mechanisms in locust flight. 553-584. (1956). Mechanical activity of locust flight muscle during tetanus and twitch, Weis-Fogh, T. & Buchthal, F. IV. Notes Phil.Trans. B, 239, 1956. T. T. T. Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, T. Weis~Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 22. eee Weis-Fogh, T. (1956). Tetanic force and shortening in locust flight muscle. JacxpBiol. 33,: 668-684. Buchthal, F., Weis-Fogh, T. & Rosenfalck, P. (1957). Twitch contractions of isolated flight muscle of locusts. 39, 247-276. Acta physiol.scand. Weis-Fogh, T. Elasticity in arthropod locomotion: A neglected (1959), subject illustrated by the wing systems of insects. XV_Int.Congr. Zool. 1958, 393-395. Weis-Fogh, T. (1960). J.exp.Biol. 37, 889-907. A rubber-like protein in insect cuticle. Bailey, K. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1961). Amino acid composition of a rubber- like protein, resilin. Biochim.Biophys.Acta, 48, 452-459. Weis-Fogh, T. Power in flapping flight. The Cell and the (1961). Organism, ed. J.A. Ramsay & V.B. Wigglesworth. Cambridge University Press, 283-300. Wilson, D.M. (1961). J.exp.Biol. 38, 471-490.) The central nervous control of flight in a locust. (1960). dragonflies. J.exp.Biol. 37, 631-656.) Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, T. T. T. Neville, A.C. Aspects of flight mechanics in anisopterous Thermodynamic properties of resilin, a rubber- Molecular interpretation of the elasticity of (1961). resilin, a rubber-like protein. (1963). Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 36, 90-101. Properties of resilin, a rubber-like protein. (1961). like protein. J.mol.Biol. 3, 520-531. Nordisk Medicin, 69, 180. V. Strength andelasticity of locust cuticle. Phil.Trans.B, 245, 137-169. Zoofysiologisk Laboratorium B og dets arbejdsomraader . motor units studied in flying locusts. J.exp.Biol. 39, 643-667. Nature,Lond. 193, 498-499.) Thoracic proprioceptors in flight system of locusts. Wilson, D.M. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1962). Jensen, M. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1962). Biology and physics of locust flight. Patterned activity of co-ordinated J.mol.Biol. 3, 648-667. Weis-Fogh, T. (1963). Gettrup, E. (1962). T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 (36. Andersen, 5.O. (1963). Characterisation of a new type of cross-linkage in resilin, a rubber-like protein. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 69, 249-262.) Hoarldv, N. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1962). A microscopical techniquefor studying the undisturbed structure of soils. J.fUr Pflanzenerndhrung, Dungung, Bodenkunde, 99, 140-144. Neville, A.C. Motor unit distribution of the dorsal longitudinal (1963). flight muscle in locusts. J.exp.Biol. 40, 123-136.) Neville, A.C. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1963). on locust flight muscle. The effect of temperature J.exp.Biol. 40, 111-121. Wilson, D.M. & Gettrup, E. (1963). A stretch reflex controlling wingbeat frequency in grasshoppers. J.exp.Biol. 40, 171-185.) Neville, A.C. Neville, A.C. Daily growth layers in locust rubber-like cuticle (1963). influenced by an external rhythm. 177-186.) J.Ins.Physiol. 9, (1963). in locust rubber-like cuticle. Growth and deposition of resilin and chitin J.Ins.Physiol. 9, 265-278.) Neville, A.C. Gettrup, Gettrup, E. E. (1963). in locusts. J.exp.Biol. 40, 323-333.) Phasic stimulation of a thoracic stretch receptor (1963). 59, supp!. 213, 159-160. Diffusion in insect wing muscle. Acta physiol.scand. (1963). Actaphysiol .scand. 59, supp!. 213, 107-108.) Daily growth zones in insect skeletons. (1963). Information carried by single impulses from a unicellular stretch receptor. Actaphysiol.scand. 59, supp!. 213, 46-47. ) Acta chem.scand, 17, 869.) (1963). cross~linkages between the peptide chains inresilin, a rubber-like protein. andtyrosine in the cross-linkages of a protein, resilin. Actaphysiol scand. 59, suppl. 213, 15.) (1963). grasshopper populations. Oikos, 14, 1-8.) Daily growth layers for determining the age of Andersen, $.O. & Kristensen, B. (1963). Incorporation of phenylalanine Andersen, $.O. Two fluorescent amino acids which function as Weis~Fogh, T. Neville, A.C. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 50. Weis-Fogh, T. Resilin, a rubber-like protein andits significance. (1963). Aspects of protein structure, ed. G.N. Ramachandran. Academic Press, 337-341. Geitrup, E. & Wilson, D.M. (1964). The lift-control reaction of flying locusts. J.exp.Biol. 41, 183-190.) Weis-Fogh, T. Weis-Fogh, T. (1964). tissue known, Diffusion in insect wing muscle, the most active J.exp.Biol. 41, 229-256. Biology and physics of locust flight. (1964). and metabolic rate of flying locusts. 257-271. VIII. J.exp.Biol. 41, Lift Weis-Fogh, T. Functional design of the tracheal system of (1964). flying insects as compared with the avéan lung. J.exp.Biol. 41, 207-227. Andersen, $.O. & Weis~Fogh, T. (1964). Resilin. A rubber-like protein in arthropod cuticle. Academic Press, 1-65. Adv.Ins.Phys. 2, Andersen, S.O. (1964). and trityrosine. Biochim.Biophys.Acta, 93, 213-215.) The cross-links in resilin identified as dityrosine Weis-Fogh, T. Weis-Fogh, T. Gettrup, E. Control of forewing twisting by hindwing Proc. XII Int.Congr.Ent. 1964, Control of basic movements in flying insects. (1965). receptors in flying locusts. 190-192.) Elliott, G.F., Huxley, A.F. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1965). of resilin. J.mol.Biol. 13, 791-795. (1965). Proc. XI Int.Congr.Ent. 1964, 186-188. Elasticit% and wing movements in insects. (1964). Symp.Soc.Exp.Biol. 18, Homeostatis and feedback mechanisms, 343-363._ Je Ins. Physsiol. 12, 173-177.) (1966). eae of tyrosine into the rubber-like cuticle of locusts (1966). Covalent cross-links in a structural protein, resilin. 1965). Quart. J.micr.Sci. 106, 269-286.) Chitin lamellogenesis in locust cuticle. studied by autoradiography. Neville, A.C. ' g On the structure Andersen, $.O, Kristensen, B.I. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Gettrup, E. (1964). J.exp-Biol. 44, 1-16.) Sensory regulation of wing twisting in locusts. Neville, A.C. (1966). skeletons. Circadian organisation of chitin in some insect Quart.J.micr.Sci. 106, 315-325.) Coles; G.C. Weis~Fogh, T. (1966). 12, 679-691.) Studies on resilin biosynthesis. J.lns.Physiol. Resilin as compared withelastin. Structureand (1965). Function of Connective andSkeletal Tissue, ed. S. Fitton Jackson, R.D. Harkness, S. M, Partridge&& G.R. Tristam. Butterworths; 101-105. Andersen, S.O. (1965). in resilin, a rubber-like protein. Structure:and biogenesis of the cross-links Ibid., 105-109.) Weis~Fogh, T 65). (19 373-375. Mechanical properties of insect cuticle. lbid., Weis-Fogh, T. Nattergal og forsker, Forsker og kejser (1965). (reprinted from Politiken, 28 & 29 March 1965). Tre Kronikker, Politikens Redaktion, 17-30. Weis-Fogh, T. Weis-Fogh, T. Kristensen, B.I. Weis-Fogh, T. Staten maa investere i talentet. Weig-Fogh, T. Metabolism and weight economy in migrating Metabolism and weight economy in migrating (1967). and other flying insects. J.exp.Biol. 47, 561-587. Respiration and tracheal ventilation in locusts (1967). Insects and animals, particularly birds and insects. Physiology, ed. J.W.L. Beament & J. E. Treherne. Oliver & Boyd, 143-159. (1967). Symposiaof the animals, particularly birds and insects. Swedish Nutrition Foundation, V, Nutrition and physical activity. Almgvist & Wiksells. Academic Press, 671-684. (1968). rubber-like cuticle of locusts. J.Ins.Physiol. 14, 1135-1140.) Time course of incorporation of tyrosine into of elastin, Chemistry and Mo —euler Biology ofth Intercellular Matrix, Vol.I, ed. E.A. Balazs. Comparisons of isolated andin vivo Nature. Lond. 222, 689-691. Forer, A. & Goldman, R.D. (1969). mitotic apparatuses. Weis~Fogh, T. & AndersenS.O. (1970). Elasticity and the rmogyaeimies T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 78. Weis-Fogh, T. (1970). Ultrastructure, ed, A.C. Neville. Structure and formation of insect cuticle. Blackwell, 165-185, Insect Soa Weis-Fogh, T. & Andersen, S.O. (1970). New mclecular model for the long-range elasticity of elastin. Naiure. Lond. 227, 718-721. 80. Weis-Fogh, T. Weis-Fogh, T Flying Insects and Gravity. Gravityeand the (1971). Organism, ed. S.A. Gordon & M.J. Cohen. of Chicago Press, 177-184 Univer sity (1972). andin Drosophila. Energetics of hovering flight in hummingbirds J.exp.Biol. 56, 79-104. Weis-Fogh, T. & Amos, W.T. (1972). Evidence for a new mechanism of cell motility. Nature, Lond. 236, 301-304. Weis-Fogh, T. Quick estimates of flight fitness in hovering (1973). animals, including novel mechanisms for lift production. J.exp.Biol. 59, 169-230. Moreton, R.B., Echlin, P., Gupta, B.L., Hall, T.A. & Weis-Fogh,.T. Preparation ge frozen hydrated tissue sections (1974). for X-ray microdnclyets.tin the scanning electron microscope. Nature.Lond. 247, 113-115. Weis-Fogh, T. Weis~Fogh, T. Weis-Fogh, T. Spcsmonemes, a new contractile system. Principles of contraction in the spasmonemeof Energetics and aerodynamics of flapping Symp.Roy.Ent.Soc. Lond. 7, Insect flight. (1975). flight. Blackwell, 48-71. (1975). CIBA Foundation Symposium, 31, Energy transformations in biological systems. Agsociated Scientific Publishers, an 277 5 Pergamon Press, 481-492. (1975). Comparative Vorticellids, a new contractile system. PhysiologBy=FunelhionalAspectsofStructural Matericls, 6d L.«Bolis, North Chee Ul 98. Flapping flight and power in birds andinsects, (1975). conventional and novel mechanisms. Swimming andF lying in Nature, Vol.2, ed. T.Y.-T. Wu, C.J. Brokaw & C.Brennan, PlenumPublishing Corporation, 729-762. Pers pec tiv es in E xpe rime “nta | Biology, Vol. 1 ed, P. Spencer Davies. Animal flight, where do we go from here? . Maddrell, & K. Schmidt-Nielsen, Weis-Fogh, T. (1976). Weis-Fogh, T. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 90. Routledge, L.M., Amos, W.B., Gupta, B.L., Hall, T.A. & Weis-Fogh, T. Microprobe measurements of calcium (1975). binding in the contractile spasmonemeof avorticellid. J. Gell: 1 S01. 19, 19s-2) e Routledge, L.M., Amos, W.B., Yew, F.F. & Weis-Fogh. T. (1975). Newcalcium-binding contractile proteins. Cold Spring Harbor Conferences in Cell Proliferation, 3, Gell motility. Ts te Amos, W.B., Routledge, L.M., Weis-Fogh, T. & Yew, F.F. (1975). The spasmoneme and calcium-dependent contraction in connection with specific calcium-binding proteins. Symp.Soc.Exp.Biol. 30. Weis-Fogh, T. Novel mechanisms for the generation of ft in flying animals. Sci.Amer. 233, 80-8 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 INDEXOFCORRESPONDENTS ABBOTT, Bernard C. ADRIAN, Richard Hume, Baron Adrian of Cambridge G.] ALEXANDER, R. McNeill fous, te Ore Gia, CO. tae ALEXANDROWICZ, J. ALLEN, Robert D. AMOS, W._ Brad ANDERSEN, Svend Olav G.3 F.6] F.61, G.87. See also F.56, O.@7; D.39; €:43; F448 Di28, E.445-F 521, Rede. 3} G.8, Gy9S. Gila, G15! See also C.30, D.26, D.27, Ps de Ts OF APPLETON, T. ARCHER, B.% D: ATYEO, Warren T. A.14 CAS Gis AUTRUM, H. AgzsAz; So A. G.160, G.161 BARER, R. : G.Vs Gore D.62 G.10 G.7 G.45 G.8 BAILEY, Kenneth BAFRENDS, Gerard P. BALDWIN, Ernest H. F. BAYRONOGLU, Saadet BATCHELOR, George Keith BEAMENT, James William Longman ior BENNET-CLARK, H.C. BEENAKKERS, A. M._ Th. BENSON, Constantine W. G.t2 G.12 G.12 BENNETT, Leon F.68 D.44 A.10, G.11 P.68,.G.26 BECH, Knud BELLAMY, D. BERG, Kajm T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 BERGER, Martin BERNAYS, Elizabeth BERNHARD, C. G. BERRIDGE, Michael J. BERRILL, Maurice BIEMANN, K. BIGGS, William D. BLIX, Gunnar BOETTIGER, Edward G. BOLIS, Liana BONE, Quentin BRADLEY, Daniel John BRAMWELL, Cherrie Diane BREDSDORFF, Annelise BREDSDORFF, Elias BRENNAN, Christopher 8. See also D.25 A.16, A.21, G.16. See also A.1 F.,.55 BRIAN, Percy Wragg J. M. J. G.16 G.16 G.18 B.77 G.18 BRINK, Per BUCHTHAL, Fritz BRODSKY, A. K. BROWN, Sir (George) Lindor BRUNET, PeterD. BRUNORI, Maurizio BRUNT, Sir David BUSVINE, James Ronald BUCK, John BUCKNER, J. BUDDENBROCK, W.v. BULLOCK, Theodore H. BURTON, A. G.19, G.60. See also B.64, B 66 ; , T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 CADWELL, Sidney M. CALDER, William A. CALLAN, Harold Garnet CANNING, Elizabeth | CARNES, William H. CARO, Colin G. CARTHY, John D. CASE, James F. CHADWICK, Leigh E. CHADWICK, Owen CHAGULA, W._ K. CHANCE, Britton CHAPMAN, Dennis CHARI, Narasimha CLEMENTS Ac N. Poze ies F.65 G.24 G.25 F.47 G.25 ey E09, 10, Geile F.40 ter r. lay eer A.21, A.26 G.45 G.28 G.28 G2? Si 2F CLOUDSLEY-THOMPSON, John Leonard G2 Gal73 COHEN, Melvin J. Fenty revo COLLETT, Thomas F287; G.3] DANZER, Albert CUMBER, R. A. CURREY, John D. G.30 G.3]1 Paro CRONE, Christian CONE, Clarence D. COLES, Gerald C. CROMPTON, A. W. DANIELLI, James Frederic F..62,:F.63, G22, G. 180 F706 Baier. Mie DAVIES, P. DAVIS, RichardB. &. DE PEYER, J. DETHIER, Vincent G. DAVENPORT, Demorest G.33 G.33 G.164 G.35 A.30 Re Spencer IV a DIXON, K. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 EUNCAN, C. «J. DUPREE, A. Hunter EDINEY, ©... B. EINARSON, Larus ELDER, HughY. ELIASEN, Einar ELLENBY,..C; riya A.8 G.36 G.36 D.28 G.36 A.23 ELLIOTT, Gerald F. City ae ELLIOTT, John FANGE, Ragnar FATT, Paul FEINSINGER, Peter FELL, Dame Honor Bridget FENDIEY<3... Aa FISHER, Kenneth C. FORER, Arthur G.38 G.40 G.40 G.40 G.58 D.29;,D