WEIS-FOGH, Torkel v1

Published: 20 November, 2023  Author: admin


CONTEMPORARYSCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of TORKEL WEIS-FOGH (1922-1975) Compiled by Jeannine Alton and Julia Latham-Jackson Deposited in the Library Cambridge University All rights reserved CSAC 65/3/79 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 LIST OF CONTENTS Each Section is prefaced by an introductory note General Introduction BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL EARLY WORK AND RESEARCH ON LOCUST FLIGHT, 1941-58 B.1 - B.143 Baal “eB. 49 Early research and work in August Krogh's laboratory B.50 - B.66 Work on locust flight muscle B.67 - B.143 Locust Flight' C.1=C.103 C.1 - ©€.11 Early work on resilin Material relating to the ‘Biology and Physics of RESEARCH IN COPENHAGEN, 1957-66 in insects Research on the properties on insect physiology) Other research (mainly of resilin and elastomers C.12 - C€.30 C.31 - ©.103 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 D. RESEARCH IN CAMBRIDGE, 1966-75 Diol.— D.34 Research on resilin and elastin Material relating to the Biological Microprobe Laboratory Research on ‘Intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins' Research on animal flight Project for research on ‘Fluid dynamics in biology' CORRESPONDENCE G.1 = G.197 LECTURES, ADDRESSES, PUBLICATIONS, 1948-76 CONFERENCES, VISITS, LECTURE TOURS, 1955-75 Index of correspondents List of publications T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE COLLECTION Torkel Weis-Fogh was born in Aarhus, Denmark, in 1922, the son of a banker and accountant. In 1940 he became a student at Copenhagen University and his earliest researches were in soil microbiology. However, in 1947 he started work as research assistant to the distinguished Danish physiologist and Nobel prizewinner August Krogh, and the study of the desert locust Schistocerca Gregaria, begun in Krogh's laboratory, was to occupy Weis-Fogh for much ofhis life. After Krogh's death in 1949, Weis-Fogh continued as head of the laboratory until 1953,amassing a wealth of data relating to the flight mechanics of the desert locust (see Section B). A year at the CopenhagenInstitute of Neurophysiology was followed by four years at Cambridge with a Rockefeller Fellowship followed by a Balfour Studentship. At the endofthis period Weis-Fogh wrote to Sir James Gray: 'Hanne [Weis-Fogh'sfirst wife ] and | know very well how much we have to thank you and Lady Gray for. Cambridge just reshaped us and in such a pleasant way that we did not protest in the process. It was an immensely valuable time for us and one weshall never forget and often remember’, (See G.47.) documentedin this collection. See especially Section C. During his last year at Cambridge, in the course of his research into the work- the Latin resilire - to spring back). Both the work surrounding the discovery of in insect cuticle. The discovery was announced at the XVth International Congress of Zoology, July 1958 (see B. 136), and the protein was later named 'resilin' (from resilin and subsequent research into its physical and chemical properties are well ings of insect flight muscle, Weis-Fogh isolated a new type of rubber-like protein formation of insect cuticle, mainly carried out during 1967 - 69, led to a study Cambridge as Professor of Zoology and Head of the Department of Zoology, and this position enabled him to pursue several related research interests simultane- The years 1958-66 were spent in Copenhagen as Professor of Zoophysiology (a chair specially created for Weis-Fogh), and most of his research during that time was concentrated on analysing the new protein. In 1966 he returned to ously (see introduction to Section D). An investigation into the mode of T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 of the molecular basis of resilin and elastin, and the discovery of a new contractile mechanism in the spasmonemes of protozoa. __In connection with these studies Weis-Fogh was also instrumental in the setting up of the Biological Microprobe Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Cambridge, to develop techniques of electron- probe X-ray microanalysis on frozen-hydrated soft biological material. These projects are not so well documented as Weis-Fogh's earlier work, since much of the research was continued after his death. Weis-Fogh neverlost his early interest in the problems of insect flight and he returned to them with renewed vigour during this period. In 1973 he published a paper containing a mathematical explanation for the flight of very small insects which orthodox aerodynamic theory had been unable to account for. For back- ground material to this paper see D.48 - D.53. This discovery was named by Sir James Lighthill 'the Weis-Fogh mechanism of lift generation’. Weis-Fogh was to have collaborated with Lighthill in a major project to study biological fluid dynamics, but plans for this were interrupted by his death. For material relating to this see D.58 - D.62. Unhappily, in 1971 Weis-Fogh's wife was killed in a car accident in which suicide in Cambridge on 13 November 1975. To the end ofhis life Weis-Fogh retained strong links with Denmark. He that he ever recovered from the shock and bereavement, or indeed from the several relapses of health during this period (see especially F.45, F.61, F.65), and the obituary of Weis-Fogh by E. Bredsdorff (see A.1) mentions bouts of physical damage which he sustained. The correspondence for 1972-75 documents he himself was badly injured. Although he returned to his laboratory after only depression that at times 'could be so deep that we fearedfor his life’. Sadly these fears turned out to be only too well-founded, and Weis-Fogh committed a few months and was committed to extensive research projects, it seems unlikely In 1961 he was invited to give the Prather Lectures in Biology at Harvard remained a Danish citizen (see A.9) and maintained a cottage at Tibirke to which material in the collection is in Danish and this has normally been indicated in he returned whenever he could. He was bilingual and when thinking on paper the catalogue. He also maintained close links with colleagues in the United States. would transfer at random from English to Danish and back again. Much of the T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 University, and his subsequent tour of universities and laboratories in the US pro- vided many valuable contacts with whom he continued to maintain close ties through correspondence and through meetings at conferences and symposia (see Sections F and G). Weis-Fogh's papers were received from the Department of Zoology, by courtesy of Dr. D.A. Parry, Head of the Department, in instalments during 1978 after the removal of departmental material or that related to continuing research projects. This meant that Weis-Fogh's ordering, especially of the later correspondence, had been broken and there are some omissions (see especially Section D). However, the collection still comprises a very full range of working papers, photographs and data and some unpublished material. Weis-Fogh kept some correspondence with the papers to which it related, and this has been left in place; general scientific correspondence is presented in alphabetical order in Section G and an index of correspondents will be found on pp. 108-120. Titles and descriptions in inverted commas are those which appear on the The help of Mr. George Mewis and Mr. Barry Fuller in identifying photographs and documents, and of Dr. P.C.H.Wernberg-Mgller in advising on some of the the English reader. documents. Danish titles are usually translated or summarised for the benefit of Danish material is gratefully acknowledged. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL A.1 - A.30 Very little personal material survives. This can largely be attributed to Weis-Fogh's personal circumstances towards the endofhislife and in particular after the death of his first wife in 1971. Fortunately the correspondencein Sections F and G contains many exchangesof a more personal nature interleaved with scientific matters. Of particular interest is the correspondence in A.9 conveying Weis-Fogh's decision to retain Danish citizenship after the death ofhis first wife, even though it could have been more advantageous to his career to become a British citizen. He retained a cottage in Denmark and returned there when- ever possible for holidays or to write; many of the drafts and correspondence in the collection are headed 'Tibirke', the location of his Danish home. Material relating to Cambridge University 1966-75, when Weis- Fogh wasProfessor of Zoology and Head of the Department of Zoologyis also included here (A.10 - A.22). T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Biographical and personal Xerox copies of obituaries from The Times, Politiken (by T. Norman) and Christ's College Magazine (by E. Bredsdorff). 3 pp. typescript by J.W.S. Pringle 'The research work of Professor T. Weis-Fogh', and concluding remarks delivered by D.A. Parry at the Society for Experimental Biology Memorial Symposium to Weis-Fogh, 4 January 1977. Xerox copy of a memorial address (in Danish) by C. Overgaard Nielsen, delivered to the Royal Danish Academy, 7 May 1976. Curricula vitae, mostly prepared for entries in bio- graphical dictionaries. miscellaneous bibliographies. Folder also includes See pp.101-107 and introductory note for the most complete bibliography of Weis-Figh's scientific pub- lications. Apart Miscellaneous collection of photographs, mostly taken in August Krogh's laboratory where Weis-Fogh worked 1947-53. and several of Weis-Fogh. Includes a photograph of Krogh himself See E.75 for a collection of reprints of papers by Weis-Fogh and colleagues. really recovered. Notebook belonging to Hanne Weis-Fogh, containing laboratory notes in her hand dated 1956. from a few (mostly unsigned) carbonsofletters (see, e.g., F.12, G.4, G.8) this is the only item in the collection relating to Weis-Fogh's first wife. Her death in a car accident in 1971 was a blow from which, according to E. Bredsdorff (see A.1), Weis-Fogh never T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Bibliographical and personal Membership of societies. Correspondence re Weis-Fogh's election to the following societies: Institute of Biology 1968-69, 1971 Royal Entomological Society 1969-70 Royal Danish Academy(in Danish) 1970-71 (re transfer from Danish to foreign membership) Society of General Physiologists American Society of Naturalists 1974 1975 Correspondence re Weis-Fogh's election as a Foreign Honorary Memberof the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 1974 Weis-Fogh's reply indicates that he was con- The folder also contains an assessment by Weis-Fogh Correspondence with Otto Lowenstein who wanted to initiate Weis-Fogh's candidature for foreign member- ship of the Royal Society. Ina letter of 17 March 1971 he wrote: 'l am convinced that were you British National you would already be one ofus in the Fellow- ship, and so | feel that there is a very good chancethat your candidature will be successful in the not too distant future’. sidering applying for British citizenship at that time, but the correspondence wasinterrupted by the accident in which his wife was killed and he himself badly injured. Asa result, he decided to retain Danish nationality, while continuing to work in Cambridge because, as he wrote to Lowenstein, 'I feel a great need for continuity in my life which otherwise could become too tenuous’. of his scientific work up to 1971. Biographical and personal Cambridge University, 1966-75 Folder labelled 'Fitting of TWF rooms, 1966'. Contains correspondence (mainly with J.W.L. Beament) and plansre alterations to the professorial rooms in the Department of Zoology, Cambridge. Xerox copies of newspaper reports on an explosion in the Department of Zoology, 17 August 1970. Folder includes a letter from Weis-Fogh re temporary arrangements for a study while repairs were being carried out on the damaged floor of the building. Xerox copy of an article by Weis-Fogh about Danish Universities, entitled 'The Wizard's Cauldron’, written for the Cambridge Review, 9 May 1969. This is not mentioned in thelist of publications on pp-101-107. Cambridge Philosophical Society. Correspondence 1967-68 and 1974 (re William Bate Hardy Prize). See also G.154. (Weis-Fogh Correspondence Cryobiology Discussion Group. and notices of meetings, 1970-72. Brief correspondence Scandinavian Studies Fund. grant applications, etc. 1967-73. Correspondence re Heads of Department Dining Club. Correspondence 1967, 1973. Not indexed. re renewal of Weis-Fogh's work permit, 1968, 1969. Brief correspondence, reports, etc. re two Cambridge University Expeditions (to Malindi and Quintana Roo) of which Weis-Fogh was a patron, 1974. Society for the Application of Research. served on the Board of Advisers.) and notices of meetings, 1968-69. Correspondence with the General Board of the Faculties re leave of absence 1969-70, 1971, and Miscellaneous correspondencere university or college matters and the Department of Zoology, 1967-75. Not indexed. Correspondence re proposal to award an Honorary Degree to Mogens Fog, 1969. tributes by Weis-Fogh and E. Bredsdorff. Includes biographical Correspondence with colleagues, and with Cambridge University Registry re award of Honorary Degree to Hans H. Ussing, 1969-70. Includes biographical notes and tributes to Ussing's work by Weis-Fogh and others, and arrangements for Ussing's visit. A.23-A.26 Miscellaneous correspondence of biographical and personal interest (in alphabetical order), 1956-73. A.23 D.J. Bradley 1958 (on Weis-Fogh's wind tunnel) Sir Alan Cottrell 1973 (Weis-Fogh's carbon only) C. Ellenby 1956 (on Weis-Fogh's election to a Balfour Scholarship) O.R. Frisch 1967 (Weis-Fogh's carbon only, on mss. Sir Harry Goodwin of George de Hevesy) early botanical teachers) T.R.R. Mann 1967, 1974 Sir Alan Hodgkin 1963, 1964 Lady May Mellanby 1955 (on the death of Sir Edward 1973 (Weis-Fogh's carbon only, on his 1972 (on Weis-Fogh's second marriage) trip to Denmark with his 82-year old mother) 1973 (Weis-Fogh's carbon only, ona Lord Rothschild 1961 (on a visit to Cambridge by Weis- M.G.M., Pryor 1960 -. Nielsen U. Smith Mellanby), 1961 Fogh and his wife) T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/29 Biographical and personal A.27-A.29 Miscellaneous personal correspondence: social invitations, brief personal exchanges, etc., 1955-75. Not indexed. A.27 A.28 A.29 A-J K=R wd Folder labelled 'Plans for Sabbatical 1975/6’. Includes correspondence with D. Davenport, N.V. Kokshaysky, K. Schmidt-Nielsen and T.Y.-T. Wu, 1974-75. Several of the letters mention the highly successful symposium organised by Weis-Fogh and Sir James Lighthill in Cambridge, September 1975 (see F.66 - F.70 and introduction to Section F) and reveal him making detailed plans for research and travel less than two months before his death. See also G.69, G.139. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 SECTION B EARLY WORK AND RESEARCH ON LOCUST FLIGHT 1941-58 B.1 - B.143 The material is presented as follows: B.1l = B49 Early research and work in August Krogh's laboratory, 1941-53 B.50'=- 8.66 Work on locust flight muscle, 1953-56 B.67 - B.143 Material relating to the 'Biology and Physics of Locust Flight', 1948-58 Each sub-section is preceded by an introductory note. This Section covers Weis-Fogh's research up to the discovery in 1958 of Muchof the research done during this period remained an important basis for further experimental work, and Weis-Fogh used some of these hitherto unpub- lished results in later papers (see C.26, D.40 - D.42). The majority of the material B.136 and Section C). a hitherto unknown protein in insect cuticle, which was later namedresilin (see is in Danish and this is usually noted as part of the description of each item. Titles and descriptions in inverted commas are those which appear on Weis-Fogh's folders or notes, but the words ‘in Danish' indicate that the original title has been translated. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 B.1-B.49 EARLY RESEARCH AND WORK IN AUGUST KROGH'S LABORATORY 1941-53 Weis-Fogh's earliest scientific work, on soil micro-biology, was carried out at the Molslaboratoriet, Aarhus, while he was studying for his Mag. Scient. at Copenhagen University. The work resulted in the award in 1944 of the Gold Medal of Copenhagen University, anda paper ‘Ecological investigations on mites and collemboles in the soil' (1948) which laid new foundations for detailed research in this subject. Virtually no papers survive for this period (though see B.1). In 1947 Weis-Fogh becameresearch assistant to the distinguished Danish physio- logist August Krogh in his private laboratory at Gentofte, and on Krogh's death in 1949, Weis-Fogh became head of the laboratory until its closure in 1953. The main subject for study in the laboratory was the desert locust Schistocerca Gregaria, with which most of the papers in this Section are concerned. While Krogh's main interest was in physiology and metabolism, Weis-Fogh undertook a study of the mechanics and energetics of locust flight using a specially constructed roundabout to which specimens were attached (see B.6, B.13, B.49), and a wind tunnel of been kept as a sequence (see, e.g., B.30 - B.43). ltem B.49 relates to a film 'How locusts fly' made by Weis-Fogh and Martin tunnel under conditions sufficiently close to those of free flight to be practicalle (sic) and biologically meaningful’ (see A.9, letter to O. Lowenstein). An extensive amount of material has survived from this important period in Weis-Fogh's life which provided the foundations of his later research. Someofit was reworked andtransferred to other Sections (see C.27, D.40, D.41) but enough is presented chronologically except where a groupof items on the same subject has remains to give an idea of the quantity and variety of data collected. The material which he wrote in 1971: 'I believe | was the first to study animal flight in the wind See also A.5 for photographs of Weis-Fogh in the laboratory. Jensen in 1952 which illustrated some of the apparatus used in the laboratory and the results obtained. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 B.1 Early work and research on locust flight Small light brown notebook containing notes in Danish on experiments with flying locusts 4 September 1949-15 May 1950. These occupyonly the first few pages of the book, while the rest is empty except for one page of notes dated 16 July 1942. Inside the front cover is a list of headings relating to Weis-Fogh's earliest work on soil biology and there is evidence that some pages have been torn out. The original title of the notebook is illegible, but Weis-Fogh subsequently labelled it 'Measurement of thoracic pressure. Primary’ (in Danish). See also B.7. Also included here is correspondence re Weis-Fogh's 1948 paper ‘Ecological investigations on mites and collemboles in the soil’, mainly requests for reprints but with some scientific content (not indexed), 1948-49, 1955-64, 1972. See also G.7, G.16, G.50. Envelope labelled ‘Cuttlefish drawings’ (in Danish) with a note by Weis-Fogh'1946?'. It contains several biological drawings, presumably done while he was working for his Mag. Scient. at Copenhagen, 1941-47. There is also a much smaller envelope containing rough pencil drawings with ink notes on tiny pieces of card. These are undated. Three reports prepared for the Anti-Locust Research Centre on work in August Krogh's laboratory. They are: A.L.R.C.S.C. 13/48. laboratory of Professor Krogh, Copenhagen’. 2 pp. typescript by R.C. Rainey, 18 May 1948. ‘Report on a visit to the A.L.R.C.S.C. 7/48. 2 pp. typescript by Krogh and Weis-Fogh, 9 January 1948. ‘Research on locust flight’. powersof observation and planning of experiments’. Folder also includes a copy of a letter, dated 29 October 1947, from August Krogh to the Director of the Anti-Locust Research Centre in which he writes: 'Mr. Weiss Fogh began work on the 16th after obtaining his degree as M.Sc. on the 10th. Weiss extremely good, with much initiative and very conspicuous A.L.R.C.S.C. 14/48. ‘Report on locust research carried out in Professor Krogh's laboratory, Copenhagen, January to June 1948'. 3 pp. typescript by Krogh and Weis-Fogh, 9 June 1948. | find T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Notes and drawings mostly dated 1948, and some photographs of experimental apparatus. The work covered in this folder resulted in the publication of a paperentitled 'An aerodynamic sense organ stimulating and regulating flight in locusts’ (Nature, 1949). Folder containing anatomical drawings of locusts by Weis-Fogh. These were reproduced and the copies were used extensively by Weis-Fogh in experimental work, lecturing and published papers. Photographs of experimental apparatus, flying locusts, etc. Includes several photographsof the laboratory's wind-tunnel and of the specially constructed roundabout on which suspended locusts could be induced to fly for several hours. B.13, B.49. See also Two envelopes containing records of changes in intrathoracic pressure of a tethered 'flying' desert locust, 1949-50. See also B.1, D.40. 3 envelopes containing photographs of locusts, dated 24-26 January 1950. 2 envelopes labelled 'Schistocerca gregaria. Ventilation’ containing photographs, tables, graphs, calculations, etc., mostly dated 1950. Set of cards containing notes re conditions for photography of flying locusts and dragonflies, 1950-52. Attached to some of these are locust wings marked with white paint as described in the draft commentary to the film 'How locusts fly' which Weis- Fogh made in collaboration with the engineer Martin Jensen. (See B.49), of the first paragraph. Correspondence with K. Sawyer and N.W. Wootten re method of suspending flying locusts in the laboratory. Folder includes: Letter from Sawyer and Wootten dated 22 March 1950, enclosing several drawings. Copy of a report on their research at the Chemical Defence Establishment, Porton, dated 14 December 1949. Weis-Fogh's notes for his reply to the letter, and his draft T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Correspondence with Leigh E. Chadwick. correspondencere locust flight, 1950-52. Folder also contains notes on articles by Chadwick and others on insect flight. Detailed scientific See also G.27 for further correspondence with Chadwick. Envelope containing data re experiments with locusts flying on a specially constructed roundabout, November 1951- October 1952. See also B.6, B.49. Set of notes in Danish on wing inertia. February-March 1951 and paginated from 1-18. They are dated Further notes on wing inertia. Those at the front of the folder continue the pagination of B.14, but there are also additional diagrams, tables and calculations, mostly dated 1952. ‘Odonata. Small flight muscle under contraction' ‘Odonata. Small direct wing muscle' varying wing positions' Set of notes in Danish containing aerodynamic calculations based on data derived from photography, 22 July 1952. ‘Odonata. Pterothorax Cviewed ] from in front with The negatives of these photographs, which are filed at B.47, are dated September 1951. 3 envelopes containing photographs of dragonflies (Odonata). The envelopes are labelled (in Danish) as follows: (3 pp.) are dated 1957. Notes on dragonflies 1951, 1952, labelled (in Danish) ‘Aeshna. Flight, heat production and ventilation’. The notes have been sorted into sections at a later date and a summary added by Weis-Fogh. Notes on flight, ventilation and heat production of Vespa Crabro and Sphinx (in Danish). Most of the notes on Vespa Crabro are dated 1952 with 2 pp. of later additions. The notes on Sphinx Envelope containing photographsillustrating the anatomy of the dragonflies Sympetrium and Aeshna. negatives in B.47 dated September 1951. folder are some earlier notes and drawings, 1948, 1950. These correspond to Also included in this T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Folder containing notes, diagrams and some printed matterin Danish and English comprising a survey of the literature relating to glycogen. Laboratory records of experiments re the hydration of glycogenes, 19a. Miscellaneous notes, graphs, etc. reglycogen, some dated 1952. Ms. and typescript drafts on the subject of fuel storage and weight economy. topics in 1952 (see bibliography included in A.4). Weis-Fogh published 2 papers on these Ms. headed 'Work in progress’ dated October 1952. various lines of research currently being pursued in the laboratory, with a brief indication of their state of completion. Lists the Folder labelled 'Lift regulation’ (in Danish) containing notes and diagrams, some dated 1952, and a draft headed 'The regulation of the lift' in a mixture of English and Danish. Set of cards containing data from experiments with flying locusts. The cards are numbered 1-11 and dated 13-16 January 1953. Folder labelled 'Resistance' containing notes and graphs re locust flight experiments, many dated 1953. Folder labelled 'Vingeorgan'. Contains laboratory data re experiments to determine conditions for locust flight, dated August 1953, and brief drafts in a mixture of English and Danish headed ‘Induction of rhythmical wing movements' and ‘Wind and lift as inductive flight stimuli’. contains a graph dated 1954. Folder containing notes, graphs and experimental data (in Danish), some dated February 1950, re the effect of temperature on locust flight. Folder containing notes, graphs and experimental data (in Danish), 1948, 1949, re the effect of temperature changes on the flight performance of locusts. Laboratory records (in Danish) of experiments on thorax temperature and metabolic rate, October-December 1952. Folder also T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Notes, graphs and drawings (in Danish) for experimental work on thorax temperature, 1952. Includes information re equip- ment, etc. 1-15b headed (in Danish) 'Thorax temperature. Muus and TWF'. Fogh on this subject, 1956. Also included here is a set of notes paginated See F.6-F.8 for paper by Muus and Weis- 14.8.52. Notes and graphsre calibration of experimental equipment, December 1951-January 1953 (in Danish). Notes, tables and graphs on thorax temperature and radiation, paginated 1-60, and dated 16 December 1952- 7 January 1953 (in Danish). Notes, graphs, drawings and tables on thorax temperature, paginated la-25, and dated 7-12 January 1953 (in Danish). Undated draft in a mixture of Danish and English headed 'What can we say about radiation ?' Notes and graphs re experiments with flying locusts, 1949-50, originally includedwith B.37 above (in Danish). Laboratory notes on thorax ventilation, pages 5-54a, dated 11 April-9 June 1953 (in Danish). Laboratory notes on thorax ventilation, pages 55-118, dated 10-24 June 1953 (in Danish). Notebook labelled 'Thorax temperature versus heat production' (in Danish) containing tables and calculations dated June 1953. There are also a number of graphs on loose sheets at the front of the book. articles on insect flight, some dated 1953. Miscellaneous ms. drafts in English and Danish for a paper or papers on the metabolic rate and ventilatory mechanism of flying locusts. The folder also includes a typescript headed 'The ventilatory mechanism during flight of insects in relation to the call for oxygen', a paper delivered at the XIV Inter- national Zoological Congress, Copenhagen, 1953, and later published (see List of Publications, pp.100-107 and E.75). Notebook containing notes and drafts in Danish for various Folder headed records of experiments (in Danish). ‘July 1953. Abdominal ventilation’ containing T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Album of negatives most of which are records of laboratory work with locusts, 1948-49. Several of the negatives are annotated in Danish with details of the photographic equip- ment used, etc., and some are dated. labelled 'Album no.1. Negativ No.1-276'. The front cover is ‘Album no.2. records of laboratory work. appears on negative no.461. Negativ No.277-522', containing further The date 20 September 1950 ‘Album no.3. taken in the laboratory c.1950-52. No.523-723'. Negatives of photographs See also B.17, B.18. ‘Album no.4. No.724- taken in 1953 and 1957. ', Negatives of photographs Folder containing material re a film entitled 'How locusts fly' made by Weis-Fogh and Martin Jensen in 1952. The film was distributed by Dansk Kulturfilm and wonfirst prize for scientific documentary films at a congress in Pisa a year or twolater. lt lasted for 25 minutes and showedlocusts flying on Weis-Fogh's specially constructed roundabout (see B.6, B.13) and suspended on an aerodynamic balance in front of a wind tunnel. included a section in slow motion so that the sequence of wing positions could be observed. It The contents of the folder are as follows: Herr Erik Olsen', con- Typescript with ms. Typescript set of Danish captions. Notes in Danish re apparatus and conditions for photography, 1952. Set of English captions for the film. corrections. Envelope labelled 'Dansk Kulturfilm. taining 2 sets of photographs of flying locusts. For further material re Martin Jensen, see Index of Correspondents. Correspondence with Dansk Kulturfilm (in Danish) 1953-56, and with people wishing to show the film, 1956-71. Not indexed. Includes a letter from Weis-Figh to A. Berbenni, 7 August 1961, which contains a clear statement of the purpose and results of the film. See also G.27, G.108. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 B.50-B.66 WORK ON LOCUST FLIGHT MUSCLE 1953-56 In 1953 August Krogh's laboratory was closed down and Weis-Fogh went to work at the Institute of Neurophysiology at Copenhagen where he collaborated with Fritz Buchthal in experiments on locust flight muscle. At the end of 1954 he moved to Cambridge where he continued the experiments, and the work resulted in the publication of 3 joint papers in 1956 and 1957. Laboratory notes and data from both Cambridge and Copenhagen have survived and there are also several drafts of one of the published papers (B.64- B.66). The arrangementof the material is chronological, in so far as this is possible. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 B.50-B.55 Early work and research on locust flight The following items were originally kept together in a bulky folder labelled (in Danish) 'Muscle experiments, Cambridge’. For ease of reference some material has been removed and put into separate folders. of its more miscellaneous contents. of English and Danish, the latter being predominant. The original folder remains at B.55 with some The papers are in a mixture Not all the experimental work covered here was done in Cambridge; some of the folders contain papers dating from 1954 when Weis-Fogh wasstill working with Fritz Buchthal in Copenhagen. Notes on apparatus and method, 20 March 1954. and drawings of a vacuum myograph specially constructed for this set of experiments on muscle. Some of the drawings are in another hand. Description Set of notes dated 7 July 1954, paginated 1-8 providing a general introduction to the experiments. illustrating the principles involved, lists of symbols for mathe- matical calculations, examples of layout for tables containing results, etc. Contains sketches See also G.29. 2 undated ms. drafts: Set of notes labelled 'Tetanus. containing records of experiments April-October 1955. Shortening and force at 10-12° C', Set of notes describing experiments to determine the optimum conditions for the survival of locust flight musele once it had been dissected out, 1953-54. The majority of the notes relate to the composition of the saline in which the muscle was kept. one of whichis dated 26 January 1955. The original folder with its remaining contents, which include notes, graphs, drawings, tables, 1954-55, and 2 letters from Fritz Buchthal (see introduction to Section, p. 20). ‘Maximum force and shortening during tetanus of locust flight muscle’ (English and Danish) 'Tetanic force and shortening in locust flight muscle' T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight B.56-B.66 The following items were kept with the above folder and are obviously related to it. experiments with locust flight muscle. follow 'G' stands for ‘grasshopper’ which is Danish for locust. The majority of the material is in Danish. They all contain further data re In the titles that Folder labelled 'G.57 to G.71. at 10°C' (in Danish). data and some graphs, all undated. Average of all experiments Contains tables of experimental Folder labelled 'G.59-71. at 10°C' (in Danish). Average of all experiments Contents similar to previous folder. Folder labelled ‘Average curves at 10°C. G.63-G.71'. Folder labelled 'Average. Danish). Laboratory notes and tables. Temperature experiment’ (in Folder labelled 'Average of G.70 & 71 at different temperatures’. Contains graphs and tables. Folder containing graphs illustrating average shortening of muscle at 10°C. Folder containing graphs and tables re the abdominal muscles. Much of the material is in another hand. Folder containing typescript notes and tables dated 14 September 1954, summarising the results of some of the muscle experiments, with comments added in red, 2 August 1960. Ms. and typescript draft headed ‘Twitch contraction of isolated The draft is in flight muscle of locusts', dated 13 July 1956. a mixture of English and Danish and was very extensively revised before publication. the incomplete drafts is dated 21 November 1956. Further ms. draft of the same paper, dated July 1956, in Both English, and much closer to the published version. this and the ms. portions of B.64 above are entirely in Weis- Fogh's hand although the authorship of the paper is ascribed to him jointly with F. Buchthal and P. Rosenfalck. 2 incomplete typescript drafts of the same paper with ms. corrections and 1 copy of the finished typescript. One of T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight B.67-B.143 MATERIAL RELATING TO THE 'BIOLOGY AND PHYSICS OF LOCUST FLIGHT' The material is divided into 2 sections. B.67 - B.77 covers Parts | - V all of which were published in R. Soc. Lond. Phil. Trans. B, and B.78 - B.143 covers Parts VI - IX of which only Part VIII was published (in J. exp. Biol.), although Weis-Fogh later produced several papers based on material collected for Parts VI and VII (see, e.g., C.26, D.40-D.42). See also G.60, G.76. Parts | - V The original concept, formed in about 1952, was for a series of 10 papers to be written by Weis-Fogh in collaboration with Martin Jensen, covering all aspects of the biology and physics of locust flight. Parts | - IV were published in 1956, but the discovery of resilin by Weis-Fogh in 1958 (see B. 136 and Section C) followed by his return to Copenhagen as Professor of Zoology disrupted work on Part V with the result that it was finally published only in 1962, after major revision (see B.74 - B77}. 2 pp. ms. notes headed 'Whypositive criticism is badly needed', explaining the difficulties of getting the results of experimental work done in Krogh's laboratory into a form suitable for publica- tion. The ms. ends by itemising the material in preparation on 'The flight of locusts' as 2 papers on flight muscles, 3 on physio- logy and 10 on biology and physics 'which are in the process of preparation and are approachingtheir final stage'. The notes are undated but probably belong c. 1953-54. Ms, draft of titles for the 10 papers with an indication of the number of pages, figures and tables for each paper. differs considerably from that published with Papers | - IV in 1956. The date is probably 1953-54. The arrangement Also filed-with the above is an undated draft of a letter to the editor of the Proceedings of the Royal Danish Academy about the possibility of publishing the papers, and instructions from various journals re the form in which papers are to be submitted. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Correspondence with Weis-Fogh's collaborator, Martin Jensen, and with the Royal Society about the publication of the papers. Ms. draft of references and acknowledgements for Parts | - VIII. Folder also includes brief notes for the typist, and cards (one dated 21 March 1955) listing the number of words, legends to figures and tables for each part. ‘Basic principles in insect flight. A critical review’. Typescript draft of Part | with ms. corrections by Weis-Fogh. This draft corresponds in broad outline to the published version but there are several detailed differences. Folder also includes typescript draft of a preface to the series anda ms. introduction to Part |. Ms. and typescript The typescript, which is in Danish, has ‘The aerodynamics of locust flight'. draft of Part III]. corrections by Martin Jensen (the author of the published paper) and there is also a draft of the introduction in his hand. The first item in the folder is a heavily-corrected summary of chapter and section headings for the paper by Weis-Fogh, in a mixture of Danish and English. ‘Strength and elasticity of locust cuticle’. of Part V by Martin Jensen. notes by Weis-Fogh for Part V. Early typescript The folder also contains some For correspondencere this paper see under M. Jensen in Section G. Several drafts of the final section of the paper that was pub- lished as Part IV, although it was originally to have been Part Ill (see B.68). There are 2 uncorrected typescripts, a third typescript with extensive ms. corrections, and several ms. versions, mostly unfinished and some in Danish and/or note form. and photographs on which some of the drawings were based. Ms. of the second version of Part V written by Weis-Fogh in September-October 1958, after he had discovered resilin (see B.135) but before it had been named (see C.5). Some related notes and drawings are included at the back of the folder. Part of the typescript of Part V as sent to the Royal Society in February 1959 with the figures that were omitted from the Folder also includes the final typescript published version. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Correspondence with J.W.S. Pringle and the Royal Society, 1956, 1959-62 re preparation of Part V for publication. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight B.78-B.143 Parts VI - IX The bulk of the material in this Section relates to Part VI. Items B.78 - B.98 consist of drafts and notes for this part written c.1952-58, and these are followed by a large amount of background material (laboratory notes, etc.) which wasoriginally filed with the A few of these items overlap with material in the first part drafts. of Section B (see especially B.99 - B. 102), but most relate to ex- periments performed while Weis-Fogh was in Cambridge 1955-58. The work for Part VI on elasticity (see B. 103 - B. 132) is closely related to the experiments on locust flight muscle described in B.50 seq. There is also quite a lot of background material for Part VII, but very little for Part VIII (which was finally published in 1964) or Part IX. Part X was to have beena final summary, but there Part VI - drafts - background material The disposition of the Parts is as follows: are no traces in the collection of any draft for such a paper. Parts VI, VII, IX Part VII Part VIII Part IX T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight B.78-B.98 Part VI - drafts B.78 Early ms. notes and drafts for Part VI variously headed as follows: ‘Knowledge on the basic flight process of insects' ‘Principles of the flight system of the desert locust' 'The morphological, mechanical, and elastic principles of the flight system of the Desert Locust’ Ist 74 pp. ms., written when Weis-Fogh was at the "Principles of the flight system of the desert locust. draft'. Institute of Neurophysiology, Copenhagen (1953-54). Included in the folder is a letter dated 27 January 1954 from Weis-Fogh to T.H.C. Taylor of the Anti- Locust Research Centre in which he promises to send the first draft 'in a few days' for Taylor to read. Chapters 5 and 6 of this draft were later transferred to Part VII. Typescript of the above with corrections and alterations by Weis-Fogh. Folder labelled 'Figures for Principles of the flight system' (in Danish). Contents include rough and finished drawings, graphs and photographs numbered to correspond with the list of figures for each section in B.79 and B.80 above. Notes for a revised version of Part VI dated March 1956. This is almost certainly the draft referred to by 'Old Ms. Cambridge’. Draft of second version of Part VI, entitled 'Wing movements and elastic deformations in flying locusts'. Weis-Fogh ina note to J.W.S. Pringle dated 20 April 1956 (see B.85). 1956. Typescript of the above with corrections and comments by Weis-Fogh in Danish and English, some dated 7 September T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Primary for Folder labelled 'Elastik: for Discussion. discussion of model and comparisons with Hawk-moth and dragonfly and fly'. Contents include graphs, tables and calculations, and several ms. drafts of the Discussion whichis missing from the version of Part VI at B.83 and B.84. 1956, and a note in Weis-Fogh's hand: 'Dear John [Pringle], Here is a draft of part VI, plus the following disposition of the discussion ... The first item in the folder bears the date 20 April Yours ever, Torkel’. The model referred to in the title was exhibited at Royal Society Conversaziones in May and June 1956. See F.4, F.5. Set of notes headed 'Part VI. Wing movements and elastic deformations in flying locusts. (With a general discussion. ) (Cambridge 18.11.57.)', outlining a third draft of Part VI. This outline does not correspond with the full ms. drafts which follow. Various ms. drafts of an introduction to Part VI. Three of these are dated 28 November 1957 (with a note 'not used but some details to be extracted'), 30 November 1957 and 6 December 1957 (headed ‘Alternative Solution’). 3 ms. drafts of Chapter 2 of Part VI, dated 8, 23, 24 December 1957. Ms. draft of Chapter 4 'Wing inertia and work' and notes for tables related to this chapter. Ms. draft of Chapter 3 'Movements and morphology: the basis of analysis' written between 28 December 1957 and 18 January 1958 (although the final date is given as 18 January 1957 this is clearly a slip of the pen). Contents of folder include a few other notes that were filed with this draft. includes a set of notes on lateral stiffness, dated 31 May 1957. Several ms. drafts of Chapter 7 written between 21 February The title varies but the subjectis and 18 March 1958. elasticity, mainly of the pterothorax. One of the drafts Ms. draft of Chapter 5 ‘Quantitative approach and methods' dated 2 February 1958. notes, one of which is mostly in Danish. Folder also includes 3 sets of related Ms. draft of Chapter 6 'Reactive components and elastic efficiency'. Notes for a table are also included. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Brief ms. outline of Chapter 8, dated 18 March 1958. Typescript of Chapters 1-6 of Part VI. of each chapter are filed above (B.87-B.9.2) but the whole typescript is included here as the final and most accessible version of this unfinished and unpublished paper. Ms. versions Miscellaneous notes re Part VI. Folder containing notes, graphs, tables, calculations, drawings, etc. for the figures for the 1957-58 version of Part VI, with a few brief notes dated 1961, 1962. Envelopes containing photographs and diagrams of layout for plates for Part VI. They are labelled as follows: 'Plate 1. Simple demonstrations’ ‘Plate 2. Movements and morphology' ‘Plate 3. Types of elastic torques (mainly)' Each envelope wasalso briefly annotated in pencil in August 1961. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight B.99-B.123 Part VI - background material B.99 B.100 Folder containing notes, graphs and calculations re early experiments on elasticity, some dated May 1948. Folder labelled 'The elastic behaviour of the pterothorax of locusts (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal). Oktober-November 1953. of experiments, graphs and notes on the results. Contains records pp.1-31'. Elastik: Set of notes paginated 32-79 covering the period November 1953-March 1954, and continuing the record of experiments begun in the previous folder. bered from 5 to 11. 22 February 1954 were found with this material and are included in the folder. The experiments are num- 2 pp. of ms. notes in Danish dated Contents of folder originally labelled 'Elastik - primary 1953-55 torque of thorax (no direct use)'. Results of experiments undertaken in May 1955, and some calculations. Folder labelled 'Elastik: general concepts 1957'. Contains: Notes on the literature. Notes for the Introduction to Part VI dated 16 November 1957 3 pp. ms. notes in Danish dated May 1957 headed ‘Altering and verifying of VI' 10 pp. ms. notes in Danish and English dated 13 September 1957 re principal ideas emerging from the work for Part VI later (1958). Folder labelled ‘background for experiments 1957' contain- ing material similar to that in B.103 above, mainly in Danish. In particular there is a set of notes dated May 1957 and headed 'What have we discovered?' (in Danish). Set of papers labelled (in Danish) 'Standard stroke. wings'. 1957, though some are earlier (1953) and a few are Graphs and tables, mainly dated April-May (in Danish). of its delapidated condition. The original folder has been discarded because B.105-B.107 Contents of a folder labelled 'Elastik: standard stroke' Hind- T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Set of papers labelled (in Danish) ‘Standard stroke. Forewings'. Contents similar to those of B.105 above. Set of papers labelled 'Kinematics'. calculations, some dated 22 October 1954. Mainly notes and Folder labelled 'Elastik: ness'. 4 June 1952, a drawing, and data from experiments, May-June 1957. Contains 3 pp. of notes in Danish dated primary 1957 lateral stiff- B.109-B.111 Contents of a folder labelled 'Elastik: primary. The original folder remains at 1957'. Damping. B.109, but it has been split into 3 parts because of its bulk. in locust flight muscle, paginated 1-327. appear to be missing. It contains records of experiments on damping Pp.58-60 Pp.1-57, experiments 1-3, June 1957. There are also a few unpaginated notes and calculations in English and Danish at the front of the folder. June-July 1957. Pp.6la-193, experiments 4 and 5, Pp.194a-327, experiments 6 and 7, July 1957. Folder labelled 'Elastik: temperature’, containing notes, graphs and data from experiments performed in July 1957. in Danish. primary 1957, effect of Folder containing notes, tables and graphs summarising some of the results of experiments on damping, 1957. In Danish and English. experiments, September-October 1957. Folder labelled 'Elastik: calculations'. notes in English and Danish, paginated 1-35. page is dated 4 September 1957. folder is a group of unpaginated graphs and tables. Muscular torque: Contains diagrams, calculations and Folder labelled 'Elastik: elasticity, experimental'. The first At the back of the primary. primary, finals, passive muscle Contains graphs and data from T ...Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight various insects’. Folder labelled 'Elastik: records, in English and Danish, of experiments on Aeshna, Sphinx and Schistocerca, with graphs, calcu- lations and notes on the results. were carried out in October 1957, but there is one page of notes on Aeshna grandis dated 21 March 1971. Most of the experiments Contains Folder labelled 'Elastik: thoracic box'. October-November 1957. primary, finals. Coupled Contains graphs and data from experiments, Folder labelled 'mainly on wing inertia. interest' containing a set of notes and calculations dated 22 January 1958, and another set, possibly earlier. May be of primary. Folder labelled 'Elastik: imitation and lateral stiffness, experiment. Contains notes and data from experiments and a rough sketch of experimental apparatus headed 'Muscle-action- torque’, all dated March 1958. Muscle-torque - March 1958'. Cards containing miscellaneous data, found with material relating to Part VI. Album of negatives labelled ‘Cambridge I'. The first part of the album contains observations of locust flight muscle under a microscope; the rest is a record of a series of experiments with flying locusts and weights. One of these negatives is dated 4 July 1957. Album of negatives labelled 'Cambridge II'. The first part continues directly on from the previous book, after which there is a series of pictures of the elastic tendon in the dragonfly Aeshna Cyanea as seen under the polarizing microscope, dated 25 June 1958. mately one third of the album is: empty.) locust flight muscle. 3 envelopes containing photographs of experiments on (Approxi- T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight B.124-B. 137 Part VII B.124 Various parts of the first typescript of Part VI which were extracted and re-ordered to form a basis for Part VII. They carry ms. corrections by Weis-Fogh and comments in another hand. They are accompanied by a letter to J.W.S. Pringle dated 19 April 1956 asking him to look at this early draft. Notes and diagrams for Part VII in the form of a letter, dated 7 September 1956, and probably intended for sub- mission to Pringle. for Part VII dated April 1957. Also further notes outlining a scheme Letter from Anker Nielsen in Danish dated 23 May 1956 re the morphology of the wing systems of various insects. Various anatomical drawings of locusts, particularly of the wing hinge. 2 sets of photomicrographs illustrating locust anatomy. The first set corresponds to negatives in B.47 which are dated 24 May 1952. 1957. The folder also includes various data re con- ditions, etc. for the photography, some of which are dated March 1957. The second set probably dates from 1 page draft in Danish with references and notes headed 'The functional architecture of the pterothorax of Schistocerca gregaria in relation to flight'. The bibliography is dated 17oe. data from experiments, January-March 1957. 2 sets of notes on wings, in English and Danish, dated December 1956. Included here is brief correspondence from John Smart, 1956-57, and related reprints, one of which is heavily annotated by Weis-Fogh. Folder labelled 'Primary on wing and notal movement: Contains various may be of interest. 2 envelopes containing data re wing area in male and female locusts. Undated, but probably c.1950. Notes in Danish and English headed 'Re-investigation of wing-mechanism', dated 27 June 1956. Copenhagen'. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight Folder labelled 'Notal movements and wing folding spring: primary'. Contains notes and calculations, 1957-58. Folder labelled 'Locust thoracic mechanism in relation to the evolution of winged insects. February 1957'. draft dated 27 February 1957. Contains miscellaneous notes and a Preliminary summary, Folder labelled 'On evolution of winged insects’. Contains notes and drawings, and drafts for a paper delivered at the Fifteenth International Congress of Zoology, July 1958. This was probably the first announcement of the discovery of resilin which was not given the name until later. ‘a new rubberlike component of insect cuticle’ and ‘a protein, probably of a new type’. is referred to here as It See also F.11. For further material on resilin see Section C. Miscellaneous notes relating to Part VII. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Early work and research on locust flight B.138-B. 142 Parts VII] and IX B.138 Background notes to Part VIII, ‘Lift and metabolic rate of flying locusts', published in J. exp. Biol, 1964. in 1963 but there are also laboratory notes and graphs dated 1952, 1953. Most of the notes in this folder were written Notes on evaporation of water during flight. notes are in Danish, paginated 1-23, undated but possibly c.1952. They are annotated in red 'For part VIII] and ventilation papers’. The 'Studies on the energetics of locust flight'. corrected typescript of a lecture given in Bristol, April 1954 (see E.34). 'IX' along with B.141 below. This was in a folder marked Heavily- Miscellaneous material relating to Part IX. includes an undated ms. draft in Danish on the energetics of flight, various notes, drawings and graphs, and 11 pp. of aerodynamic calculations in another hand. Folder It Folder also includes brief correspondence about 'The flight of locusts'. Original typescript of a paper by Weis-Fogh published in Scientific American (1956). The typescript differs considerably from the published version which was heavily edited (see letter from Weis- Fogh to J.W.S. Pringle, B.124). is included here because it was originally filed with papers for Part IX above. the article, 1954-56. for these 3 parts. 2 sets of notes dated 8 and 12 August 1970 headed 'Revision of Parts VI, VII, papers to be derived from material already assembled Lists 6 or 7 possible IX'. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 SECTION C RESEARCH IN COPENHAGEN 1957-66 C.1 - C.103 The material is presented as follows: et eT Early work on resilin, 1957-64 Cea. CL Other research (mainly on insect physiology), 1958-65 Cid =. C.103 Research on the properties of resilin and elastomers in insects, 1964-66. (Includes correspondence to 1969.) Section C roughly corresponds with the period during which Weis-Fogh was Professor of Zoophysiology at Copenhagen 1958-66, although there is some material that overlaps with Section B (see, e.g., C.1 - C.6, C.20). Weis-Fogh's work on muscle and elasticity in Cambridge for Parts V - VII of the ‘Biology and Physics of Locust Flight' led to the discovery (see especially C.5 for material on nomenclature) and, more indirectly, in the A grant from the United States Air Force European Office of Aerospace devoted to an investigation of the physical and chemical properties of resilin, but Weis-Fogh also worked on several aspects of insect physiology including the tracheal system and muscle action potential in locusts (see C.12 - C.30). in 1958 of a new rubberlike protein in insect cuticle which was later named resilin. Background material to this discovery may be found at C.1 - C.6 latter part of Section B. Research during the years at Copenhagen was mainly Research in 1965 helped to support further investigations of resilin through different G.16; Gi29; G37, 43.70,-G.93, Gi9F,.G.112,; GAs, GAs. types of microscopy, and the results of some of this research appear at C.37 - C.103. The work was continued in Cambridge after Weis-Fogh's appointment to the Chair of Zoology in 1966 (see D.1 - D.26). Further material on resilin is to be found at E.39-E.44, E.49, E.52, £53 £55; E60. Fa. F6F 21, 28 F277 ae, FbAF. 33;-GS, T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen EARLY WORK ON RESILIN 1957-64 Photographs. Water content. Folder labelled 'Rubberlike materials. Morphology and function’. Histology. The photographs have been removed (see C.6 below) but the other contents remain, describing experiments, 1957-58, on the elastic tendon of various insects, including locusts. There are also some notes on the histology of Aeshna elastic tendon dated 5 January 1960. Folder labelled 'Elastic tendon. Primary material’. Contains notes on experiments with elastic tendon from Aeshna cyanea and Aeshna grandis, 1957-58. Folder labelled 'Experiments with prealar arm'. Contains laboratory notes and comments on experimental results, June 1958. Folder labelled 'Damping of prealar arm'. laboratory notes, diagrams and calculations, July-September 1958. Contains On the front of the It. CLatinJ resilio - This refers to the naming of the Also included is a Xerox copy of a paperonresilin by K. Bailey and Weis-Fogh published in Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1961, in which it is stated that the name was suggested by Professor D.S. Robertson, Cambridge. Folder labelled 'Elastic material: Chemistry and digestion’. Contains notes on experiments 1957-60. folder, in Weis-Fogh's hand, is written 'Resilin. to spring back, to rebound'. new protein discovered by Weis-Fogh in 1958 (see B. 136). which were originally attached with sellotape. Envelope containing photographs of prealar arm and elastic tendon and some data re conditions for photography, etc., 1958. This may originally have been filed with the other contents of C.1 above. Large notebook labelled 'Resilin. laboratory notes and drawings 1959-61 and many empty pages. Includes set of notes headed 'First successful "taming"/stabilization of resilin' 17 February 1961. There are several loose pages T. Weis-Fogh. Contains T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen Material relating to paper 'A rubber-like protein in insect cuticle’ (J. exp. Biol. 1960), referred to by Weis-Fogh as 'Resilin I'. Includes graphs, drawings, notes and a few photographs, 1959-60, with a copy of Weis-Fogh's letter submitting the paper for publication. Material relating to paper 'Thermodynamic properties of resilin, a rubber-like protein’ (J. mol. Biol. 1961). paper is referred to by Weis-Fogh as Resilin IV (later changed to Ill). This Folder labelled (in Danish) ‘Elastic tendon. Thermo-elasticity'. Contains notes, graphs, calculations and experimental data, 1958-60, collected together as a basis for the figures illustrating the paper. Folder containing similar material to the above, 1959-61, including parts of a ms. draft of the paper and correspon- dence with the Editor of the Journal of Molecular Biology, 1961. Correspondence with G.F. Elliott and G.N. Ramachandran (Weis-Fogh's carbon only). Ms, drafts in Weis-Fogh's hand including one dated 12 September 1964 with corrections by Elliott and himself. Folder includes: Material relating to paper 'On the structure of resilin' by G.F. Elliott, A.F. Huxley and T. Weis-Fogh (J. mol. Biol. 1965). Miscellaneous background notes and photographs. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen C,12-G.30 OTHER RESEARCH (MAINLY ON INSECT PHYSIOLOGY) 1958-65 G.42 Large notebook labelled 'Muscle and nerve. 19.1.61.-64. (Microscopy until 19.7.61). T. Weis-Fogh’. Muchof the book is empty, but there are some notes in English and Danish and diagrams of experimental apparatus at the front. Large notebook labelled 'Microscopy. Started 19.7.61. Torkel Weis-Fogh'. The book is largely empty, but the first few pages contain notes on techniques for various types of microscopy in English and Danish, 1961, 1962, 1965, 1968-69. Notes, graphs, diagrams and calculations re muscle. They are prefaced by a letter from Weis-Fogh in Danish dated 3 November 1960 beginning 'Dear E.G. LErik Gettrup J Herewith the "data book" with the insertion "Experiment 15 removed for calculation"'. Folder also includes Weis-Fogh's ‘Comments on Gettrup's calculations’ 18 February 1961, 'Exp. 15' with corrections and a 'Schemefor revision’ possibly in Gettrup's hand. Their collaborative work is See also under Wilson in Index of Correspondents. GaAs Laboratory notes on muscle experiments, 1960. Folder contains: 150. Work with D.M. Wilson on locust muscle. D.M. Wilson worked in Weis-Fogh's laboratory 1959-60 and Weis-Fogh spent 3 weeks with him at Berkeley, November- December 1961, in order to write up a joint paper (see C. 19) which was published in 1962. well documented in the following items. in mesothorax of Schistocerca gregaria’. Typescript description of experimental aims and techniques with additional notes by Wilson and Weis-Fogh. ‘Muscle action potential recordings', 16 June-8 September 1960. Typescript laboratory notes. 'Miscellaneous flight recording situations'. Ms. notes by Wilson and Weis-Fogh. 'Post mortem dissections'. Laboratory notes in Wilson's hand. Laboratory notes re filming of 'pronator-supinator action T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen Various notes on experimental results by Weis-Fogh and Wilson, August-September 1960, including records of a discussion 10 September 1960. ‘Summary of results to date on dorsal longitudinal flight muscle of metathorax of Schistocerca gregaria’ by A.C. Neville, 6 October 1961. This summary was presumably written for Weis-Fogh's visit to Berkeley later in the year. Neville worked in Weis-Fogh's laboratory September- December 1959 and 1961-63. of Correspondents. See C.20-C.22 and Index Typescript of the above with annotations by Weis-Fogh and Wilson, and some photographs and drawings. Berkeley 1.12.61.' ‘Patterned activity of co-ordinated motor units, studied in flying locusts. Summary of experimental results, and outline for draft of the joint paper. Typescript with annotations by Weis-Fogh and Wilson and some additional ms. notes by Weis-Fogh dated 2 December 1961. C.20 Folder labelled 'Functional morphology. Includes: Odonata’. C.20-C.22 Work with A.C. Neville 1959-65. Notes on dragonflies labelled 'A-E' 1957-58. Note E is headed 'TWF - Neville - discussion Cambridge 11.2.58'. ‘Statement on joint work concerning homologies in locust and dragonfly pterothorax by A.C. Neville and T. Weis-Fogh, 30th November 1959'. There is another copy of this, with figures, at G.82. on locust flight muscle' (J. exp. Biol. 1963). Folder labelled 'Neville and Weis-Fogh. Tp. and flight muscle 1962'. and two drafts of a joint paper ‘The effect of temperature Contains notes, graphs, calculations Several pages of notes, November 1959, headed 'TWEF - Neville - discussion’. See also under Neville in Index of Correspondents. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen Ree Envelope containing typescript draft of a paper by A.C. Neville 'Circadian organization of chitin in some insect skeletons', with comments by Weis-Fogh and a letter from Neville to accompany the ms., 22 April 1965. A draft of Weis-Fogh's reply appears on both sides of the envelope. Also included is a set of photographs with typescript captions. Notes on ‘Aeshna flight muscles. Tracheal supply’. Weis-Fogh paginated these notes but later put some of them out of sequence. incorporate some earlier material. They mostly date from 1962 but may "October 1962-December 1962. paginated 1-70. Diffusion’. Set of notes Further material on diffusion, December 1962. calculations, notes, diagrams and a set of notes in Danish. Includes ‘Functional design of the tracheal system of flying insects as compared with the avian lung'. Typescript with ms. corrections of paper published in J. exp. Biol. 1964. Included is correspondence with V.B. Wigglesworth, 1963-64. Also included here are some undated notes and calculations 6 pp. in Danish, but headed 'Current problems in research, etc. etc.', 3 April 1960. Set of notes in English headed 'Flapping flight. Dimensional considerations', 8 January 1963. Notes on insect flight, 1960, 1963. follows: 4 sets of notes as Folder marked 'Original material for Tracheal System' (in Danish). Notes, drawings, photographs, etc., 1949-62. re airscrews. Set of notes in English headed 'Lift and power', 13 May 1963. 3 pp. notes, undated, headed 'Three limitations each with ownset of rules'. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen Folder containing miscellaneous notes and diagramsre equipment and techniques,mostly 1962-64, but some undated and probably earlier. Typescript in Danish ‘Carbohydrate in haemolymph of Schistocerca gregaria’ signed 'Svend Olav Andersen, 11 April 1962'. For further material re Andersen, see Index of Correspondents. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen C.31-C. 103 RESEARCH ON THE PROPERTIES OF RESILIN AND ELASTOMERS IN INSECTS 1964-66 (includes correspondence to 1969) European Office of Aerospace Research. United States Air Force Grant to Weis-Fogh for research on 'Properties of resilin and elastomers in insects', 1965-69. The work was begun in Copenhagen and continued in Cambridge after Weis-Fogh's appointmentto the Chair of Zoology in 1966. Correspondence 1964-65, mainly with officials of the European Office of Aerospace Research. Fogh's application for the grant and a copyof the contract. Includes Weis- Correspondence 1966, mainly re conditions for transferring research work to Cambridge inAutumn 1966, and routine administrative matters. Correspondence 1967-69. Invoices, Accounts, etc. 1965-69. Notes re equipment, quotations, catalogues, etc. Progress reports on research, submitted by Weis-Fogh to European Office of Aerospace Research, 1965-69, with some background material. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen C.37=C.103 The following items contain the results of a compre- hensive survey ofresilin using different types of microscopy and comparing the results obtained. All the work was done in Copenhagen 1965-66. ltems C.37 - C.96 consist of photographs of the locust prealar arm and wing hinge viewed under the electron microscope. The photographs are grouped in envelopes bearing their numbers, the date, and notes in Danish (not in Weis-Fogh's hand) re type and provenanceof section, magnification, and any points of interest in the photographs. conditions, etc. are included inside the envelope. re photographic Other data The photographsare presented as received butit will be seen that the sequence of numbers is not complete. The reason for this is not known. x . Se 379-398 410-429 433-452 28.6.65. 14.7.65. 28.8.65. 339.60, 3.9.65. 455-466 469-480 495-514 587-606 On Ris Ties Cs Cc; Gs 608-627 629-648 8.10.65. 516-533 536-555 24.9.65. 24.9.65. 24.9.65. 21.10.65. Parts of 512-533, at greater magnification 25.11.65. 21.10:.65. 23.11.65. 24. 11.68. 23.11.65. 24.11.65. Abi t0.O08 21.10.65. 17.11.65, ) C O A A A o O a O o a s O F O O A 8.11.65; 713-732 734-742 764-783 650-669 677-682 688-707 743-762 786-797 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen i es Res oF C. oe Be es Ras C. c an oF G. 829-847 23-30 31-50 51-63 68-87 89-107 130-149 151-170 172-190 191-207 208-227 305-311 318-327 4.1.66. 25.1268. 26.1.66. 27.1.66. 242.66: 232.66. 17.2, 66s 17.2.66. 18.2.66. 18.2.66. 21.2.663 8.3.66. 25.3.66. 330 (000-011) 29.3.66. 334-350 5.4.66. c C. 19.4.66. 522-541 543-549 401-414 415-426 427-446 501-520 352-358 359-378 5.4.66. 6.4.66. Cc; Cs C2 37 Ci C. 17.5.66. 20.4.66. 22.4.66. ins cS Se a These were not in an envelope and were accompanied by a letter from W. Rasmussen and Weis-Fogh's reply, October 1966. Correspondence with Rasmussen dated March 1967 is also included here. 5/6.9.66. 25.10.66. 26.10.66. 22.6.66. 25-44 47-57 560-579 229-240 17.5.66. n.d. 2.6.66. For7%2 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Copenhagen © ) O - 0 1 3 O . O O : O E C @ . Y O s A O 58-62 63-75 76-84 85-96 200-212 213-224 225-236 225-236 450-469 506-515 516*535 536-556 26.10.66. 26.10.66. 26.10.66. 26/27.10.66. 9.11.66. n.d. 10.11.66. (but containing 237-245) 10.11.66. 9.12.66. 13.12.66. 13.12.66. 14.12.66. ' Journal' 1964-66. re individual specimens, aims, techniques, results, etc., in various hands. Laboratory notes in Danish and English with a phase-contrast microscope. .100-C.103 4 boxes of colour transparencies of locust prealar arm .98,C.99 2 folders containing photographs of locust prealar arm viewed viewed with fluorescence and interference microscopes. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 SECTION D RESEARCH IN CAMBRIDGE 1966-75 D.1- D.62 The material is presented as follows: Ot = By3d Research on resilin and elastin D.35 Material relating to the Biological Microprobe Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Cambridge D.36 - “D:39 Research on 'Intracellular and extra- cellular matrix proteins’. D.40 - D.57 Research on animal flight Gooe = D.62 Project for research on 'Fluid dynamics in biology' Each sub-section is preceded by a brief introductory note. The record of Weis-Fogh's research work in this Section is far less complete than in Sections B and C because material relating to research projects continuing after his death in 1975 was retained by the Department of Zoology, Cambridge. This period marks the growth and diversification of Weis-Fogh's research (see D.48 - D.53). biological fluid dynamics in collaboration with Sir James Lighthill, Lucasian interests: he supervised two major research teams (see D.35, D.36 - D.38) as well as continuing research on insect flight on which he published a major paper in 1973 The Section ends with Weis-Fogh's plans for an ambitious project to study Professor of Mathematics in the University of Cambridge. Science Research Council for a grant to support this research, drafted in October 1975, was neverpresented, following Weis-Fogh's death on 13 November. The application to the T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Cambridge D.1-D.34 RESEARCH ON RESILIN AND ELASTIN The material in the first part of this Section (D.1- D.24) continues the investigation into the properties of resilin and elastomers in insects begun in Copenhagen in 1964 (see C.31 - C.103), and financed by a grant from the USAF European Office of Aerospace Research. After the expiry of the grant in 1969, work on elastin continued in collaboration with J.M. Gosline as part of a project to study intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins (see also D.36 - D. 39). For further material on elastin, see E.59 - E.63, F.29, G.28, G.93, G.148. D.1-D.8 'Chitin'. |The following material, consisting of laboratory notes and photographs 1967-68, was kept together under the above heading. Although some notes were written by Weis- Fogh, most are in an assistant's hand. ‘Photography of Autoradiography sections'. negatives April-November 1967. Notes and Preliminary work. niques, equipment, etc. May-July 1967. pp.1-58a. Notes on specimens, preparation tech- ‘Tendon no.1', pp.59-76. July 1967. Notes mainly re photometer and polarising microscope, pp. 164-238a (p.237 missing). September-October 1967. ‘Tendon no.3', and a note re discarded specimens, pp./76a- 163. September 1967. 1967, February, March 1968. 'Tendon no.7', pp.339-374. December 1967-May 1968. Includes a letter from Weis-Fogh in Denmark to G. Mewis, 13 December 1967, with comments on the conduct of the experiments. 'Tendon no.4', pp.238a (sic. )- 338c, with some unpaginated sheets. October-November 1967. ‘Chitin Vol.2. Observations made with Polarising microscope of Locust Tendon'. Notes, photographs and charts, November T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Cambridge ‘Locust Development’. as follows. Material filed under the above heading, Pp.1-18 (with several additional unpaginated sheets. See below). Includes: Records monitoring growth of locust batch 1, April 1968 Records for batch 2, September 1968 Notes headed 'Shadow method for measurement of distance d from cuticle surface to hypodermal cell in Schistocerca', 14 September 1968, with photographs, charts and negatives. The photo- graphs, etc. are unpaginated. Pp.19-89. Records for batches 3 and 4, September- October 1968, and notes by Weis-Fogh headed Locust Development’, June 1970. ‘Locust culture records', batches 7-14, 1969-70. Un- paginated. Includes copy of a letter from Weis-Fogh, 7 June 1968, setting out the conditions under which the locusts were bred. D, 12.21 ‘Cuticle development'. heading, as follows. Material filed under the above D.12 13 Weis-Fogh's notes on aims and methods, and ‘Locust development: Fixation scheme’. Pp.19-65. Record of experiments, 1968-69, followed by summary of techniques. Pp.1-18. records of preliminary experiments, October 1968. Climate cabinet records, September-November 1968. Set of unpaginated notes on 'Glycerol-Gelatine solutions’, July-September 1969. G. Mewis re problem of gelatine frothing. Pp.89-103 headed '17.5.70. Development’. Pp.66-88. calibrations’. ‘Cuticle Development. Microscopy and Notes and photographs, February 1969. Includes correspondence with Notes on silk, April 1968. Resumed work on Cuticle T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Cambridge Records re preparation of frozen sections for microscopy, 1968-69. Micrographs of cuticle development observed with an interference microscope, 1969. Set of notes headed 'Epicuticle formation, summer 1970'. Folder containing 3 panoramic micrographs of locust cuticle, 1969. Folder containing negatives of micrographs of locust cuticle with some notes, September 1969. Micrographs illustrating locust cuticle development. 1 box. especially D.13, D.14, D.16. For background material to these, see D.12-D.21, Ms. draft headed 'Chitin and cuticle', 23 March 1969, with related notes including a 3 pp. typescript memorandum from W.D. Biggs. Laboratory Correspondencere elastin 1973-75. Someof the folders include related drafts or reprints. 'A new molecular model for the long-range elasticity of elastin, by Torkel Weis-Fogh and S.O. Andersen’. Typescript of paper published in Nature, 1970. Material relating to paper ‘Elasticity and thermodynamics of elastin' by T. Weis-Fogh and S.O. Andersen, published in Chemistry and Biology of the Intercellular Matrix, Vol.1, ed. E.A. Balazs, Academic Press, 1970. notes 1968-69, not in Weis-Fogh's hand, preceded by 5 pp. summary of aims, etc. by Weis-Fogh. for 'Nuclear magnetic relaxation studies of elastin’. Correspondence 1972-73 re grant application by K.J. Packer 1970-72 1973-74 D.28 ‘Elastin. Correspondence’. Contains letters from: H.Y. Elder H. Fréhlich P.J. Manning N.G. McCrum D.28-D.30 S.O. Andersen 1974 1973 1973 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Cambridge Correspondence with J.M. Gosline, 1973-75, mainly re joint papers on elastin (see D.31-D.34). Includes drafts of an unpublished letter to Nature, 1974. Untitled typescript draft for a paper on elastin with ms. annotations by J.M. Gosline. n.d. but probably 1973. Typescript drafts of a paper by J.M. Gosline ‘Hydrophobic interaction and a model for the elasticity of elastin'. with extensive ms. corrections and additions by Weis-Fogh. Includes photographs of apparatus, used for drawing figures, and 2 sets of notes and calculations by Weis-Fogh, August 1974. as 'Elastin I.' is therefore not included in the list of publications on pp. 100-107. This paper is often referred to in correspondence, etc. It was published in Biopolymers, 1978, and ‘Thermodynamics and elasticity of elastin in relation to temperature and swelling agent', by J.M. Gosline and Weis-Fogh. Typescript drafts with ms. corrections by Gosline and Weis-Fogh, and 9 pp. notes by Weis-Fogh 28 August 1974. This paperis referred to as ‘Elastin II’. Typescript drafts with ms. corrections by ‘Reversible structural changes in a hydrophobic protein, elastin, as indicated by fluorescence probe analysis’ (Elastin III). Gosline and Weis-Fogh. Folder includes photocopies of referees' comments on the paper, 1973. It was pub- lished in Biopolymers, 1975, but is not included in the list of publications on pp. 100-107. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Cambridge BIOLOGICAL MICROPROBE LABORATORY In 1971 the Science Research Council awarded a joint research grant to Weis-Fogh and four collaborators (P. Echlin, B.L. Gupta, T.A. Hall and R.B. Moreton) to enable a series of morphological and analytical studies to be carried out on frozen-hydrated soft biological material. This resulted in the setting up of the Biological Microprobe Laboratory in the Department of Zoology, Cambridge. The technique of X-ray microanalysis in the scanning electron microscope normally used dehydrated tissues which retained their structure intact but suffered from loss or redistribution of electrolytes; the team's first major achievement was to perfect a technique for the preparation of quick-frozen hydrated tissues. Only the grant applications and a few related papers are included in the collection, since the laboratory continued to function after Contents of the folder include: Weis-Fogh's death. See also F.42. Copy of Weis-Fogh's application to the Science Research Council for a grant for 'Electron microprobe studies on soft biological tissues', September 1970. Miscellaneous related material. 3 pp. typescript headed ‘Biological Microprobe Laboratory’, dated 12 December 1974, describing procedures for the running of the laboratory. Appendix to the above application, 9 November 1970. Copy of letter from the S.R.C. announcing support for the project, 28 January 1971. Progress report and supplement, 1973. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Cambridge D.36-D.39 RESEARCH ON 'INTRACELLULAR AND EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS' This investigation grew out of Weis-Fogh's study of the formation of insect cuticle (see D.12 - D.24) and work by W.B. Amos, one of Weis-Fogh's research students, on the contractile mechanism of the spasmonemesin Protozoa (see F.39). Weis-Fogh wrote informally to the Science Research Council about the possibility of applying for a grant to study the subject in April 1971 (see D.36); the car accident a few days later in which his wife was killed and he himself seriously injured delayed the presentation of a formal grant application until April 1972. As with the previous item, the collection containsvery little material relating to this project because the work continued after Weis- Fogh's death in 1975. See, however, D.28 - D.34 for work with J.M. Gosline on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of elastin, Typescript of same as sent and a related offprint. It is which was also funded by this research grant. See also F.43, F.44, F.56, F.71. Application for a grant to study 'Intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins'. Contents of folder include: Ms. draft of a letter from Weis-Fogh introducing the project to the S.R.C., 12 April 1971. Fogh, L. Routledge, W.B. Amos, F.F. Yew, 1975. Ms. draft of application for grant, April 1972. prefaced by an apology for the delay caused by the car accident in April 1971 in which Hanne Weis-Fogh was killed and Weis-Fogh himself seriously injured. Typescript of application as sent. Miscellaneous background information. Notes for progress report and outline of future plans by Weis- T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Cambridge Application for a grant to study 'Organisation and properties of new contractile and structural proteins'. Contents of folder include: Ms. draft of application to $.R.C., March 1975. This project was to follow directly on from the previous one. Copy of application as sent. Miscellaneous correspondence and other related material. Folder labelled 'Spasmoneme', containing 2 brief typescripts and correspondence with H.G. MUldner and O.V.S. Heath, 1973-74. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Cambridge D.40-D.57 RESEARCH ON ANIMAL FLIGHT A major feature of this period was Weis-Fogh's renewedinterest in the problemsof flight, now widened to include somebirds (especially the hummingbird) as well as insects. In 1973 he published a paper in J. exp. Biol. entitled 'Quick estimates of flight fitness in hovering animals, including novel mechanisms for lift production’, which contained a new aerodynamic theory for the generation oflift in small insects which had previously defied explanation in mathematical terms (see D.48 - D.53). Interest in flight extended to other forms of locomotion especially to comparative studies and 'scaling problems' as will be seen from correspondence at F.53 - F.54, F.58 - F.59, F.66 - F.70, and finally led to the formulation of a project to study biological fluid dynamics in collaboration with Sir James Lighthill (see D.58 - D.62). D.40-D.42 Material related to paper ‘Respiration and tracheal ventilation in locusts and otherflying insects' (J. exp. Biol. 1967). D.40 See B.1, B.7, B.35-B.42. the subject is included (see D.40 - D.42). Most of the material dates from c.1970, but some early work on Folder containing laboratory notes on respiration and venti- lation, mainly 1950-53, with some additions and revisions, Includes graphs and drawings used asbasis for figures 1966. in the published article. See also G.135. Ms. draft found filed with the above, 'Rate and mechanism of n.d. but internal the tracheal ventilation in flying insects'. evidence suggests 1952-53. Correspondence with R.C. Rainey and J.B. Tyson re sighting of Schistocerca gregaria at high altitude in the Himalayas, 1967. Includes reprint of paper by Tyson. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Cambridge D.43-D.47 Material relating to paper ‘Energetics of hovering flight in hummingbirds and in drosophila' (J. exp. Biol. 1972) D.43 Notes on hummingbirds dated August 1970. Calculations and reflections and a first rough outline of the content of a projected paper. Set of notes headed 'Amazilia', pp. 1-86, August- December 1970. Study based on a recently dead hummingbird received from Copenhagen Zoo, 28 August 1970. Includes 2 letters from C.W. Benson identifying the bird as Amazilia fimbriata fluviatilis. Various notes on inertia, October 1970, comparing humming- birds and insects. Mainly aerodynamic calculations. Set of notes headed 'Drosophila', pp.1-102a, November- December 1970. Background to the figures for the published paper. Notes, graphs, drawings, etc. D.44 and D.46 above. Brief correspondence re the paper, 1970, 1975, is also included here. Includes material removed from D.48-D.53 Material relating to paper 'Quick estimates offlight fitness in hovering animals, including novel mechanismsforlift production’ (J. exp. Biol. 1973). Mathematical calculations and brief notes, mainly February and April 1971, paginated by Weis-Fogh 1-82. All were later annotated in red by Weis-Fogh and the heading 'Quick estimates' added. Folder also includes an envelope labelled "Beetle flight - Pringle’ containing measurements, drawings and calculations. mechanism'. Weis-Fogh's reply is also included here. Folder labelled 'Encarsia flight and Syrphinae'. Contains calculations and notes including analysis of a film of a flying Encarsia. Material was divided by Weis-Fogh into sections A-F, and includes 2 letters, one from W.D. Biggs, 27 November 1972 (among notes labelled 'E') and one from M.J. Lighthill in the last section (F), 10 December 1972, beginning 'My dear Weis-Fogh, | must congratulate you on the original and brilliant concept of your new lift-generation Folder containing material re hovering flight of Syrphidae. Includes notes, negatives of sound tracings, photographs and traces of wings, etc., August-September 1972. Research in Cambridge Material for writing Notes and calculations, with corrections and Folder labelled 'Quick Estimates. results'. annotations in red by Weis-Fogh. Includes notes in another hand on equipment and procedure used for high speed filming of Manduca sexta and Encarsia formosa, July 1972. ‘Quick Estimates. 1972, with additions and corrections in red. First handwritten draft', June-December Material re figures, tables, etc. for the above. Notes and calculations re insect flight, November 1973. Annotated in red by Weis-Fogh on the first page 'Good example of how one can go wrongif only part ofstory is considered’. ‘Experimental flight animals'. Notes and correspondence re suitability of various insects for experiments on flight, 1972-74. Material relating to paper ‘Unusual mechanisms for the generation of lift in flying animals' (Sci. Amer. 1975). T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 D.56D.57 D.56 Original typescript with figures as sent, May 1975, and Correspondencewith the editor of Scientific American, 1974-75. proof with ms. corrections by Weis-Fogh, September 1975. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Research in Cambridge D.58-D.62 PROJECT FOR RESEARCH ON 'FLUID DYNAMICS IN BIOLOGY' An application to the Science Research Council for a grant for research in this subject in collaboration with Sir James Lighthill was completed in October 1975 shortly before Weis-Fogh's death. It was to have been the culmination of a collaboration which had begun in 1972 (see D.50). Weis-Fogh's growing interest in this subject is well documented in Section F (see correspondence in F.53 - F.54, F.58 - F.59) and led him to organise with Lighthill a small symposium in Cambridge on the 'Biodynamics of Animal Locomotion', 1-5 September 1975 (see F.66 - FQ), The material in this Section consists of drafts and correspondence rethe grant application, which was not submitted due to Weis-Fogh's death on 13 November 1975. D.58 Includes some later notes re equip- Various drafts of the final application, October 1975. First draft of Weis-Fogh's part of the application dated 26 September 1975. Ms. and typescript. Drafts of M. J. Lighthill's part of the application with some annotations by Weis-Fogh. Early notes for proposals for research in biological fluid dynamics, July 1975. ment, salaries, etc. equipment, etc. and related information. Correspondence with G.K. Batchelor, J. Fendley and D.A. Parry, 1975. unindexed correspondence with suppliers of scientific Folder also includes miscellaneous T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 SECTION E LECTURES, ADDRESSES, PUBLICATIONS 1948-76 E.1 - E.75 The material is presented as follows: mt. = E520 University lectures and courses delivered or attended by Weis-Fogh, 1955-75 B.2he £.74 Lectures and addresses, 1948-75 E75 Reprints of published papers, 1949-76 Much of the material in the first part is in typescript and was designed for distribution to students rather than as a basis for lectures delivered by Weis- Fogh (though see E.6, E.12, E.15, E.19). Papers have survived from both Copenhagen (1958-65) and Cambridge (1968-75). Occasionally brief corres- pondenceis included with the lectures. Weis-Fogh kept notes for talks he had given in rough chronological groups, thus enabling approximate dates to be suggested for the few undated mss. Related correspondence was occasionally filed with the text of the talk. Weis-Fogh seems to have been much in demand as a speaker(see letter in E.57), although during the last years of his life he found it increasingly diffi- cult to spare the time for giving talks. The subjects chosen reflect his main Inevitably there is some overlap with Section F, as some of these talks throughout the period covered, demonstrating his continuing enthusiasm for the research interests at a given time and it is notable that talks on insect flight recur subject. He continued to give talks in Denmark after his move to Cambridge in 1966 All items are in manuscript unless otherwise indicated. Titles and descriptions in inverted commas are those which appear on Weis- and papers, especially in the earlier years, were delivered at conferences. Fogh's folders or notes. Translations are given of headings originally in Danish. and much of the material in this Section is in Danish. These are itemised in the introduction to Section F. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Lectures, addresses and publications UNIVERSITY LECTURES AND COURSES DELIVERED OR ATTENDED BY WEIS-FOGH 1955-75 15 pp. typescript with some annotations by Weis-Fogh headed 'Physiology Course 1955. Muscle Biochemistry. Szent-Gyérgyi'. On the first page is a note 'copy from Pringle's copy'. [J.W.S. PringleJ. Set of typescript lecture notes on comparative physiology, in German, with scattered annotations by Weis-Fogh, including a note on the first page 'Hoffman and Langer. Munchen. May 1962'. attended these lectures. It is not clear whether Weis-Fogh Copenhagen University 1958-65 Ms. notes (in Danish) in Weis-Fogh's hand re seminars, 1958, 1961-62. Includes letters from Weis-Fogh to individual students suggesting background reading for seminar papers they were to give. ‘Muscle seminars. on papers given by students (in Danish). Spring 1959'. Lecture notes and notes Ms. lecture notes (in Danish) 1959, 1962, with accompanying typescript bibliography headed 'The genetic code’. Set of typescript notes for practical classes (in Danish), Autumn 1961, with annotations by Weis-Fogh commenting on the success or otherwise of the experiments performed. ‘Lectures and seminars on general physiology. Autumn 1959'. Folder includes typescript bibliography, lists of students attending and ms. and typescript lecture notes (all in Danish} (in Danish). Folder labelled 'Practicals. script notes on animal physiology with annotations by Weis-Fogh and a list of students attending (all in Danish). Spring 1963' containing type- Folder containing typescript notes for practical classes, Autumn 1965. Similar to E.9 Folder containing typescript notes for practical classes in (in Danish). animal physiology, Autumn 1963 and 1964 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Lectures, addresses and publications Contents of a folder labelled 'Seminars TWF'. Ms. and typescript notes on lectures and papers by other members of Copenhagen University 1964-65 (in Danish). E.12-E.20 Cambridge University 1968-75 c.l2 Ms. notes for lecture 'The origin of life' delivered 1968-74 at Cambridge. notes in another hand. Includes Xerox copy of a set of lecture ‘Guide to Comparative and General Physiology, Part IB, 1969/70'. 80 pp. typescript. ‘Guide to Lectures on Specialized Cells'. 1970. 31 pp. typescript. Lent Term Ms. notes for set of lectures on ‘Active flapping flight of birds and insects', 1971, with typescript bibliography. Typescript guide to '7 lectures on specialised cells', Lent Term 1972. Ramsey re revision of lecture notes and guides. Includes letter from Weis-Fogh to J.A. 1968-74 1969-70 1970 1971 1972 85pp. typescript. Typescript guide to '7 lectures on specialised cells', Lent Term 1974. Includes brief correspondence. Ms. notes for 3 lectures on ‘Animal Flight', February 1975, with typescript bibliography. "Notes, Illustrations and Tables for 12 lectures in Zoo- physiology', Lent Term 1974. Miscellaneous bibliographies, lists of lectures, etc. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Lectures, addresses and publications E.21-E.74 PAPERS AND INFORMAL TALKS 1948-75 E23 Untitled set of notes and drawings annotated by Weis- Fogh 'I think this is the first talk given by me on Insect Flight: tea-talk in Dept. Zool. [Cambridge? J in late autumn 1948?'. of Weis-Fogh's experimental work to date. Contains an interesting summary Notes in Danish for a talk on insect flight. Undated but c.1948-49. ‘An aerodynamic sense organ in locusts’ (in Danish). n.d. but c. 1948-50. 'The Work which Occupied August Krogh as a Professor Emeritus’. 6 pp. typescript. For further material on Krogh see Index of Correspondents. Another copy of the above with annotations by Weis-Fogh. ‘How do insects fly?' (in Danish), 17 October 1949. Notes in Danish for a talk on respiration of flying insects delivered 27 November 1950. Drawings and photographsto illustrate. a lecture. They are in an envelope marked (in Danish) 'Biol. Assoc. 1950? or 1952?'. 'Weight economyof flying insects'. n.d. but Weis-Fogh delivered a paper withthis title at the IX International Congress of Entomology, 1952 (see list of publications, pp. 100-107 and E.75). See also B. 140. ‘Metabolism and ventilation during flight in insects (locusts)'. Typescript. "Studies on the energetics of locust flight'. typescript both headed 'Lecture in Bristol, April 1954'. Ms. and ‘How locusts fly' (in Danish). 10 October 1953. Notes for a talk on insect wing muscle (in Danish). 26 October 1953. Notes for a talk on abdominal and thoracic ventilation, 7 August 1953. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Lectures, addresses and publications 'On the energetics of the flight of locusts and other insects'. 2 sets of notes, both undated. Undated notes in Danish for a talk on the energetics of locust flight, accompanied by several drawings, etc. "Dynamics of insect flight'. 19 November 1956. Lecture delivered Talk on wing movements and elasticity in insects,with a note 'London Meeting, July 1958’. ‘Animal rubber. Tea-Talk. 24 October 1958'. "Flight and Animal Rubber'. Talk delivered at King's College, London, 6 November 1958. brief correspondence re arrangements. Folder includes 'A new rubber-like protein, resilin' (in Danish) delivered to the Physiological Society, Lund, Sweden, 4 March 1960. Brief notes in Danish for a talk on locusts, 17 March 1961. Brief notes in Danish for a talk on flight muscle, Aarhus, 2 March 1961. Includes correspondence re arrangements. 'A new type of rubber-like structural protein’ (in Danish). Paper delivered at a conference in Lund, Sweden, 9 June 1960. correspondenceincluding an English synopsis. 1p. notes in Danish with brief administrative ‘Physical and chemical properties of a new type of rubber- like cuticle, resilin', delivered at the Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen, 13 February 1961. 1962-63 and a typescript summary ofthe talk. ‘Locusts and men. What can we learn from the study of other animals?'. at the Academyof Technical Sciences, Copenhagen, 15 November 1962. Brief notes in Danish for a talk delivered Correspondence in Swedish and Danish re talk on animal flight delivered in Lund, Swaden, 20 November 1962. ‘Flapping flight of animals', Royal Aeronautical Society, London, 11 January 1963. Folder includes correspondence T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Lectures, addresses and publications ‘General problems concerning resilin and similar structural proteins' (in Danish), delivered to the Biochemical Society, Copenhagen, 28 February 1963. ‘Nervous coordination of wing movements in insects’ (in Danish). 2 sets of notes dated 13 December 1963. Brief notes in Danish for a talk on insect flight, 14 December 1963. Brief notes in Danish for talk on '3-dimensional protein- networks', 16 January 1964. Brief notes in Danish for a talk on resilin to the Royal Danish Academy, 7 May 1965. Notes for an after-dinner speech in Danish, 4 December 1965. ‘Resilin compared with other structural proteins' (in Danish). Talk delivered at Aarhus, 10 February 1966. Talk delivered to the Entomology Section Folder includes 2 letters re talks to the same group, ‘Does elastin represent a new type of elastomer?! Tea-talk in Department of Zoology, Cambridge, 22 October 1969. ‘The nervous coordination of the movement of wings and other limbs' (in Danish), delivered to the Biological Society, Copenhagen, 13 April 1966. ‘Insect flight'. of the Cambridge Natural History Society, 16 February 1967. 1955 and 1974, Includes brief correspondence. ‘Proteins and Rubber. of elastomer?)' 1970. the Biological Society at Aberystwyth, 1968-69. (Does elastin represent a new type Talk delivered at Aberystwyth, 23 April Folder includes correspondence with Secretaries of Correspondence re an interview for Cologne Radio. See also G.61. Notes in Danish for a talk on elastin, delivered at the Royal Danish Academy 1 May 1970. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Lectures, addresses and publications 'Crosslinks and Elasticity in two elastomeric proteins’. Talk delivered 11 May 1970. ‘Elasticity in structural proteins: a new model for elastin’, delivered at Glasgow University 19 October 1970, and subsequently at Edinburgh and Birmingham. correspondence re Weis-Fogh's visits to Glasgow and Edinburgh 19-21October 1970. Folder includes Correspondence 1969-70 re talk delivered at Birmingham University 3 November 1970. For ms. see E.63 above. ‘Dimensions in flying animals'. ment of Zoology, Cambridge, 13 October 1971. brief correspondence and background notes. Tea-talk in the Depart- Includes Brief notes and printed summary in Danish for a talk on insect flight given at the Royal Danish Academy 10 December 1971. 'Hovering flight in animals and novel mechanismsfor lift production’. Typescript summary in English and corres- pondence in English and Danish re talk delivered to the Biological Society, Copenhagen,|28 March 1973. Summary in Danish of talk on new mechanismsfor lift production, delivered at the Royal Danish Academy, 30 March 1973. Correspondencere a talk on animal flight delivered at Exeter University9 October 1973. Script of radio interview with Weis-Fogh about his work on insect flight, recorded for BBC External Services, 6 November 1973. clear who gave the talk. Correspondencere a talk on animal flight delivered to the H.G. Wells Society of Imperial College, London, 19 November 1973. 'Notes from tape of talk 26.11.73.' animal flight, and are in Weis-Fogh's hand butit is not The notes are about T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Lectures, addresses and publications Correspondencere talk on insect flight to be delivered at the Royal Institution, 21 November 1975. Includes a typescript synopsis. Shorter correspondence with universities and societies re arrangements for talks to be given by Weis-Fogh, 1955-75. 1955-75 1 box containing numbered reprints of publications by Weis- Fogh and colleagues assembled from the Department of Zoology, Cambridge. papers and publications in Danish being omitted. for a bibliography of Weis-Fogh's scientific publications. The set is not complete, some early See pp. 100-107 An earlier version of the bibliography is included in the box, with publications after no.79 added in manuscript. The numbers assigned to some of the most recent publica- tions in this list do not always correspond with those in the later typed version, but they are the ones which appear on the reprints themselves. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 SECTION F CONFERENCES, VISITS, LECTURE TOURS 1955-76 F.1 - F.76 Weis-Fogh attached considerable importance to conferences and symposia because of the opportunities they presented for exchanging ideas with people working in the same field in different parts of the world. In particular, he attended the regular meetings of the Society for Experimental Biology whenever possible, and frequently read papers there (see below, passim). In 1975 he organised, with Sir James Lighthill, a small but influential symposium on 'Bio- dynamics of Animal Locomotion' (see F.66 - F.70). The material below mainly consists of correspondence about arrangements for conferences, etc., but there are also some drafts of papers presented by Weis-Fogh, and these are itemised in the catalogue. See also B.43, B.136, E.29, E.38, E.42, G.27. Notes and drawings re model of locust thorax exhibited at the meeting. Miscellaneous related material. British Association for the Advancement of Science, Bristol, September 1955. 100th meeting of the Society for Experimental Biology, Cambridge, July 1955. Notes for paper by Weis-Fogh on 'A problem in locomotion: the elastic design of the wing system in insects’. Correspondence with organisers, 1955-56. Xth International Congress of Entomology, Montreal, 17-25 April 1956. (Weis-Fogh was unable to attend.) Brief correspondence with organisers, etc. Several sets of notes for paper by Weis-Fogh on ‘Flapping flight of insects’. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours Royal Society Conversazione, London, 10 May 1956. Correspondence re Weis-Fogh's exhibit illustrating the ‘Elastic properties of the insect thorax', and a copy of the programme. See also B.85. Royal Society Canversazione, London, 21 June 1956. Correspondence and programme. Society for Experimental Biology, Liverpool, 17-19 July 1956. Weis-Fogh was unable to attend the meeting and his paper was read by J.W.L. Beament. Ms. and typescript of paper ‘Factors in the thermal balance of flying locusts' by T. Weis-Fogh and Bent Muus. Folder includes correspondence re arrangements. Laboratory notes used in preparing the above paper. See also B.33. Society for Experimental Biology, London, 2 January 1957. Revised version of paper by Weis-Fogh and Muus (see F.6), and brief correspondence. Society for Experimental Biology, Cambridge, 8 April 1957. Correspondence with R.C. Rainey and Z. Waloff 1952- 56, including 2 drafts of a paper by Rainey ‘The thermal balance of settled and flying locusts' which was delivered immediately after Weis-Fogh's at the conference. See also B.136, and Section C. Abstract of paper ‘Elasticity in arthropod locomotion: a neglected subject, illustrated by the wing system of insects'. This was probably the first announce- ment of the discovery of 'a new rubberlike compound of cuticle’, later named resilin. Set of brief notes and a full draft for talk on locust flight muscle. '100 SEB 1955', but this is clearly a mistake. Folder includes brief administrative correspondence. Both are annotated by Weis-Fogh XVth International Congress of Zoology, 1958. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours Fy lef. 19 Prather Lectures, Harvard University. Weis-Fogh was invited to deliver these in Autumn 1961, and he prolongedhis stay in the US for over two months in order to visit other universities and laboratories. Correspondence 1960-61. Includes: Letter from A.M. Pappenheimer inviting Weis- Fogh to deliver the lectures and Weis-Fogh's letter of acceptance. Subsequent correspondence with Pappenheimer and C.M. Williams re arrangementsfor the visit to Harvard. Correspondence with members of other universities and laboratories in the US re visits by Weis-Fogh. ‘Principles of flapping flight and the call for power’. Drafts and notes for first Prather Lecture, 17 October 1961. Folder includes poster advertising the lectures and list of previous Prather Lecturers. ‘Elastic materials, power economy, and nervouscontrol of flight'. 19 October 1961. Draft and notes for Third Prather Lecture, Notes in Danish, February-March 1962, which were filed with the Prather Lectures. colours of a flying dragonfly. Includes 2 small water- Weis-Fogh was unable to find time to write it. 'The wing muscles and the chemical machinery for flight’. Second Prather Lecture, 18 October 1961. Correspondence with Harvard University Press, 1964-75 re possibility of publishing a book based on the Prather Lectures. See F.12 for related correspondence. 'Resilin or animal rubber, a new typeofstructural protein andits significance’. Talk delivered at the University of California, Los Angeles, the University of Texas and Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, December 1961. Brief notes for talks and lectures delivered at Harvard, Yale, Berkeley and the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, October-November 1961. See F.12 for related correspondence. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours Conference on Comparative Neurophysiology, Leyden, 5-7 September 1962. Brief correspondence re arrangements. Symposium in G&ttingen, September 1962. Correspondencein English and German; abstract of paperon resilin by S.O. Andersen. International Symposium on Protein Structure and Crystal- lography, Madras, 14-18 January 1963. Correspondence 1962-63 (Weis-Fogh was unable to attend but a letter from him was read at the symposium). F.23, F.24 Gordon Research Conference on Elastomers, New Hampshire, 15-19 July 1963. F.23 Contains notes for Weis-Fogh's conference Folder labelled 'Gordon Research 1963 and Brecksville (Goodrich)'. paper(onresilin) and for 2 lectures delivered at the Rockefeller Institute, New York, and the B.F. Goodrich Research Center, Brecksville, Ohio. Referencesto this visit will be found scattered 1964 Correspondence 1962-63 (Weis-Fogh gave a paper on 'Control of basic movements in flying insects’). Society for Experimental Biology Symposium on 'Homeostasis and feedback mechanisms', Cambridge, September 1963. 1963 Correspondence with organisers re arrangements for the above. in Danish. Correspondence and notesre a visit to England in January 1964. throughout the general correspondence (Section G). Weis-Fogh was asked to go to England as a representative of the Royal Danish Academy (see his letter to Sir Lindor Brown, 2 January 1964). The folder contains a brief journal in Danish describing the people he saw during the six day visit and the topics discussed, and his subsequent report to the Royal Danish Academy, also T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours Folder labelled in Danish 'Visit to Detroit-Boston, January 1964'. It contains: A brief journal of the visit,in Danish. Notes for talks on resilin delivered at Wayne State University, and the U.S. Rubber Company. Ms. draft 'Future research related to the elucidation of the property and structure of the newly discovered rubberlike protein, resilin'. Typescript re elastin by A.J. Boyle, January 1964. 3 pp. notes headed 'London: Flight' (on discussions with colleagues, etc.). F.28-F.30 Conference on 'The Structure and Function of Connective and Skeletal Tissues', St. Andrews, 15-25 June 1964. 1964 F.28 Correspondence 1963-64 including conference programme and list of participants. Pay 'Resilin as compared with elastin' and ‘Mechanical properties of insect cuticle'. given by Weis-Fogh with some background notes. Typescripts of papers Correspondence 1961-64. XIIth International Congress of Entomology, London, July 1964. Notes on papers delivered by others, a set of abstracts, and typescript of a paper by S.O. Andersen 'Structure and biogenesis of the cross-links in resilin, a rubber- like protein’. Important’. Drafts and notes, July 1964, for paper delivered by Weis-Fogh on ‘Elasticity and wing movements in insects’. Typescript synopsis of paper with annotation in red by Weis-Fogh '9.8.70. Tibirke. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 F.32, F.33 Conferences, visits, lecture tours Conference on the 'Biology and Chemistry of Extracellular Matrices', Arden House, Columbia University, 1964. Cleveland, Charlottesville, Boston and New York. Weis-Fogh took the opportunity to visit Chicago, 1-4 November 1964 Correspondence re conference including list of participants, abstracts of papers, and Weis-Fogh's notes on papers which he attended. Correspondencere arrangementsforvisits. notes fora talk on resilin delivered at Chicago University, 5 November 1964, and 2 pp. notes headed ‘Albert Einstein College. Advanced protein chemistry course’, Includes Opening of the Ramsay Wright Zoological Laboratories, Toronto University. 17 September 1965. Inaugural lecture by Weis-Fogh Correspondencere arrangements, including printed programme and photographs of architect's model. Draft and background notes for lecture ‘Insects as tools in general biology. Some examples’. See list of publications, pp.100-107, and E.75. F356, F636 F.35 Correspondence 1965-66 in Swedish and Danish re arrangements for the sumposium. participants and abstracts of papers. Includeslist of Symposium on Nutrition and Physical Activity, Tyldsand, Sweden, 15-16 August 1966. Typescript of paper by Weis-Fogh on ‘Metabolism and Weight Economy in Migrating Animals, Particularly Birds and Insects', with correspondence re publication 1966-68. order to meet colleagues and exchange ideas. Correspondence with organisers 1966-70 re arrange- ments for the symposium and publication of papers. Weis-Fogh did not deliver a paper but was asked to open discussion of a paper by D.M. Wilson. There is also correspondence with K. Schmidt-Nielsen whom Weis-Fogh took the opportunity to visit in Symposium on Gravity and the Organism, Tuxedo, New York, 18-21 September 1967. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours International Study Conference on the Current and Future Problems of Acridology, Anti-Locust Research Centre, London, July 1970. (Weis-Fogh gave a talk in place of a paper to have been delivered by Donald M. Wilson who was drowned shortly before the conference. G.63, G.84). See 1970 Correspondencere possibility of republishing Wilson's paper from the Symposium on Gravity and the Organism (see F.36 above) in the Proceedings of this conference. note on Wilson by Weis-Fogh for inclusion in the conference proceedings. Includes a memorial This is not included in the list of publications on pp.100-107. Folder labelled 'Trip to Denmark. Amos. TWF'. Correspondencein English and Danish re arrange- ments for visit to collect specimens of Zoothamnium, August 1970, as part of a study of the contractile mechanism in Protozoa. See also D.36-D.39. Correspondence, including an invitation to lecture at Woods Hole, Mass.; preliminary programme. Colloquium on 'Structural Macromolecules in Arthropods', London, 4-5 January 1971. 1971 Symposium on Physiological and Biological Adaptations, University of Indiana, 30 August 1970. (Weis-Fogh originally accepted the invitation to attend but later had to decline owingto ill health.) probe Laboratory in Cambridge (see D.35). Letter accepting invitation to conference; programme and list of participants; Weis-Fogh's notes on papers delivered. Visit to Copenhagen, April 1971. Correspondencere visit by T.A. Hall and B.L. Gupta to study a Hitachi Microprobe in connection with research for the Biological Micro- T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours Society for Experimental Biology, Gdteborg, 20-23 July 1971. Brief correspondence, programme and typescript of joint paper by Weis-Fogh and W.B, Amos ‘Contraction in the Myonemesof Protozoa’. Weis-Fogh was badly injured in a car accident in April 1971 in which his wife was killed. He had not thought he would be able to attend this meeting, but decided at the last moment that he was sufficiently recovered to do so. Society for Experimental Biology, London, 4-7 January 1972. 1972 Correspondence and programme. (Weis-Fogh gave 2 papers: 'A new mechanism of contraction’ (with W.B, Amos) and ‘Dimensions in flying animals'.) Symposium on 'The Biophysics and Biochemistry of Insect Flight', XIVth International Congress of Entomology, Canberra, August 1972. Correspondence with organisers,1971. hoped to go, but he wasstill not fully recovered from the accident and had finally to decline the invitation. Weis-Fogh Correspondence with organisers including programme andlist of participants. and Integration' of papers in the session on Comparative Physiology of Locomotion. ) (Weis-Fogh gave a 'Summary International Congress on Comparative Physiology, Aquasparta, 1972 Italy, 18-22 September 1972. Correspondence. West Coast Connective Tissue Society, Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, November 1972. (Weis-Fogh hoped to go in order to give a talk on myonemes, but he had finally to decline the invitation. ) 1972 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours Quatriéme Conférence Internationale 'De la Physique Théorique 4 la Biologie', Versailles, 28 May-2 June 1973. Correspondence re arrangements 1972-74; pro- gramme, list of participants and abstracts of papers; corrected transcript of Weis-Fogh's contribution to discussions; on 'Mé thodes pour déceler les agents tératogénes physiques et chimiques' (declined). invitation to participate in a conference International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE). 7-8 September 1973. International Committee Meeting, Copenhagen, Correspondence 1972-73 (in English and Danish). Includes list of people who attended the meeting. Weis-Fogh was Research Director of ICIPE and a member of the International Committee, but he resigned after this meeting due to pressure of work and personal circumstances. (see his letter to R. Adams, 29 June 1973.) For further material on ICIPE see G.59. P00+F 252 Fso0 Pot F352 F353 Notes and calculations, August 1973, filed with the above. F.53, F.54 1973 Correspondence 1971-74 re content and organisation of symposium, publication of proceedings, etc. Symposium on Insect Flight, Royal Entomological Society, London, 20-21 September 1973. 1973 Corrected typescript of paper 'Energetics and aerodynamics of flapping flight, a synthesis’. insects and birds'. Correspondence 1972-75, mainly with K. Schmidt-Nielsen, the originator and organiser of this small informal conference. (9 participants). The later correspondence is about arrange- ments for publishing the conference papers, but this proved to be impractical. Conference on Scaling, Duke University, 24-27 September 1973. Background notes and calculations for Weis-Fogh's paper on ‘Scaling problems in a dynamic process: flapping flight in T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours Societyfor Experimental Biology, Leeds, January 1974. Correspondence with organisers,and programme. (Weis-Fogh gave a paper on 'What can welearn from dimensional analyses? Scale effects in flying animals'). Second International Conference on Comparative Physio- logy, ‘Functional aspects of structural materials', Ascona, Switzerland, 16-21 June 1974. Correspondencere arrangements 1973-74. Fogh gave a paperon'Principles of contraction in the spasmonemeofvorticellids'). (Weis- Ciba Foundation Symposium on Energy Transformation in Biological Systems, London, 2-4 July 1974. Correspondence 1973-74, including programme with list of participants; corrected transcript of Weis- Fogh's contribution to discussions. P06, F4o7 Symposium on Swimming and Flying in Nature, California Institute of Technology, 8-12 July 1974. toe Society for Experimental Biology, Cambridge, 16-19 July 1974. 1974 Correspondence 1971-72, 1974, mainly re arrange- ments for holding the meeting in Cambridge. Correspondence 1974-75 including programmewithlist of participants, etc., and Weis-Fogh's notes on papers delivered. Typescript of paper on flappingflight, originally delivered at Royal Entomological Society Symposium 1973 (see F.50-F.52), with revisions and amendments for reading at present meeting. the US. Symposium of the Society of General Physiologists, on "Molecules and Cell Movement', Asilomar, California, 7-10 September 1974. (Weis-Foghoriginally accepted the invitation to attend, but later had to decline due to pressure of work andill health.) Correspondence 1972-74 re arrangements for con- ference andpossible visits to other colleagues in T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours August Krogh's Centenary Symposium, Copenhagen, 14-20 November 1974. For further material on Krogh, see Index of Correspondents. Folder labelled 'Benzon Symposium'. in English and Danish re possibility of applying to the Benzon Foundation to sponsor a symposium in honour of Krogh. Correspondence See also G.115. 'Visit to Copenhagen - August Krogh - 14-20 Nov.' Correspondence in English and Danish re Weis-Fogh's visit to deliver 2 lectures and open the August Krogh Institute. Also included is an article about Krogh by C. Barker Jérgensen from Naturens Verden, 1971. 'Modern insect physiology in the light of the pioneer work of August Krogh'. Danish) delivered at the August Krogh Institute 19 November 1974. for a talk on similar lines 15 November 1974. Folder also includes brief ms. notes for this and Typescript of Weis-Fogh's talk (in 1974 Correspondence re arrangements 1973-74. F.66-F.70 Symposium on 'Biodynamics of Animal Locomotion’, Cambridge, 1-5 September 1975. Symposium on 'New Directions in Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry', Tucson, Arizona, 27-29 December 1974. (Weis-Fogh planned to attend but was preventedbyill health. ) symposium. This symposium, plans for which were originally formulated during the Scaling Conference at Duke University (F.53, F.54), was organised by Weis- Fogh and Sir James Lighthill, and was to have been the prelude to further cooperation in a joint research project on biological fluid dynamics (see D.58-D.62). Correspondence, 1973-74, re date and financing of the T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours Correspondence, 1974-75, with and between members of the Scientific Committee for the symposium: M. J. Lighthill R.D. Keynes R. McNeill Alexander K. Schmidt-Nielsen T.Y. Wu S.S. Grigoryan (Lighthill's carbon only) =N.V. Kokshaysky T.J. Pedley Correspondence with others re the symposium, mainly requests or invitations to participate. Included here Programme of meeting, list of participants. is a photocopy of greetings sent to Sir James Gray, ‘the Doyen of Animal Locomotion', signed by all the participants in the symposium. The pleasure given to Gray by the receipt of this document is mentioned by H.W. Lissman in his Memoir of Gray (Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 24, 1978, p.67). Notes taken by Weis-Fogh on papers given at the symposium. Society for Experimental Biology Symposium on ‘Calcium in Biological Systems', Royal Holloway College, London, 8-12 September 1975. 1975 Zoological Society of London Symposium on 'Comparative Biology of Skin', London, 30 October 1975. 1975 Correspondence with organisers re arrangements, including programme. Correspondence 1974-75, including programme. (Weis-Fogh gave a paper on 'The spasmoneme and the calcium dependent contraction in connection with the specific calcium binding proteins’). cuticles: their composition, properties and functions’. Notes taken by Weis-Fogh during the symposium. Typescript of paper by $.O. Andersen on 'Arthropod T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours F.73-F.76 Shorter correspondence. ferences listed below were declined by Weis-Fogh. Invitations to most of the con- F.73 Undated letter re unnamed symposium International Conference of Biophysics, Cambridge (?) Society for Experimental Biology, Copenhagen Society for Experimental Biology, Amsterdam Conference Against the Spread of Nuclear Weapons, Oslo International Biochemical Congress, Moscow 10th Pugwash Conference, London Second Meeting on an International Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Geneva (?) British Association for the Advancement of Science, Southampton n.d. 1959 1959 1961 1961 1961 1962 1963 1964 XIth International Congress of Cell Biology, Providence, 1964 Rhode Island Eye, Stockholm re meetings, 1967, 1969. Corneal Biophysics Conference, Wiesbaden Society for Experimental Biology, Copenhagen Gordon Research Conference on Proteins, New Hampshire 23rd International Congress of Physiology, Tokyo Symposium on Comparative Neurophysiology, Tokyo Symposium on Functional Organisation of the Compound Society for Experimental Biology. Brief correspondence 1973 Two-day symposium, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 1973 Conference on 'Waterpollution and its effects considered Symposium on ‘Approaches to Quaternary Plant Ecology’, Conference on 'The Chemistry and Molecular Biology of 2nd Symposium of the Underwater Association, London 'Science and Mathematics in Secondary Education’, 1964 1965 1965 1965 1965 1965 1967 - 1967 1968 1969 1970 1972 Informal discussion on muscle, Cambridge Hockerill College of Education the Intercellular Matrix', Italy as a world problem', Aberystwyth 1967, 1969 Cambridge Society for Experimental Biology, Reading T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Conferences, visits, lecture tours Workshop on 'Receptors and Control of Respiration in Birds', Gdttingen Conference on 'Chance, necessity and human values', Sussex University Gordon Conference on Structural Macromolecules, New Hampshire Vth International Congress of Biophysics, Copenhagen Cold Spring Harbor Motility Meeting (see list of publications, p.107) Society for Experimental Biology, Nottingham Symposium on 'The Changing Scene in Natural Science’ Philadelphia / XVth International Congress of Entomology, Washington T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 SECTION G CORRESPONDENCE G.1 - G.197 The material is presented as follows: Gul G.149 Correspondence with individuals, organisations and societies G.150 G.174 Correspondence with editors and publishers G.175 G.181 References and appointments G.182 G.197 Miscellaneous shorter correspondence (not indexed) This Section is made up of material from more than one source. Most of the correspondence up to 1966 was kept by Weis-Fogh in loose-leaf binders in alphabetical order of correspondent. Later correspondence was not in any order whenit arrived, and has been incorporated with the above. The material in the main sequence (G.1 - G.149) is presented personal and friendly references. alphabetically, dated, and with an indication of the language(s) in which it is An indication of the content is sometimes given, but this has not conducted. always been possible, especially in the case of a heterogeneous exchange extending over a period of several years (see, e.g., A.C. Neville, G.80 - G.84, J.W.S. Pringle, G.101 - G.104, V.B. Wigglesworth, G.144 - G.145). The bulk of the correspondenceis scientific in content, but it contains many Not all the material in this Section is necessarily available for immediate consultation. first instance to the Head of the Manuscripts Department, University Library, Cambridge. The Index of Correspondents of the collection. should be consulted in order to trace correspondence by specific individuals in (See especially Section F.) Enquiries should be made in the The names of all correspondents listed in the main sequence Correspondence appear in the Index of Correspondents on pp. 108-120. relating to lectures, conferences, specific research projects, etc., kept by Weis-Fogh with working notes and records, will be found in the relevant sections other parts of the collection. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Adrian, R. +H. Agricultural Research Council Alexander, R. McNeill 1972 1968-69, 1973, 1975 1966-75 Correspondence September-November 1975 is re plans for a joint paper, interrupted by Weis- Fogh's death in November. Alexandrowicz, J. 5. on locust muscle Andersen, S.O. (in English and Danish) Anti-Locust Research Centre (see also Centre for Overseas Pest Research) Archer, R. D. 1956-58 1974 1960-70 1974 1967-68, 1971- 74 1958, 1961 1955 Arup Associates Bailey, K. on resilin Aziz, S. A. on locusts Atyeo, W. T. on identification of soil mites Includes correspondence re possibility of establishing a ‘Carlsberg pub' in Cambridge as part of the Lion Yard development, 1972. 1958-61 Re Barro Colorado Island (Marine Laboratory, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute) Bayronoglu, S. on locusts T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Beament, J. W. L. 1959-61 Mainly re arrangements for a paper by Niels Bohr to be read at the Society for Experimental Biology Symposium on 'Models in Biology’, Bristol, September 1959. drafts of the paper. Includes 2 typescript Bech, K. (in Danish) Beenakkers, A. M._ Th. Bellamy, D. on the biochemistry of insect flight Berger, M. Bernays, E. on locust muscle 1970-73 1969 Biggs, W._ OD. (Weis-Fogh's carbons only) 1970, 1972 Boettiger, E. G. 1952, 1939/7, 1964-65 J. English on resilin Bone, Q. 1967 1970-71 (in Danish and 1960-64, 1974 Brink, P. (in Danish) Brian, P. W. Bramwell, C. OD. Bredsdorff, A. and Bredsdorff E. 1965, 1968-69 on filming flying locusts and Manduca British Broadcasting Corporation British Universities Film Council Brunet, Pe Di Brodsky, A. K. on insect flight 1974-75 1971 1946 1975 1973 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Brunori, M. on fish hemoglobins Buchthal, F. (in Danish) Buck, J. Buckner, J. M. 1972-73 1957, 1960-63 1956, 1961-63 1972 Buddenbrock, W. v. (in German and English) 1952, 1957 Bullock, T. H. (Weis-Fogh's carbons only) Burton, A. J. on locust flight Cadwell, S. M. Calion, TG. 1958, 1960, 1962 1956, 1961-62 1964-65, 1968 1975 1971 Cambridge Evening News and Cambridge Independent Press (includes newscuttings) Chadwick, L. E. Canning, E. Gere; Ci’ GS, Centre for Overseas Pest Research (see also Anti-Locust Research Centre) on elastin Includes a letter from Weis-Fogh and Martin Jensen, August 1953, to accompany a copyoftheir film 'How Locusts Fly' which was to be shown at an informal symposium on flight physiology at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, Summer 1953. For further material re the film see B.49. 1952-53, 1956, 1966 1955 1971-72 Chance, B. Chapman, D. on insect flight muscle T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Chari, N. on insect cuticle and resilin Clements, A. N. 1957 correspondence on locust saline See also B.52 Cloudsley-Thompson, J. Coles, Gy iC. Collett, T. on hover-flies Cone, C. OD. 1966 1955° 5? 1971-72 1965-72 1973 1974 on birdflight aerodynamics Crone, C. (in English and Danish) 1960, 1968-75 Cumber, R. A. Elliott, J. 1958 1961-63 1954, 1968 Danzer, A. on Deilephila Davis, Ree B. Currey, 53. D. re Uropeta la carovei 1970-71 1959-66 (in Danish and English) (in German and English) on bone andinsect cuticle Danish Embassy (in Danish and English) Danmarks Teknisk-Videnskabelige Forskningsraad 1963-66 includes correspondenceonresilin on man-powered ornithopters Einarson, L. (in Danish) Eliasen, E. (in Danish) 1956 1966 1974 1955, 1960-61 1959-60, 1964 Dixon, K. Edney, E. Elliot Ge -F: 1958-65, 1969 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence European Molecular Biology Organization (in Swedish and Danish) Fdnge, R. Fatt, P. Feinsinger, P. on calculating power output of hummingbirds Fitzpatrick, J. L. G. (Weis-Fogh's carbon only) 1953 Forer, A. Fraenkel, G. S. Friend, W. G. 1973 1953 1966-67, 1970 Frisch, K. v. (in German and English) 1957, 1960 oo, on U-type thermistors 1952 Gettrup, E. 1970 Glen, R. see also G.59 Gibbons, |. R. Gibbs-Smith, C. H. on insect aerodynamics Re Gombe Stream Research Centre (includes brief correspondence re Gettrup, 1967) 1961-63, 1965 (in Swedish and Danish) Greenewalt, C. H. Gotte, L. Grace, T. Gustavson, K. H. 1972-74 1964 1954-59 1961, 1976 1975 Gray, Sir James Greenhalgh, S. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Haarlov, N. (in Danish and English) 1959-60, 1964 Hackman, R. H. Hanson, E. J. (1973 correspondenceis from G. Offer re her death) Hargrove, J. Haskell, P. T. Hatch, G. on insect flight Heinrich, B. Heran, H. (in German and English) 1962, 1971, 1974 1957, 1965, 1973 1972-73 1961-74 1965 1974 1958-61 Hinton, H. 1954, 1958-61 1950-63 1955-57, 1974 Hocking, B. on insect flight Holdgate, M. W. Hoyle, G. Huber, F. (in German and English) re provision of teaching and research facilities at National Environment Research Council researchstations. 1970-75 International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) (some correspondence in Danish and Swedish). 1958, 1960, 1966 Huntingdon Research Centre 1972-74 1963-65 Huxley, A. F. See also F.49, G.45 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Jensen, M. and Jensen |. (in Danish and English) Includes much material re the 'Biology and Physics of Locust Flight' (see also B.67-B.142). 1954-61, 1968- 72 J8nasson, P. M. Jones, B. Kalckar, H. M. (in Danish) Karlson, P. (in German and English) Kendrew, J. C. Kennedy, D. correspondence re D.M. Wilson 1972 1958, 1967-70 1959, 1962, 1964 1959, 1962, 1964 1962-63, 1976 1962, 1970 Kristensen, B. (in Danish and English) 1967-68 Krogh, A. (in Danish) 1947, 1948 Kubista, V. 1958 Lefkowitz, I. Levenbook, L. on locust muscle Lot 36°": @. Lane, F. W. 1966-68 1953, 1963 on locust flight re study of zoology in Czechoslovakia, Cambridge and Denmark for his sabbatical (Weis -Fogh's carbon only) 1975 correspondence re Weis-Fogh's plans Lighthill, Sir James Lissmann, H. W. 1956 1953 Lindhard, P. (in Danish) 1972-74 1962 1961-63, 1975 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Locke, M. on resilin Long, D. P. on insect flight energetics Loveridge, J. P. on locusts Lowy, J. McCutchen, C. W. McKenzie, D. McMahon, T. A. McMullen, A. I. Masud, R. on Lamarckism 1961-63 1958 1964-67 1957-63 1975 1970 1973, 1975 1972 1968 Medical Research Council Mewis, G. E. Miller, P. i 1959-72 Michelson, A. (in Danish and English) 1973 1965 1973 (Weis-Fogh's carbons only) Includes correspondence re work on the ‘Biology and Physics of Locust Flight’ (see B.67-B.142). 1970-72 Natural Environment Research Council 1960, 1964, 1967, 1972-73 National Science Foundation (in Danish and English) 1968, 1971 1954, 1956 Nachtigall, W. (in German and English) Muus, B. (in Danish) 1971, 1974-75 Mgller, K. M. on insect flight see also G.56 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence G.81-G.84 Neville, A. C. 1958-60, 1962- 66, 1970, 1973 G.81 1958-59 G.82 1959 G.83 1960, 1962 G.84 1963-66, 1970, 1973 Niedenfuhr, F. W. on insect flight 1956 Nielsen, C. O. (in Danish and English) 1960-63, 1973 Nielsen, Nielsen, Nielsen, (in Danish) (in Danish) 1949-61, 1964 1953, 1956 (in Danish and English) 1967-71, 1975 Norberg, Norberg, Oouchi, H. 1972-74 1970, 1975 1974 1975 on insect flight Owen, G. Osborne, M. F. M. on insect respiration Nuffield Foundation 1975 Includes typescript of obituary of Pantin by Weis-Fogh for Christ's College Magazine, 1967. on pp. 100-107. (Weis-Fogh's carbon only) This is not in the list of publications Pantin,:C.« Fe: oA. Partridge, S. M. on resilin and elastin 1963-64, 1970-73 1962 1961-62 Pantin, Amy M. 1951, 1956-57 1968 Pearson, M. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence G.94,G.95 Pennycuick, C. J. 1972, 1974-75 (includes typescript of paper by Pennycuick and ms. notes by Weis-Fogh headed 'Attempt to re- consider maximum poweroutput of skeletal muscle in the light of Pennycuick's draft ms.' 17 August 1975). 1972, 1974 1975 Re Percy Sladen Memorial Fund, The Linnaean Society of London 1972-74 (Weis-Fogh was a Trustee) Petersen, J. 1958-61 includes correspondence on insect cuticle. Phillips, D.C. Phillips, D. M. Picken, L. 1967 1974 G.100 ‘ 1964-65, 1972 1974-75 on resilin Piez, K. A. 1958-59 1963 G.101 1959-60 Prange, H. OD. Pierson, R. M. G.101-G.104 Pringle, J. W. (Weis-Fogh's carbons only) re effects of pornography on society 1959-64, 1967- 72 (includes some correspondence 1963-64, 1967 Ramsay, J. A. Prosser, C. L. G.104 1968-72 G.102 1961-62 G.105 G.106 1963-65 1964 in Danish) G.103 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Rasmussen, L. (in Danish and English) Rasmussen, S. (in Danish) Rete Ca. Je Ss on insect flight Richard, G. includes correspondence re the film 'How Locusts Fly' (see also B.49) Richards, A. G. Roeder, K. OD. Rothschild, M. -110, G.111 The Royal Society includes correspondence re Leverhulme Student- ship Committee of which Weis-Fogh was a member 1974 1957 1973-75 1953, 1956 1958-59, 1965 1951 1967, 1973, 1975 1959-63, 1970- 79 1959-63, 1970-71 1972-75 Sannasi, A. on resilin Satchell, J. Russell, F. Russell, F. S. E. Rudall, K. M. 1955-56 1970-71 includes correspondence onresilin 1962, 1972 1965-66, 1972- 75 (in German and English) (in Danish and English) Schmidt-Nielsen, K. Schmidt-Nielsen, B. (in Danish and English) 1963-65 on cockroach chitin Schneider, D. 1961, 1971 1966, 1968 1975 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Schwartzkopff, J. (in German and English) 1961-63 on locusts G.118-G. 123 Science Research Council 1968-75 G.118 1968-70 G.119 1971 G.120 1972 G.121 1972 G.122 1972-73 G.123 1974-75 G.124 Seifter, S. Shappiro, D. G. 1959, 1964-65 1965, 1973 Shepherd, A. Sibulkin, M. 1971 1956 1957 Blijper, Ee J. Simesen, M._ G. Siddorn, J. W. (in Danish and English) Includes a typescript 'The case history of an empty floor' re his attempts to set up an'institute for experimental transplantation and immunology’ in Copenhagen. 1950-54, 1958 includes correspondence oninsect flight 1954, 1960, 1963 1957 n.d. 'Sdgaard' (in Danish) Sotavolta, O. Smart, J. Smith, J. M. Smith, S. 1964-6 5 1951, 1956 1957 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Stegwee, D. on Hydrophilus beetles Taub, E. Taylor, B. Thamdrup, H. M. (in Danish and English) Thorson, J. W. Thurm, U. (in German and English) Treloar, L. R. G. on resilin Tucker, V. A. Turner, B. M. Tuxen, S. L. (in Danish) 1951-53, 1956- 57 1965 1956 1959, 1961, 1965, 1969 1962-63 1962-64 1961-62 1966, 1973 1957 1949, 1961, 1964-66 1969 1958, 1961 1966 1972 Vague, J. Tyson, J. B. on locust cuticle Ussing, H. 4H. Uvarov, Sir Boris Winceph or Pi Me 1961-62, 1965, 1967 on high flying locusts. See also D.42 1968-69 1963-65, 1973- vo on respiration of flying insects Wainwright, S.A. 1963-65 1952 on insect flight Waje, E. on locusts Wald, G. Vogel, S. Von Brand, T. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence Waterhouse, D. F. Waterman, T. H. The Wellcome Trust 1956-57, 1973 1960-65, 1969, 197] 1962, 1964 Westergaard, M. (in Danish) 1959-61, 1969 Wiersma, C. A. G. (Weis-Fogh's carbons only) .144,G.145 G.144 Wigglesworth, Sir Vincent 1953-56, 1959-60 G.145 1961-63, 1967 - 146 Wilkie, D. Wilkin, P. R. J. 1953, 1956, 1960-61 1953-56, 1959-63, rene 1972 1968-70, 1972- 74 Wingstrand, Karl G. (in Danish) 1958, 1964 1973 1969 1961-62 1964 Zee, £5 on elastin Work, T. S. on insect flight Yannas, John B. Wootten, Robin J. Yurkiewicz, William J. C. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence -150-G.174 Correspondence with publishers and editors, mostly re books, articles and reviews by Weis-Fogh or submitted to him for comment. The material is arranged alphabetically by name of publisher or publication. G. G. G. G. G. G. G. Academic Press Advancesin Insect Physiology The American Naturalist Annual Review of Entomology Biological Reviews Blackwell Scientific Publications Cambridge University Press 1964, 1972-75 1962-64, 1974-75 1972-74 1957-58, 1966-69 1956-57, 1972-74 1966-73 1967-75 Thisis 1973-75 1975 G. Central Office of Information 1973-74 Chapmanand Hall Chatto and Windus Includes correspondence with G.W. Trevelyan re arrangements for filming swifts from the top of the cathedral tower at St. Albans. Includes an article written by Weis-Fogh for the Overseas Press Services entitled ‘Aerodynamic lift discovery in wasp study', 1973. not in the list of publications on pp. 100-107. 1961, 1972 Journal of Mechanochemistry and Cell Motility Ergebnisse der Biologie (in German and English) Journal of Comparative Physiology 1961, 1964, 1973-75 1970-73 Journal of Experimental Biology Journal of Theoretical Biology 1957-63 1967-68, 1974-75 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence - 165 - 166 . 167 . 168 .169 170 McGraw-Hill Nature New Scientist Oliver and Boyd Limited Oxford Biology Readers Polymer 1967-68 1969-75 1972, 1974 1965-72 1969-71 1974 .171, G.172 Miscellaneous shorter correspondence. Not indexed. 1956-76 Gall Ak G.172 F=T i170 Invitations to Weis-Fogh from colleagues to write books/ articles, serve on editorial boards, etc. 174 Brief unindexed correspondencere2 articles by Weis- Fogh published in Politiken, March 1965. In Danish T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence G.175-G.181 References and appointments. 7 folders in alphabetical order. G.175 G.176 G.177 A-G H M-P G.178-G. 180 G.181 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Correspondence © - 182-G..197 Shorter scientific correspondence. The contents of each folder are in alphabetical order. Not indexed. . 182-G. 184 Arrangements for visits to and from colleagues; requests to work in Weis-Fogh's laboratory. G.182 A-C G.182 D-=L G.183 Mi = Z . 185-G. 187 Reprint requests and exchanges. Some letters contain very brief personal references. 1948-75 G.185 A-G G.186 H-O G.187 Pe - 196 1962-65 1950-75 . 188 . 189 - 190 Correspondence re external examining of theses. 1954-71 Requests for advice on academic appointments. Postcards requesting reprints from Weis-Fogh. Unsorted Requests for information or advice on research methods, specimens, etc. Requests for permission to quote or reproduce material in Weis-Fogh's publications. 1968-75 Miscellaneous Danish correspondence. Mainly Weis- Fogh's carbonsonly. Correspondence with firms and individuals re supply of laboratory equipment, etc. Correspondence with societies re subscriptions, dates of meetings, etc. In English and Danish. Brief exchanges of correspondence with colleagues. | 192 193 194 rH Letters from members of the public. 1962-75 1949-73 1959-70 1956-74 1953-66 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS This list is essentially the one produced by the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, with a few editorial alterations in the interests of consistency, and some additional bibliographical indications in the case of the more recent publica- tions. A copy of the original on which this list is based is included in A.4. Papers in brackets refer to work carried out in association with Weis-Fogh and of particular relevance to his research, but of which he was not co-author. A collection of reprints of most of Weis-Fogh's publications can be found in E75. Note: For other publications by Weis-Fogh, not included in this list, see A, JZ, Diep Die, © .oc, C92, G.157. Weis-Fogh, T. Weis-Fogh, T. J.exp.Biol. 28, 344-357. (1948). collemboles in the soil. Nat. Jutland 1, 135-270. Weis-Fogh, T. An aerodynamic sense organ in locusts. Weis-Fogh, T. Ecological investigations on mites and Weis-Fogh, T. Vandregrdshoppernes flugtfysiologi. (1951). August Krogh. Ent.Medd. 25, 435-445. (1950). Nat.Verd.Kbh. 34, 19-26. (1949). regulating flight in locusts. An aerodynamic sense organ stimulating and Nature, Lond. 164, 873. (1950). Proc. VIII Int.Congr.Ent. 1948, 584-588. Phil. Trans. B. 237, 1-36. desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) before, during and after flight. (1952). locusts (Schistocerca gregaria Forskaal). Fat combustion and metabolic rate of flying (1952). A roundabout for studying sustained flight of locusts. J.exp.Biol. 29, 211-219. Krogh, A. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1951). The respiratory exchange of the Krogh, A. & Weis-Fogh, T. Weis-Fogh, T. T: Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 (1952). Dansk oversigt til 8. Weis-Fogh, T. (1952). Trans. IX Int.Congr.Ent. 1, 341-347. Weight economyofflying insects. Weis-Fogh, T. The ventilatory mechanism during flight of insects (1956). in relation to the call for oxygen. Zool. 1953. 283-285. Proc. XIV Int.Congr. Haarlév, N. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1953). A technique for studying the undisturbed microscopical texture of soils. Oikos, 4, 44-57. Haarldv, N. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1956). A technique for studying the undisturbed microscopical texture of soils. Proc. XIV Int.Congr. Zool. 1953, 409. Weis-Fogh, T. (1954). 29-31. Anmeldelse af Boas-Thomsen. Nat.Verd.Kbh. 1, Haarlév, N. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1955). studying the undisturbed texture of soils. ed. D.K.McE. Kevan, 429-432. A microscopical technique for Soil Zoology, Buchthal, F. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1956). Contribution of the sarcolemma Weis-Fogh, T. (1956). Biology and physics of locust flight. (1956). Biology and physics of locust The flight of locusts. Sci.Amer. 194, 116-124. Weis-Fogh, T. & Jensen, M. 1. to the force exerted by the resting muscle of insects. Acta physiol. scand. 35, 345-364. flight. review. Phil.Trans. B, 239, 415-458. Basic principles in insect flight. A critical (1956). II. Flight performanceof the desert locust. (Schistocerca gregaria). Phil. Trans. B, 239, 459-510. (1956). on sensory mechanisms in locust flight. 553-584. Elastic properties of the insect thorax. (1956). Demonstration at the Royal Society London, 10 May & 21 June 1956. flight muscle during tetanus and twitch. XX Congr. Int.Physiol. 1956, 954-955. Biology and physics of locust flight. IV. Notes Weis-Fogh, T. & Buchthal, F. (1956). Mechanical activity of locust Phil.Trans. B, 239, T. T. T. Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 22% Weis-Fogh, T. (1956). J.exp.Biol. 33, 668-684. Tetanic force and shortening in locust flight muscle. 23. Buchthal, F., Weis-Fogh, T. & Rosenfalck, P. (1957). Twitch contractions of isolated flight muscle of locusts. 39, 247-276. Acta physiol .scand. Weis-Fogh, T. Elasticity in arthropod locomotion: A neglected (1959). subject illustrated by the wing systemsof insects. XV Int.Congr.Zool. 1958, 393-395. Weis-Fogh, T. (1960). J.exp.Biol. 37, 889-907. A rubber-like protein in insect cuticle. Bailey, K. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1961). Amino acid composition of a rubber- like protein, resilin. Biochim.Biophys.Acta, 48, 452-459. Weis-Fogh, T. Powerin flapping flight. The Cell and the (1961). Organism, ed. J.A. Ramsay & V.B. Wigglesworth. Cambridge University Press, 283-300. Wilson, D.M. (1961). J.exp.Biol. 38, 471-490.) The central nervous control of flight in a locust. J.mol.Biol. 3, 648-667. Gettrup, E. J.exp.Biol. 37, 631-656.) J.mol.Biol. 3, 520-531. (1960). dragonflies. (1961). like protein. Weis-Fogh, T. Properties of resilin, a rubber-like protein. Weis-Fogh, T. Molecular interpretation of the elasticity of Weis-Fogh, T. Thermodynamic properties of resilin, a rubber- Neville, A.C. Aspects of flight mechanics in anisopterous (1961). resilin, a rubber-like protein. (1963). Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 36, 90-101. Nordisk Medicin, 69, 180. V. Strength and elasticity of locust cuticle. Phil. Trans. B, 245, 137-169. (1962). Nature, Lond. 193, 498-499.) motorunits studied in flying locusts. J.exp.Biol. 39, 643-667. Jensen, M. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1962). Biology and physics of locust flight. Weis-Fogh, T. (1963). Zoofysiologisk Laboratorium B og dets arbejdsomraader. Thoracic proprioceptorsin flight system of locusts. Wilson, D.M. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1962). Patterned activity of co-ordinated T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 (36. Andersen, S.O. (1963). Characterisation of a new type of cross-linkage in resilin, a rubber-like protein. Biochim.Biophys. Acta, 69, 249-262.) Haarlbv, N. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1962). A microscopical technique for studying the undisturbed structure ofsoils. J.fUr Pflanzenerndhrung, Dungung, Bodenkunde, 99, 140-144. Neville, A.C. Motor unit distribution of the dorsal longitudinal (1963). flight muscle in locusts. J.exp.Biol. 40, 123-136.) Neville, A.C. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1963). on locust flight muscle. The effect of temperature J.exp.Biol. 40, 111-121. Wilson, D.M. & Gettrup, E. (1963). A stretch reflex controlling wingbeat frequency in grasshoppers. J.exp.Biol. 40, 171-185.) Neville, A.C. Neville, A.C. Daily growth layers in locust rubber-like cuticle (1963). influenced by an external rhythm. 177-186.) J.Ins.Physiol. 9, (1963). in locust rubber-like cuticle. Growth and deposition of resilin and chitin J.Ins.Physiol. 9, 265-278.) Neville, A.C. Weis-Fogh, T. (1963). in locusts. J.exp.Biol. 40, 323-333.) Gettrup, E. Gettrup, E. Phasic stimulation of a thoracic stretch receptor (1963). @2, suppl. 213, 159-160. (1963). Acta physiol. scand. 59, suppl. 213, 107-108.) Daily growth zonesin insect skeletons. (1963). Information carried by single impulses from a unicellular stretch receptor. Acta physiol.scand. 59, suppl. 213, 46-47.) Acta chem.scand. 17, 869.) and tyrosine in the cross-linkages of a protein, resilin. Acta physiol.scand. 59, suppl. 213, 15.) Two fluorescent amino acids which function as (1963). cross-linkages between the peptide chainsin resilin, a rubber-like protein. Andersen, S.O. & Kristensen, B. (1963). Incorporation of phenylalanine Diffusion in insect wing muscle. Acta physiol.scand. (1963). grasshopper populations. Neville, A.C. Daily growth layers for determining the age of Oikos, 14, 1-8.) Andersen, S.O. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 50. Weis-Fogh, T. Resilin, a rubber-like protein and its significance. (1963). Aspects of protein structure, ed. G.N. Ramachandran. Academic Press, 337-341. Gettrup, E. & Wilson, D.M. (1964). The lift-control reaction of flying locusts. J.exp.Biol. 41, 183-190.) Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, T. T. T. (1964). tissue known. Diffusion in insect wing muscle, the most active J.exp.Biol. 41, 229-256. Biology and physics of locust flight. (1964). and metabolic rate of flying locusts. 257-271. VIII. J.exp.Biol. 41, Lift Functional design of the tracheal system of (1964). flying insects as compared with the avéan lung. J.exp.Biol. 41, 207-227. Andersen, S.O. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1964). Resilin. A rubber-like protein in arthropod cuticle. Academic Press, 1-65. Adv.Ins.Phys. 2, Andersen, S.O. (1964). andtrityrosine. Biochim.Biophys.Acta, 93, 213-215.) The cross-links in resilin identified as dityrosine Weis-Fogh, T. Gettrup, E. Weis-Fogh, T. Control of basic movements in flying insects. Control of forewing twisting by hindwing Elliott, G.F., Huxley, A.F. & Weis-Fogh, T. (1965). of resilin. J.mol.Biol. 13, 791-795. (1965). Proc. XII Int.Congr.Ent. 1964, 186-188. Elasticity and wing movementsin insects. (1964). Symp. Soc.Exp.Biol. 18, Homeostatis and feedback mechanisms, 343-363. (1965). receptors in flying locusts. Proc. XII Int.Congr.Ent. 1964, 190-192.) J.Ins.Physiol. 12, 173-177.) (1966). Covalent cross-links in a structural protein, resilin. Acta physiol.scand. 66, suppl. 263, 1-81.) (1966). cuticle of locusts studied by autoradiography . Incorporation of tyrosine into the rubber-like Chitin lamellogenesis in locust cuticle. (1965). Quart. J.micr.Sci. 106, 269-286. ) On the structure Andersen, S.O. Neville, A.C. Kristensen, B.1. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 (64. Gettrup, E. (1966). J.exp.Biol. 44, 1-16.) Sensory regulation of wing twisting in locusts. (65. Neville, A.C. (1966). skeletons. Circadian organisation of chitin in some insect Quart.J.micr.Sci. 106, 315-325.) (66. Coles, G.C. (1966). 12).679-6971..} Studies on resilin biosynthesis. J.Ins.Physiol. 67. Weis-Fogh, T. Resilin as compared with elastin. Structure and (1965). Function of Connective and Skeletal Tissue, ed. S. Fitton Jackson, R.D. Harkness, S.M. Partridge & G.R. Tristam. Butterworths; 101-105. Andersen, $.O. (1965). Structure:and biogenesis of the cross-links in resilin, a rubber-like protein. Ibid., 105-109.) Weis-Fogh, T. (1965). 373-375. Mechanical properties of insect cuticle. Ibid., Weis-Fogh, T. Nattergal og forsker, Forsker og kejser (1965). (reprinted from Politiken, 28 & 29 March 1965). Tre Kronikker, Politikens Redaktion, 17-30. Weis-Fogh, T. T. J.Ins.Physiol. 14, 1135-1140.) Weis-Fogh, (1967). and other flying insects. J.exp.Biol. 47, 561-587. Weis-Fogh, T. Staten maa investere i talentet. Weig-Fogh, T. Metabolism and weight economy in migrating Metabolism and weight economy in migrating Respiration and tracheal ventilation in locusts (1967). animals, particularly birds and insects. Insects and Physiology, ed. J.W.L. Beament & J.E. Treherne. Oliver & Boyd, 143-159. (1967). animals, particularly birds and insects. Symposia of the Swedish Nutrition Foundation, V, Nutrition and physical activity. Almgvist & Wiksells. of elastin. Chemistry and Molecular Biology of the Intercellular Matrix, Vol.1, ed. E.A. Balazs. Academic Press, 671-684. Comparisons of isolated and in vivo Nature. Lond. 222, 689-691.) (1968). rubber-like cuticle of locusts. Forer, A. & Goldman, R.D. (1969). mitotic apparatuses. Weis-Fogh, T. & Andersen S.O. (1970). Elasticity and thermodynamics Kristensen, B.1. Time course of incorporation of tyrosine into T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 78. Weis-Fogh, T. (1970). Ultrastructure, ed. A.C. Neville. Blackwell, 165-185. Structure and formation of insect cuticle. Insect 7a Weis-Fogh, T. & Andersen, $.O. (1970). New molecular model for the long-range elasticity of elastin. Nature. Lond. 227, 718-721. 80. Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, T. T. Flying Insects and Gravity. Gravity and the (1971). Organism, ed. S.A. Gordon & M.J. Cohen. University of Chicago Press, 177-184. (1972). and in Drosophila. Energetics of hovering flight in hummingbirds J.exp.Biol. 56, 79-104. Weis-Fogh, T. & Amos, W.T. (1972). Evidence for a new mechanism of cell motility. Nature, Lond. 236, 301-304. Weis-Fogh, T. Quick estimates of flight fitness in hovering (1973). animals, including novel mechanisms for lift production. J.exp.Biol. 59, 169-230. Moreton, R.B., Echlin, P., Gupta, B.L., Hall, T.A. & Weis-Fogh, T. Preparation of frozen hydrated tissue sections (1974). for X-ray microanalysis in the scanning electron microscope. Nature. Lond. 247, 113-115. Weis-Fogh, Weis-Fogh, T. T. Weis-Fogh, Energetics and aerodynamics of flapping Spasmonemes, a new contractile system. Symp.Roy.Ent.Soc. Lond. 7, Insect flight. Principles of contraction in the spasmoneme of (1975). flight. Blackwell, 48-71. (1975). CIBA Foundation Symposium, 31, Energy transformations in biological systems. Associated Scientific Publishers, ar l-299. P. Spencer Davies. Pergamon Press, 481-492. (1975). Vorticellids, a new contractile system. Physiology - Functional Aspects of Structural Materials, ed. L. Bolis, H.P. Maddrell, & K. Schmidt-Nielsen. North Holland, 83-98. Flapping flight and powerin birds and insects, (1975). conventional and novel mechanisms. Swimming and Flying in Nature, Vol.2, ed. T.Y.-T. Wu, C.J. Brokaw & C. Brennan. Plenum Publishing Corporation, 729-762. (1976). Perspectives in Experimental Biology, Vol.1, ed. Animal flight, where do we go from here? Weis-Fogh, T. Comparative Weis-Fogh, T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 90. Routledge, L.M., Amos, W.B., Gupta, B.L., Hall, T.A. & Weis-Fogh, T. Microprobe measurements of calcium (1975). binding in the contractile spasmonemeofa vorticellid. J. Cell Sei. 19, 195-201. Routledge, L.M., Amos, W.B., Yew, F.F. & Weis-Fogh. T. New calcium-binding contractile proteins. Cold Spring Harbor Conferences in Cell Proliferation, 3, Cell motility. (1975). Amos, W.B., Routledge, L.M., Weis-Fogh, T. & Yew, F.F. (1975). The spasmoneme and calcium-dependent contraction in connection with specific calcium-binding proteins. Symp.Soc.Exp.Biol. 30. Weis-Fogh, T. Novel mechanisms for the generation of (1975). lift in flying animals. Sci.Amer. 233, 80-387. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS ABBOTT, Bernard C. ADRIAN, Richard Hume, Baron Adrian of Cambridge F.61 G.] ALEXANDER, R. McNeill F356,.. 667,42; ©. 158 ALEXANDROWICZ, J. ALLEN, Robert D. AMOS, W. Brad ANDERSEN, Svend Olav G.3 F.61 1, G.87. See also 9, F.43, F.44 rece, ve D.3D D.37, D.28, E Ah F211, F628, °S.3, G G.8,. G.93) G.147, G.151 See also C.30, D.26, D.27, F.30,.. Pid? APPLETON, T. ARCHER, R._ D. ATYEO, Warren T. A.14 | GiF AUTRUM,H. G.160, G.161 BARER, R. D.62 G.10 A.10, G.11 G.7 G.45 G.8 AZIZ, 83.) Pe G.175 G.177 BAILEY, Kenneth BAERENDS, Gerard P. BAYRONOGLU, Saadet BALDWIN, Ernest H. F. BATCHELOR, George Keith BEAMENT, James William Longman F.39 BENSON, Constantine W. BENNET-CLARK, H. C. BEENAKKERS, A. M.__ Th. G.12 G.12 G.12 BENNETT, Leon F.68 D.44 F.68, G.26 BERG, Kajm BECH, Knud BELLAMY, D. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 BERGER, Martin BERNAYS, Elizabeth BERNHARD, C. G. BERRIDGE, Michael J. BERRILL, Maurice BIEMANN, K. BIGGS, William D. BLIX, Gunnar BOETTIGER, Edward G. BOLIS, Liana BONE, Quentin BRADLEY, Daniel John BRAMWELL, Cherrie Diane BREDSDORFF, Annelise BREDSDORFF, Elias BRENNAN, Christopher G.13 G.13 F.74 G.151 G.168 F.27 D.50, F.68. See also D.25 F235; F...36 G.14 F.46,°Fs56 G.15 A.23 G.15 G.16 A. 16, A.21, G.16. See also A.1 F.58 BRUNT, Sir David BUCHTHAL, Fritz BUCK, John B.77 G.18 S19 F.5 BRUNORI, Maurizio BRODSKY, A. K. G.16 G16 G.18 BRUNET, PeterD. J. BROWN, Sir (George) Lindor BRIAN, Percy Wragg BRINK, Per F.44 B.55, G.19, G.60. See also B.64, B.65, B.66 BUSVINE, James Ronald BULLOCK, Theodore H. BUDDENBROCK, W._ v. BUCKNER, J. M. BURTON, A. J. G.I F412 G.22 G.20 G.2] T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 CADWELL, Sidney M. CALDER, William A. CALLAN, Harold Garnet CANNING, Elizabeth CARNES, William H. CARO, Colin G. CARTHY, John D. CASE, James F. CHADWICK, Leigh E. CHADWICK, Owen CHAGULA, W._ K. CHANCE, Britton CHAPMAN, Dennis CHARI, Narasimha CLEMENTS, A. N. Pi Ziyi Ged F.65 G.24 G.25 F.47 G.25 56): F9; FAG) Gi73 F.40 Bala): bales .27 A.21, A.26 G.45 G.28 G.28 G.29 G.29 CLOUDSLEY-THOMPSON, John Leonard O29; ke.deo F287, /Rs G.30 G.31 F705 F.7,). 6.31 COLLETT, Thomas COHEN, Melvin J. CUMBER, R.A. CRONE, Christian CONE, Clarence D. COLES, Gerald C. CROMPTON, A. W. DANIELLI, James Frederic F.62, F.63, G.92, G.180 G.35 DAVENPORT, Demorest DETHIER, Vincent G. DE: PEYER; «3; 76. DAVIES; Pe May C. DAVIES, P. Spencer DAVIS, Richard B. G.35 A.30 F.76 ete) G.35 F.56 FilZ G.33 G.33 G.164 DANZER, Albert CURREY, John D. DIXON, K. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 DUNCAN, C. J. DUPREE, A. Hunter EDNEY,: Bi. Bs EINARSON, Larus ELDER, Hugh Y. ELIASEN, Einar ELLENBY, C. F.71 A.8 G.36 G.36 D.28 G.36 A.23 ELLIOTT, Gerald F. Celt) Gisr ELLIOTT, John FANGE, Ragnar FATT, Paul FEINSINGER, Peter FELL, Dame Honor Bridget FENDUEY J. As FISHER, Kenneth C. FORER, Arthur G.38 G.40 G.40 G.40 G.58 D.29, D.62 F.34 G.41 wa GLEN, Robert G.106 F.34 F.56, G.44 FOX, Harold Munro G.154 GETTRUP, Erik GIBBONS, lan R. FROM, Franz PRY. Gs. & G.4l G.42 G.42 D.28 FRAENKEL, G._ S. FRIEND, William George PRISCH, Ki. FROHLICH, Herbert Cal77, GIBBS-SMITH, Charles Harvard D.30. See also D.31-D.34 GOLDSPINK, Geoffrey G.43. See also C.14 GORDON, Malcolm S. GOSLINE, John M. G.44 G.44 E.42 G.46 G.46 E.74 GLIMSTEDT, Gé&sta GRANIT, Ragnar GRASSMANN, W. GOTTE, Lorenzo GRACE, Thomas F.68, G.158 F.6] T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 GRAY, Sir James GREENEWALT, Crawford H. GREENHALGH, Sam GUNN, D. L. GUPTA, Brij GUPTA, N. L. GUSTAVSON, K. HAARLOV, Niels HACKMAN, RR. HALL, David A. H. HALL, Theodore A. HANSON, (Emmeline) Jean HARGROVE, John HARKNESS, Robert D. HARRINGTON, William F. HARVEY, William R. G.47 F.68, G.48 G.48 F.50 F.42, G.115, G.150, G.154 D.42 G.49 G.50 G.50 G.173 F.42 G.5] G.51 F.68 F.74 Pada HEINRICH, Bernd eC. G.173 HATCH, Gary HEAD, Js 43. G.52 G.53 G.169 G.177 D.39 E.44 G.53 F.38 F753 HEATH, James Edward HEWSKOV,: Na ees HASKELL, Peter Thomas HEMMINGS, CC. C. HEMMING, Christopher F. HEATH, Oscar Victor Sayer F.40, F.65 HINDE, Robert Aubrey HOCHACHKA, Peter W. HINTON, Howard Everest HPEBURN, H.R. HIRSCH, “G.-C; G.53 G.45 A.7 G.54, G.173 G.173 HERAN, H. HINDLE, Edward T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 HOCKING, Brian HODGKIN, Sir Alan (Lloyd) HOLDGATE, Martin Wyatt HORN, Edward C. HORRIDGE, (George) Adrian HOSHIKO, Tomuo HOYLE, Graham HUBER, Franz HUGGEL, H. HUGHES, George Morgan HUXLEY, Andrew Fielding HUXLEY, Hugh Esmor INGRAM, D.C. JENSEN, Axel Tovborg JENSEN, H. Hgjgaard JENSEN, Martin Barker KEMP, Tom KARLSON, Peter KATSUKI, Yasuji F.62, G.132 F.39, G.61 KALCKAR, Herman M. F.63 G.62 G.62 KENDREW, Sir John (Cowdery) JOHANSEN, Kjell JONASSON,Petur M. J@RGENSEN, C. G.65 B.3, G.64. See also E.24, E.25, F.62-F.64 KOKSHAYSKY, NN. V. KEYNES, Richard Darwin F.66, F.67 A.30, F.67 KENNEDY, Donald KERKUT, Gerald KRISTENSEN,Berit KROGH, August KUBISTA, Vaclav G55 A.22, A.24 G.56 G.18] G.176 A.7 G.57 G.57 F006 P25 G.58 Fs75 G.158 G.37 F.74 E.65 G.63 G.173 G.39, G.63 C.33, G.64 P73 B.69, G.60, G.91. See also B.49, B.72, B.74 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 LALL, Suresh B. LANE, Frank W. LANGFORD, RR. R. LASSEN, Ulrik LEFKOWITZ, Irwin LEVENBOOK, L. LEWIS, Trevor G.66 G.66 F.34 E.67 G.67 G.67 D.55 LIGHTHILL, Sir (Michael) James DSi. F200, F356, F.66,-F..6/, G.68 LINDHARD, Per LINDROTH, Carl H. LINZEN, Bernt G.69 E.47 G.161 LISSMANN, Hans Werner G.69, G.116 LOCKE, Michael LOCKWOOD, A. P. M. LONG, DD, :.P. G.70 F.60 G.70 LOVERIDGE, J. P. G.71 A.9 Gid7,: ATi C. P. LOWY, Jack McCRUM, Neill G. MACHIN, Ken McKENZIE, D. D.28 G.72 E.18 MacROBBIE, E. A. McMULLEN, A. I. G.72 G.72 G.73 McMAHON, Thomas A. LOWENSTEIN, Otto Egon McCUTCHEN, Charles W. G.32 MANN, Thaddeus Robert Rudolph MATTHEWS, Sir Brian Harold Cabot MARTIN, Sir David (Christie) MANGUM,Charlotte P. MADDRELL, Simon H. A.24 D.28 F.48 A.22 F.56 F.65 MANNING, Paul J. B.67, Bites £4, FCS MASUD, Ross Gaw3 MAROIS, M. T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 MATTINGLEY, Peter F. MEINWALD, Jerrold MELLANBY, Lady May MESSAGE, Michael A. MEYER, Karl MICHELSON, Axel MILLER, Peter L. MITCHISON, John Murdoch MITTLER, Thomas E. M@LLER, Christian M@LLER, Knud Max MULDNER, H. G. MUUS, Bent NACHTIGALL, Werner NEEDHAM, Joseph NEVILLE, Anthony Charles F.74 G.59 A.25 A.13 F.32 G.75 G.76 E.63, E.74 G.153 A.7, F.49, F.76 G77 D.39 G.77. See also B.33, F.6 G.78 G.18] C.22, G.81-G.84. See also Cal¥,-G.20s £2.21 NIELSEN, Jacob NORBERG,Ulla OFFER, Gerald G.86 G.87 G.60, G.87 NIELSEN, Anker G.85. See also A.3 NIELSEN, Erik Tetens E.63 G.85 B.126 NORBERG, R. Aake NIELSEN, Lis Engdahl NEWTH, David Richmond NIEDENFURHR, Francis W. NIELSEN, Christian Overgaard G.9] ODHIAMBO, Thomas R. G.88 G.89 G.59 OSBORNE; M.: ape] Phe OPLATKA, Avraham G.51 G.179 G.91 G.163 G.91 OMHOLT, Anders OOUCHI, Haruka OWEN, Gareth T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 PACKER, Kenneth J. PANTIN, Amy PANTIN, Carl Frederick Abel PAPPENHEIMER, A. M. Jr. PARKER, A. K. PARRY, Donald A. PARTRIDGE, (Stanley) Miles PAULING, Linus PEARSON, Murray PEULEY,. 158 PENNYCUICK, Colin J. PERRINS, Christopher Miles PERUTZ, Max Ferdinand PETERSEN, Janet PHILLIPS, David Chilton PHILLIPS, David M. D.29, D.30 G.92 G.92 Fi12 G.156 D.38, D.62, G.178. See also A.2 Cae93 Rahat G.93 F.67 Gi94, G.95 G.96 LR G.97 G.98 G.98 PIERSON, R. M. PIEZ, Karl A. PITELKA, Frank A. G.99 F.76,: 9.9 G.181 PRANGE, Henry D. PORTER, Sir George POULSEN, Jacob E. POULSON, D. F. A.16 E73 F.63 POPPERWELL, R. G. PRINGLE, John William Sutton G.107 B.77, F.56, G.60, G.101-G. 104. See also A.2 RAMACHANDRAN, Gopalasamudram D.42, F.8, F.50. See alsoB.3 RAINEY, Reginald Charles A.9, A.22, F.60, G.106 PRYOR, Mark G. M. PROSSER, C. Ladd RAMSEY, James Arthur G.105 A.26 E.74 PUTT, S(amuel) Gorley RASMUSSEN, Leif Narayana F.22, F.74 GlT77 G.100 G.107 RASMUSSEN, Steen T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 RASMUSSEN, Willy REES, Christopher J. C. RICHARD, Gaston RICHARDS, A. Glenn RICHARDS, Owain Westmacott ROBERTSON, J. M. ROCKSTEIN, Morris ROEDER, Kenneth D. ROTBLAT, Joseph ROTHSCHILD, Hon. Miriam (Hon. Mrs. Mirian Lane) ROTHSCHILD, Nathaniel Mayer Victor, Baron Rothschild RUDALL, Kenneth M. RUPPELL, G. RUSSELL, Fu: S, RUSSELL, Findlay E. C.82 G.107 G.108 F.12, Gs108 G.81, G.82 F.74 F.45, G.173 G.109 F.73 G.109 A.26 Gilt2 F.68 G.112 G.113 SCHEID, Peter SANNASI, A. SATIR, Peter F.61 G.155 G.167 B.11 F.76 G.114 SAUGMAN, Per SATCHELL, John G.114 G.114 SAWYER, Kenneth SAUNDERS, M. W. SCHMIDT-NIELSEN, Knut SCHMIDT-NIELSEN, Bodil f.72 SCHNEIDER, Dietrich SCHWARTZKOPFF, J. SEIFTER, Sam SEMB- JOHANSSON, Ame SHAPPIRIO, David G. SHEPHERD, Audrey SIBTHORP, M. A.M, Far Poe, F-53;-F SG, F561; F.62) F-65867, GAB: See also G. 32 F.12,°G. 124,;G.177 G.116 G.117 G.124 G.179 M. G.125 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 SIBULKIN, Merwin SIDDORN, J. Walton SIMESEN, Mogens G. SLEIGH, Michael A. SRIIPER, Ey Se SMART, John SMITH, David S. SMITH, John Maynard SMITH, Sidney SMITH, Una SOKAL, Robert R. SOTAVOLTA, Olavi SOUTHWOOD, Thomas Richard Edmund STEBBINGS, Howard STEGWEE, D. STEINHAUS, Edward A. STEVENS, Sir Roger Bentham G.125 G.126 G.126 F.74, F.75 G.127 B.132,.G.127 F.33, G.168 G.128 G.128 A.26 G.152 G.129 D.55 E.69 G.130 G.153 G.180 F.50 F.55, F.60, F.75 F.56 F.74 G.59 F.76 G.131 G.131 B.79 D.55 6:133,.6:175 F.62 E.67 G.132 G.133 T. TAYLOR, Vicky TANDBERG, Olof G. TAUB, Edward TAYLOR, Burdsall STROYAN, He 3b G. FAY UOR, To". fan G, SUNDERLAND, Norman TARKOWSKI, Z. M. TAKAHASHI, Gordon H. SZENT-GYORGYI, Andrew G. G.162, G. 168 r.31, Pato taeue welts, GAS, THAMDRUP, H. M. THAYSEN, Hess THORN, Niels A. THORSON, John W. THURM, Ulrich TREHERNE, John Edwin T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 Teen oo RG. TREVELYAN, Geoffrey W. TRISTRAM, G. R. TUCKER, Vance A. TURNER, B. M. FUXEN): Sex’ L, TYSON, John B. USSING, Hans H. UVAROV, Sir Boris (Petrovitch) VAGUE, Jean VAN DE KAMER, J.C. VAN DER KLOOT, William G. VAN LAWICK-GOODALL, Jane VINCENT S..4 Fe: Vi VOGEL, Steven VON BRAND, Theodor G.133 G.159 F.28 F.37, G.134 G.134 G.135 D.42, G.135 A.22, G.136 G.136 G.137 F.73 ry ia G.45 G.137 G.138 G.138 WAGNER, Robert P. Feliz F596," 137 WILKIN, Peter J. WEAVER, Nevin WEIS-FOGH, Hanne F.12, G.142 Fel2 WAJC, Esther WALD, George WALKER,I. WATERMAN, Talbot H. G.140 G.140 D.55 G.141 WAINWRIGHT, Steve A. WATERHOUSE, Douglas F. A.22 C.26, G.144, G.145, G.151, G.168 WIGGLESWORTH, Sir Vincent (Brian) WILKINSON, (Lancelot) Patrick WIERSMA, C. A. G. WESTERGAARD, Mogens F.12, G.4, G.8, G.60 WILKIE, Douglas Robert F.74 G.168 Fave G.143 F.53, G.146 G.146 WEISS, Paul WELLS, M. J. WEST, Richard Gilbert F.20, G.143, G.181 T. Weis-Fogh CSAC 65/3/79 WILLIAMS, Carroll M. WILLIAMS, P.O. Pita G.143 WILLMER, Edward Nevill A.22, F.53, G.154 WILSON, Carroll L. WILSON, Donald M. WILSON, J. Walter WINGSTRAND, Karl G. WINTER, Alan WOLPERT, Lewis WOLSTENHOLME, Sir Gordon Ethelbert Ward WOOTTEN, Norman W. WOOTTEN, Robin J. WORDEN, Alastair Norman WORK, TS. WU, Theodore Y.-T. F449, Gi Fil: G.21, G.63, G.84, G.143 See alto. C.15-C.19, EF. 38, F.74 G.147 G.156 G.164 F S7 B.11 E.69, G.147 G.58 G.147 A.30, F.58, F.67 YEW, Foch F. seu, fs oo, F.12 G.148 G.148 WYATT, Gerard R. YANNAS, John B. D.39. See also D.37 YURKIEWICZ, William J. G.149