TURING, Alan Mathison Supplement

Published: 20 November, 2023  Author: admin


THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Report on further correspondence and papers of ALAN MATHISON TURING (1912-1954) mathematician deposited in King's College Library, Cambridge Reproduced for the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre London WC2A 1HP CCSAG* 104 /17'8:59 THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Quality House, Quality Court, Chancery Lane, CSAC 104/1/85 CONTEMPORARY SCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE British National Committeefor the History of Science, Medicine and Technology under the guidance of the Royal Society’s Supplementary catalogue of papers and correspondence of ALAN MATHISON TURING FRS (1912 - 1954) Material additional to CSAC 53/7/77 All rights reserved Deposited in the Library of King's College, Cambridge Compiled by Jeannine Alton and Peter Harper 1985 A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 The work of the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre, and the production of this catalogue, are made possible by the support of the following societies and institutions: The Biochemical Society The Charles Babbage Foundation for the History of Information Processing The Institute of Physics The Institution of Electrical Engineers The Nuffield Foundation The Rhodes Trustees The Royal Society of London The Institution of Mechanical Engineers The Wolfson Foundation A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 LIST OF CONTENTS Items INTRODUCTION SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL A.14 - A.33 SECTION B PUBLICATIONS SECTION C UNPUBLISHED NOTES AND DRAFTS SECTION D CORRESPONDENCE INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/185 INTRODUCTION PROVENANCE The material has been assembled from several sources over the period 1977 - 84, as follows: A.14 - A.33 and B.9, from the estate of Mrs. Sara Turing after her death in 1977; C.24 - C.27 from N.E. Hoskin, received 1978; C23; DES. - DB; 10, from Professor I. J. Good (photocopies from originals in his possession), received 1979; D.11 - D.14 from Dr. A. Hodges, author of the biography Alan Turing: The Enigma, received 1983; B.8 from Professor C.B. Jones, received 1984. PRESENTATION The material has been organised, numbered and sectionalised to follow the sequence of the cctalogue compiled in 1977 (CSAC 53/7/77) DESCRIPTION death. It has proved intractable so far to researchers. Hodges writes (p.494): The biographical and personal material in Section A was all received from the estate of Mrs. Turing and many items bear annotations or corrections by her. Several by Heffer of Cambridge in 1959, and include biographical information and recollections. refer to the preparation and publication of her biography of her son, which was published The material on morphogenesis at C.24 - C.27 represents a substantial addition to the documentation of Turing's work and thinking on this topic, left uncompleted at his Hodges for permission to refer to and quote from his biography of Turing. "He left behind a mass of detailed material, some organised into the form of a second paper, the rest in the form of worked examples and of computer print-outs incomprehensible to anyone else.' Section D contains photocopied letters and calculations exchanged by Turing and I. J. Good (D.6- D.10), and some original letters by Turing (D.11 - D.14), most of them addressed to P. Hall. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks are due to all those who have made documents available, and to Andrew A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL A.14 - A.33 A.14 Obituaries and tributes to Turing: notice in Hazelhurst Gazette (2 copies, one corrected by Mrs. Turing); translation of sections about Turing's life and work made in 1967 from a Russian work The Beginning of Cybernetics, by A. Lerner; 'Caption under Alan's photo at N.P.L.' A.15-A.17 Letters received by Mrs. Turing on Turing's death, from colleagues, schoolmasters, neighbours and friends. circumstances of Turing's death, and to the inquest. Several refer to the 3 folders as follows: Andrews, A. J. . (schoolmaster) Boles: J.V 7m, Vo Bullard. Ei. C. Clayton, L. (Turing's housekeeper) Jefferson, G. proprord). t. S. Webb, N. Unidentified Coote, C. ; (Daily Telegraph) (Hazelhurst school) Darlington, S. (Hazelhurst school) Darlington, W. S. Greenbaum, F. M. Milner-White, E. (Manchester University) (Turing's psychoanalyst) signature, deleted by Mrs. Turing) (Ip. only with much material, including the (Turing's neighbour) A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 Biographical and personal Letters to Mrs. Turing in answer to requests for information while preparing her biography, 1957-58. Jones, |. Ross, A. H. : (Headmaster, Sherborne) Scott, Acs % Unidentified or incomplete A.19-A.22 Letters to Mrs. Turing from readers of her biography, several with recollections or appreciations of Turing. 4 folders as follows: Darlington, W._ S. Gants. -O: Gepp, (incomplete) Hailperin, T. MacPhail, M. (school-friend) (school-friend) Gervis, R. (schoo! mistress) Hogg, P. ott, t. Loveday, E. G. (Turing's visits to America in 1940s) (recollections of Turing's work and friends in America) (morphogenesis) (Headmaster, Sherborne) Randolph, J.-H. Robertson, A. D. J. (N.P.L.; morphogenesis) SIOney;, Es Ges Seth, M.-C. Thom, R. (schoolmaster) (Turing's uncle) A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 A. 23 Miscellaneous later letters to Mrs. Turing about Turing. Biographical and personal Clifford, G.. -D. Jones, W. ‘ Routledge, N. Sutherland, N.S. 1969 1960 1968 1968 Miscellaneous material re the A.M. Turing Award, instituted by the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) and first awarded in Includes printed information, a letter to Mrs. Turing about 1966. the Award (1974) and S5pp. ms. notes on the subject in the hand of Mrs. Turing, perhaps prepared for Sherborne School magazine. Shorter biographical items; includes photograph, and drawing inscribed by Mrs. Turing 'Alan at Barton House. Aged 6?' A. 26-A.30 Letters to Turing, 1931-51. In chronological 1930 1931 1¥a0 Election to Fellowship, King's College. Award of scholarship to King's College, Cambridge (from Turing's grand=mother) Letter from G. O'Hanlon on Turing's leaving Sherborne and award of Goodman Scholarship (copy made by Mrs. Turing). Mainly letters and telegrams of congratulation on various achievements, some including general information or reflections. order. G. Election as Fellow of the Royal Society. Award of Smith's Prize, Cambridge. Cooper, W. M. A. 28 Bullard, Bs oe. Darlington, W. S. A. 27 A. 28- A. 30 1936 1951] Darwin, C. A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 Biographical and personal Goodwin, E. T. Jefferson, G. Lockspeiser, B. Mahler, K. Routledge, N. Thompson, R. S. Turing, S. A.31-A. 33 Material relating to Mrs. Turing's biography. Notes and information on Turing family. Reviews of book. A.31 A.32 A.33 Correspondence re possible German edition, and proposed publication of 'Collected Works', 1971-72. A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 SECTIONB PUBLICATIONS B.8, B.9 B.8 "Checking a large routine' This was a paper given by Turing on 24 June 1949 at the inaugural conference of the EDSAC computer at the Mathematical Laboratory, Cambridge, and published in the Report of a Conference on High Speed Automatic Calculating Machines, pp.67-69. published contained several transcription errors, and a corrected version, with comments, was published by F.L. Morris and C.B. Jones in Annals of the History of Computing, 6, April 1984. The paper as Folder includes photocopy of the 1949 paper and of the 1984 version underthe title 'An Early Program Proof by Alan Turing', made available by courtesy of the authors. ‘Computing machinery and intelligence’ Typescript copy of article published in MIND, LIX, October 1956. In Mrs. Turing's ring~backed binder with ms. title by her. The paper is paginated 2-40 and also 146-184. There is a footnote added between pp.159 and 160 with a ms. note in Turing's hand. A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 SECTION C UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS AND DRAFTS C.23 - C.27 23 ‘Two contour-integral proofs', 'Ingham's proof’, 'Another proof! Ms. notes and calculations by Turing. These are photocopies, paginated 3 and 4, of papers made available from his own archives by |.J. Good; p.3 hasams. note by Good 'A note by Turing for I.J. Good, c.1943' and p.4 is addressed to him at 'Hut 11' (at Bletchley Park). C.24-C.27 Work on morphogenesis. Folders of notes, calculations and diagrams, received from N.E. Hoskin in 1978 and additional to the material on the subject listed as C.7-C.10 on p.15 of the handlist compiled in 1977. extensive notes and drafts left at Turing's death which some of his colleagues (R.O. Gandy, N.E. Hoskin, B. Richards) intended to prepare for publication. The papers are part of the The material is entirely Turing's autograph manuscript and typescript, with many additions and corrections; calculations and computer routines. are used; many pages have other work on the verso. material constitutes relatively substantial paginated sequences; some consists of random pages which could not be assigned a definite place or description by Turing's collaborators and colleagues. it includes diagrams, tables, Sometimes both sides of the paper Someof the Folder inscribed 'Morphogens. Turing |' With a ms. note by Gandy: 'This contains consecutive pieces which were not incorporated by Hoskin and Richards in their paper’. All titles and descriptions in inverted commas are those which appear Later notes or comments in the hands of Hoskin on the manuscripts. and Gandy are identified and indicated wherever possible. 27pp., unnumbered. Substantial set of drafts and calculations, with Turing's separate page heading 'STABILITY AND APPROXIMATIONS' l3pp. sequence, unnumbered, witha ms. note 'Does this continue on? N.H.' [Hoskin]. Ppp. sequence, unnumbered, beginning ‘Effect of quadratic terms’. Includes: ‘Outline of development of the Daisy’ 12pp. numbered by Gandy 8pp. sequence, unnumbered. A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 C25 Folder inscribed 'Morphogen. Theory of Phyllotaxis. Turing 2' Unpublished notes and drafts With a ms. note by Gandy: 'This is the draft from which Hoskin and Richards prepared their paper Part | (which follows the draft rather closely. Passages in light blue are | think by Hoskin)! Includes: 72pp. draft, numbered in another hand. The draft is Turing's typescript, with many ms. revisions in his hand, usually in black ink but occasionally in pencil. markings appear in another hand, in blue ink and pencil, and there is also some linking material on separately numbered pages, e.g. 26a, 57a. Other corrections and 2pp. unnumbered ms. headed 'Stability of 2nd. order equations’. Diagrams of florets in flower head, numbered and annotated by Turing. Photograph of flower head. Ms. heading for a plate (in another hand). 22pp. draft, numbered in another hand. The draft is Turing's typescript, with many revisions in his hand, in The title ‘Part Il Chemical Theory of Morphogenesis' on p.1, ond Includes : black ink. Folder inscribed 'Chemical Theory of Morphogenesis. Turing 3' With a ms. note by Gandy: ‘Part Il of draft used by Hoskin and Richards’. other corrections, revisions and linking material, appear passim in another hand, in blue-black ink. and another (in blue ink). Ms. draft, pages numbered 19-28 in another hand, beginning: ‘Effects of randomdisturbances', with ms. corrections by Turing (in black ink) 2pp. draft for '4. 8 4 but should be included here even though incomplete. N.H.' "Noise" effects', with a ms. note by Hoskin: ‘Another A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 Manel Folder inscribed ‘Turing 4'. Unpublished notes and drafts With a ms. note by Gandy: 'It will be difficult, in some places im- possible, to know exactly what these fragments are (exactly) about.' Inside the folder is a note by Hoskin: 'I have not been able to fit in any of the following notes in the main articles. In many cases there are other notes, presumably superseded, on the reverse of these pages. Some of these are not sequential. ' Many of these drafts are on the verso of programme sheets for Manchester University Computing Machine Laboratory, and some carry routines related to the themes of the mss. and perhaps intended to test them. The material is in the form of bundles clipped together, some with Turing's heading or description, and have been left as received. Includes: 'FIRCONES. Paper Theory' l4pp. drafts, notes, calculations. "KJELL Theory' "KJELL PREP TRACK PAIRS' 3pp. notes and calculations, with computer routine 'OUTERFIR', perhaps related to above, and Ip. notes for modification of OUTERFIR program. 7pp. drafts, notes and calculations, p.7 contains a ‘family tree’ of computer routines related to the work, several of which appear in the various bundles of notes in this folder. Continued 22pp. drafts, notes and calculations, in ink and pencil, with many revisions and corrections; some pages used on both sides, and some top and bottom. ‘Diagrams etc.' 10pp. notes, diagrams and calculations, including computerroutines, 3pp. draft on 'golden lattice', Turing for work on morphogenesis. Ip. table of flower species used by 7pp. untitled notes, calculations, diagrams. I17pp. untitled notes, calculations and diagrams, manyonlattices. A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 Unpublishednotes and drafts C.27 (Cont'd.) Spp. notes, signed B.R. [Bernard Richards] on ‘Morphogenesis of Cellular Structure’. ‘Evidence relating to the diffusion reaction theory of morphogenesis’. lSpp. +1p. references. ms. note at head 'Rough draft. A.M. Turing’. Typescript of paper by C.W. Wardlaw, with Ip. ms. note by Turing. A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 SECTION D D.6-D.14 CORRESPONDENCE D.6-D.70 Letters and material exchanged with |.J. Good, and later corres- pondence of Good with Mrs. Turing, 1946-53. material made available by Good from his own archives (see also C.23). Turing signs his letter 'Prof' and is so addressed by Good. Photocopied Letter from Turing to Good commenting on the manuscript of Good's Probability and the Weighing of Evidence (published 1950). October 1946. Correspondence on the number of neurons in the brain, 25, 28, 31] July, 16, 18 September 1948. playing machines. The Septemberletters also refer to chess- Letter from Good to Turing, with a ms. note ‘Turing did not answer this letter', October 1948. Brief exchange re publication of paper by Good on population frequencies (Biometrika, 40, 1953), February 1953. Page references are given inbrackets. (d. 1982) was Turing's tutor at King's and became a lifelong friend. D.11-D.13 Letters from Turing to P. Hall. Later correspondence with Mrs. Turing, mainly on the writing and publication of her biography, 1957-58. These are all autograph manuscript letters, made available by A. Hodges who used them in whole or in part in his biography Alan Turing: the PhilipHall FRS— Letters exchanged with Mrs. Turing in reply to her request for informa- tion and recollections about Turing; with various reminiscences, including references to Turing's buried silver. November-December 1956. almost periodicity’, J. Lond.Math.Soc., 10) (Hodges p.94). 1935 Letter of 4 April refers toa 'small-scale discovery’ by Turing (published as ‘Equivalence of left and right hand 4 April, 30 May. A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 Correspondence 22 November (Hodges, 4 April (Hodges, 30 March (Hodges, 26 April (Hodges, ian. (Hodges, All addressed from Princeton. n.d. 1951] (Hodges, p.440) n.d., postmarked 17 April 1952 (Hodges, p.473) Letter to P.H.F. Mermagen (contemporary at Sherborne, d.1985), n.d. ¢.1947 (Hodges, pp.362-3). A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS ANDREWS, As ..-d. P, BACHMAN, Charles W. Bee Joka ay. BULLARD, Sir Edward (Crisp) CLAYTON, L. CLIFFORD, G. D. COOPER, W. M. COOTE, Sir Colin (Reith) DARLINGTON, Sophy DARLINGTON, W. S. DARWIN, Sir Charles Galton GANDY, Robin O. GEPP, GERVIS, Ruth e o> P 24 e e 75 e e a so ae “£0 a5 > 16 «16; ASI9, A: 28 28 3% 19 -1e GOODWIN EsacTs HALL, Philip HOGG, Peter HOLT, Oliver A.29 A. 16 A. 20 HAILPERIN, Theodore GREENBAUM, Franz M. JEFFERSON, Sir Geoffrey GOOD, Irving John (Jack) ws 6-D.10 See also C.23 hae MERMAGEN, Patrick Hassell Frederick MILNER-WHITE, Eric san 20 18 23 MACPHAIL, Malcolm JONES, Ivor JONES, Will T. LOCKSPEISER, Sir Ben LOVEDAY, Evelyn V. MAHLER, Kurt See D.11-D::13 16; Aver A.M. Turing (Supplement) CSAC 104/1/85 Index of correspondents NOWELL SMITH, see SMITH, N.C. O'HANLON, Geoffrey RANDOLPH, J. H. ROBERTSON, Anthony D. J. ROSS, A. H. Trelawney ROUTLEDGE, Norman SCOTT: Avs 1% SMITH, C. Nowell BeONEY 5:6: Gy STOPFORD, John Sebastian Bach, Baron SUTHERLAND, N. Stuart THOM, René THOMPSON, R.__ S. TURING, Sara WEBB, N. 18 18 4, a e o P S P S e e a7e oth 30 t22 Py <4 ye) oe «I? Ava, D9; Did