TURING, Alan Mathison

Published: 20 November, 2023  Author: admin


UCVEINIOT ONCE LY RT MT AAYNITTS ryTpmn a COMWa saa. WN ON HE pou @)ORICALAu MANUSCARLILS TT ane “KT Report on the pavers of ALAN MATHISON TURING OBE, FRS (1912-1954) Mathematician 192555 the Library of Cambridge by Londen WO2A BPOu Archives Centre (csac 53/7/77 j Reproduced for the Contemporary Scientific Quality House, Quality Court, Chancesy Lane, THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HIS?oeICAL MANUSCRI+7S vS reserved 4 9 7 7 Sige teaman me mp fag fe CSAC 5 3/7/7 f CONTEMPORARYSCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE Supported by the Royal Society, the: British Library and the Council of Engineering Institutions Report on the papers of Alan Mathison Turing OBE, FRS (1912-1954) Harriot Weiskittel Compiled by: Jeonnine Alion Deposited in the Library of King's College, Carmbridge, 1977 A.M. Turing CSAC 53/7/77 Peserintion of the Collection 1 The collection represents ali known remaining racnuscripts and correspondence of Alan Mathison Turing. In 1960 Mrs, Sara Turing (AMT's mother and biographer) presented some material relating to her son to King's College, Cambridge. the Library of the College, is reproduced by permission on pps. 3-9 of the handlist in order to provide a single reference guide to the available papers. Some of the items A list of this material, compiled by (e.g. press-cyttings, typescript or Xerox copies of letters) appear more than once, and ci note has been made of ony substantiat overlap. In 1975 the A.M. Turing Trust (address: 32 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh EH2 4HD, Scotland) was established as an educational charity to further the ‘advancement and spread of education in the fields of computation, artificial intelligence and mathemctical logic’. All the material in Sections A ~ D of the nandlist (with the exception of Item B.2, see note on p.i2) was assembled by this Trust. Most of the papers in Sections B, C, & D of the hanclist refer io Turing's work from (c) 1940 until his death in 1954, There are a few references in the correspondence the har presented The manuscripts During the Second A distinction has been mad to his work in the 1930s, but no remaining drafts or working papers. chronological cadzr, and are between drafts, notes » texts of pub- written by M.H.A. Newman for of completion at his deaih (Section C). on ‘Enigma’ and other codes at Bletchley and the unpublished work left in various stages lished papers, or lectures and talks known to have been delivered by 7.. ing (Section B), linked wherever possible to the Bibliography given in the Biographical Mernoir of Turing several of the letters in Section D were written; Turing was awarded the Gck fer his work World War Turing worked at the Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Par. from which Titles HP CReSGMi pons in invel ted coammads are those which Gppegi on the GOS Ue paginated and annoiated some of the papers with a view to re publication. by Dr. Robin Gandy, to whomthey were left by Turing in his Will (see A.5). Dr. Gandy annotations at the head of the manuscripis, and in the body of ey ’ > ‘ the Royal Society; references are in the form R.S.... were assembled afier Turing's death The unpubiished manuscripts in h the text, are indicatedin A copy of the Memoir ° the relevant entries of included fs aie Sells ecleadc ical aa inal © ent oe ON ee sailed Sl aid cs, bs ek swineHe . ok i . S Se C ‘lis is » in 3 are t Q A.1. - - A.M, Turing CSAC 53/7/77 Manyof the manuscripts in all sections of the collection are fragile and in poor “ Samy Att: condition, being written in many cases on poor quality paper, or on of other work such as calculations, school exercises and classwork (not all in Turing's i" MIC meaca ry the backs of vality oan th ba k writ orarts f dr ft hand). Professor Donald Michie, Mrs. Jean Michie and Dr. R.O. Gandy have given much valuable advice on the identification and description of several iterns in the hand- , list, and their help is gratefully acknowledged. Furthermaierial The following publications contain, or are dirzctly related to, work by Turing: A.M.Cohen and M.J.E. Mayhew, 'On the difference ™ (x) mF x, Proc. L.M.S.3rd. series, 43, 1%'8, pp. 691-713 (Paper 'based on ideasof A.M, Turing’) C. Diamond (ed.), Wittgenstein's Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics Cambridge 1936, ed. Cora Diamond, The Harvester Press, Hassocks, Sussex 1976 (contains Turing's contributions to discussions). B. Randell. held in June 1976. CONTENTS OF THE HANDLIST Laboratory, University of Newcastle upon Tyne; available in Xerox and ‘FZE Computer Society Repository, 5855 Naples microfilm form from i! 'The COLOSSUS’. Technical Report no.90, June 1976, Computing Plaza, Long Beach, Cuii.ornic 90803, and also to appear in the forthcoming Proceedings of the Los Alamos Conference on the history of computing spondents Materia! already in, the Library of King's College, Cambridge Unpublished manuscripts & drafts Publications, lectures, talks Biographical and personal rrescponaence PIV iS 6 CSAC 53/7/77 IG'S COLLEGE LIBRARY CAMBRIDGE ALAN MATHISON TURING Papers presented to King's College by his mother, Mrs EB. Sara Turing, in June 1960, LETTERS 86 letters, written to his mother except where otherwise stated, 1 April /1923/ - /1954/, numbered, annotated and dated by Mrs Turing. Le Autograph letter, unsigned, to his mother and father, written with a fountain diagram of fountein pen).Hazelhurst,” Sussex. pen which he has invented. (2pp., containing L April. /1923/ Autograph let+-r, unsigned, to his mother and father, written ‘with his patert ink. Hazelhurst, Sussex. ll Feb. /1923 or -24/ Autograph letter, signed, to his mother and father, with an idea fora esaa (2pp., COO Te Gas diagram of typewriter.) Hazelhurst, Sussex. /Summer Term 1923/ Autograph let‘e., signed, to his mother and father, on family eee discovering the height of mountains, map contours. (33 pp., containing two contour maps). Hazelhurst, Sussex. /Summer Term 1924/ Autograph letter, Signed, to his mother and father, Hazelhurst, Sussex. (13pp.) 8 June /1924/ Autograph letter, signed, to his mother and father, on hand- writing. (2pp.). Hazelhurst, Sussex. */May 1924/ and on Suss 12 Oct. /1924/ 21 Sept. 1924 : 5 Nov. 1924 Autograph postcard, Signed., written in French. Hazelhurst, Sussex. 19 Feb. 1925 ‘utograph postcard, signed, about chess tournament. Hazelhurst, Sussex. . dtograph letter, signed, to his mother and father, on climbing a1 map-making. (1lp.) Hazelhurst, Sussex. S Oct. Ga9e4/ Aucograph letter, signed, to his mother and father, mentioning chemical transformation of carbon dioxide in the blood. (2pp.) Yigzelhurst, Sussex. »aOgraph letter, signed, to his mother and father, on a prospetive J -rney to Belgium, and an amphibious bicycle. (1p.) Hazelhurst, £1 5sex. CLES YS Oct. fig, Autograph letter, signed, to his mother and father. AMT wants an earthenware retort; he is trying to teach himseif Organic chemistry. (1lp.) Hazelhurst, Sussex. Autograph letter, signed, to his mother and father » ON exceptions to rules in chemistry, and chemical experiments. (1p.) Hazelhurst, Sussex. Autograph letter, signed, to his mother and father, written in French, with school news. Hazelhurst, Sussex. (1p):1 Feb. 1925 Autograph letter, signed, written in French. (Lipp. ) Hazeihurst, 22 Feb. /1925/ Sussex. Autograph letter, signed; school news, with a stationary bicycle. Hazelhr urst, charging an accumula? ua .) Graduate College, Princeton.22 Feb. /1937/ 15 Mar. 1937 Autograph letter, signed; cr. ths lectureships and elections to Fellowships at King *SAMT i3 uct. working out some new ideas in logic. 29 Mar. /1937/¢ Graduate College, Princeton, Autograph letter, signed; “en's and hockey. (1p.) Graduate College, PS vAp Te. /L 9317. Princeton. ieee at etter, signed, AM has decided to stay another year in Princeton. Autograph letter, signed; f7ee visits in U.S.A. (l3pp.) Graduate Coilege, Princeton. 23 Nov. /1937/é Autograph letter, signed; the paper AMT refereed was hopeless; he has begun work on his PhD thesis; ShUJz of Munster has sent him a reprint of a German translation of his L.M.S. paper. College, Princeton. (2pp.) Autograph letter, signed; AMT has returned to U. S.A. with. Wait Jones; he has had paper to referee from L.M.S. (2pp.) Graduate Coilege, Princeton. . Autograph letter, signed; AMT has been asked by Cambridge Maths Faculty to examine the IAD thesis of the candidate whose paper he vefereed for L.M.S.; he has decided, after hesitiation, to take it Autograph letter, signed; hockey matches and family news. (2pp.) Graduate College, Princeton. (l4pp.) Graduate College, Princeton. (2pp.) Graduate College, Princeton. 15 June /1937/ 19 May /1937/ 4O0t.. /1930/ : Graduate P9Oct..: 719377 2 Nov. /1937/ A.M. Turing CSAC TSE 65. Autograph letter, signed; visits with Americans at Christmas. Two papers by AMT have appeared in Journal of Symbolic Logic. /Received 14 Jan. 1938/ (2pp.) Graduate College, Princeton. 66. Autograph letter, signed; on a performance of ‘Murder in the Cathedral', and on drawings to illustrate 4th dimension. (23pp., with drawing of a 4 Graduate College, Princeton. dimensional cube on an inserted leaf.) 7 Mar. /1938/ 67. Autograph letter, signed; AMT's King's Fellowship has been renewed; he is unlikely to take a job in U.S.A. unless England is at war before July; on visit to St John's College, Annapolis with Will Jones, and on the syllabus there. Graduate College, Princeton. (3pp.) "12 April /1938/ 68. Autograph letter, signed; on Gilbert and Sullivan; on AMT's PhD thesis, which has greatly expanded under Church's suggestions, and has just been accepted; AMT was offered a job as Neumann's assistant, but has refused and will retur~. to Cambridge. (34pp. ) Graduate College, Princeton. 17 May /1938/ 69. Autograph letter,signed; on his lectures. (iZpp.) King's College Cambridge. 70. Autograph letter, signed (in pencil); clivh'ng in Snowdonia. (23pp. Onell, High St. Portmadoc. 25, Jane eos, 31 Aug. 1941 71. Autograph letter, signed; AMT has been back to Cambri dge and met Champernowne; bombing at Bletchley; and on the Austrian refugee whom AMT sponscred. (2pp.) Crown Inn, Shenley Brook End, Bletchley, Bucks. 1 Nov. /probably between 1940 & -44, acc. Mrs Turing/ 72. Autograph letter, signed; on running. (l¢pp.) 78 High St., Hampton. /about June 1946, acc. Mrs Turing/ Star R.M.S."Queen Elizabet 27 Dec. /1946/ and ernowne. (1ipp.) The Crowa, ‘etfichley. 23 Dec. /1944/ 76b. AEDESET RE copy of letter trom AMT to I.J.Good, beginning 'Dear 74. Autograph letter, te. nomen 8 meeting. (lipp.) Cunard White Sc “Autograph er ee signec; 9 parcels from America, and running. 73. Autograph letter, signed; alut holiday in the lakes with Champ- No address or date. (Mrs Trig notes:'1947 After return from U.S.A.") 76a.Typescript copy of letter fren I.J.Good to A.M.T., beginning ‘pear Prof,' and signed ‘/ac.'. IJG asks about the number of neurons in the brain; he understands that by next October he AMT will have swapped tows; ‘Presumably you won't have much lecturing to do in M/C'. 131 Chevic. Guns., N.W.2. (copy ip.) 25 July 1948 ‘18 Sept. /1948/ Typescript copy of letter from AMT to I.J.Good, signed ‘Yours, Prof.'; AMT is glad his estimate of number of neurons is not tco essentially wrong; AMT is about to make a record of the chess machine designed by himself and Champernowne, with a view to play- ing the Shaum-Michie machine. On ‘thinking in analogies', AMT thinks of the brain as Hey Seeae gee forced on it by its own limitations. AMT thinks IJG's identity can be proved by Poisson's summation formula or by contour integration. (copy3p. ) King's College, Cambridge. and signed'Yours Prof.'; AMT has repeatedly looked in books Jack;! on neurology for the, number IJG asked about, without success. AMT's own estimate is 3.10 < N < 3.10°. It is based on the diagram p,201 of the,latest Starling. Many physiologists give answers from 10 to 10°. (copy 1p.) King's College, Cambridge. /c.28 July 1948/ ALM, Turing CSA\C 58/7/77 tter from AMT to tre Professor J.Z.Young, F.R.S.5 Typescript copy of on brain structure and the storage capacity of the brain; sie on AMT's current work, a mathematical theory of embryology, whic hmay give satisfactory explanations of i.Gastrulation ii.Polygonally symetrical structures iii. Leaf arrangement iv.Colour patterns on animals v.Patterns on nearly sperical structures such as some Radiolaria. This work is related to his work on brain structure, which has to be achdived by the genetical embryological mechanism. (copy 2pp.) Hollymeade, Adlington Road, Wilmslow. 8 Feb. 1951 fypescript letter, signed; on family finance; mentions a broadcast by AMT. (2pp.) Wilmslow. Typescript copy of letter from AMT to R.O.Gandy, whose Ph.D thesis was supervised by AMT.AMT discusses ROG's Eddington essay; the ‘word 'structure' still-causes worries; Bourbaki are unsatisfactory, as they seen to assume that 'A defines a structure on B' is syn- onymous with ‘A is a structure on B'. AMT mentions a discussion on machines (probably a broadcast discussion with Prof.Sir Geoffrey Jefferson, Prof. M.H.A.Newman and R.B.Braithwaite, according to Mrs Turing). /early 1952/7 10) Jan; /EO52 (copy lp.) Wilmslow. Typescript copy of part of a letter from AMT to R.O.Gandy; on 23 Nov. 1952 ROG's PhD thesis. Wilmslow. (copy lp.) Typescript copy of letter from AMT to R.O.Gandy; on ROG'S PhD thesis, and on the Unity of Science Essay. (copy lp.) no address /early 1953/ Typescript copy of letter from AMT to Maria, a child of six, sent express, suggesting puzzles for her to do on the train. AMT wili be at Club Mediterrane, Ipsos-Corfu, Greece. (copy 2pp., including 3 diagrams of puzzles). Hollymeade, Adlington Road, Wilmslow. Postmark 10 May 1953 Photocopy of autograph letter from AMT to R.O.Gandy; on ROG's 'Gfbdel - stuff'. AMT discusses ROG's attempt to get.round Gfidei's arguments, and concludes 'So one musSt respect GifSdei's difficulties unless one includes some method of proof which does not lend itself to this sort of formulation.' He can do the rainbow problem successfully for sound, but total failure for electricity. (2pp.) Wilmslow. /71954 according to ROG/ AMT discusses ‘61 proofs of a formula of Gfandy'. Typescript copy of letter from AMT to R.O.Gandy; AMT is not surprised vy unsatisfactory response of ROG's audience re notation; AMT got a similar reception about 3 or 4 years ago when he talked about deduction theorem at Bristol. (copy 4p.) Wilmslow. /1953/ ‘Not present. A note about the return of the letters to Mrs Turing For copying and presentation to Sherborne School, 27 April 066.50 nentions 86 letters. No.85 may have been omitted by Mrs Turing from her original gift, or she may have mis-numbered the letters.) oO Included with letters: photocopies of two caricatures by Mrs Turing a) *'The View from Matron's Window' (drawing of AMT ruminating) b) ‘Hockey or Watching the Daisies Grow' (drawing of AMT looking at Autograph letter, signed; calming his mother's worries about an unclassified document which he had left at her house. (l1p.) no address. Both drawings are annotated by Mrs Turing ‘sent to Miss matron at Hazelhurst. Date Spring term 1923.° a daisy during a hockey match). Tian ~s ODAs r A.M, Turing CSAC 53/7/77 PRECIS OF EINSTEIN'S THEORY OF RELATIVITY Autograph notes putting the argument of TheTheoryofRelativity py Albert Einstein in simple form, taking the book chapter by checter, with directions on how to read it:'Chapter XVIII. Read this straight through. You ought to be able to see what he is driving at.’ 3lpp. on 23 leaves, in red-covered 'Memo' book, 16 cm x 10 cm, with Calendars for 1928 and 1929 on rear cover. On inside front cover Mrs Turing has written 'Précis of The Theory of Relativity by Albert Rinstein, written for his mother, by Alan M. Turing, when aged 153.' Inserted: typewritten letter from Mrs H.S.Turing to the Librarian of King's College, presenting the book to the College, 31 May 1960. DIAGRAMS Coloured diagrams, patterns of dappling and calculations, made by AMT in connection with work on morphogenesis. On 8 sheets of graph paper, 33cm x 40cm, folded in half; to 2 of these sheets a half-sheet has been attached with tape to form a third fold. "COMPUTABLE NUMBERS' Typescript copy (made by Mrs Turing) of first rough draft of precis of ‘Computable Numbers', made for Comptes Rendues. In French. (2pp.) 4 ay + My INQUEST Typescript copies of depositions made at inquest on AMT (Oop. ) Post-mortem examination report on AMT (photocopy, ee) “PRESS-CUTTINGS ETC. 17 press-cuttings, 1946-60, on ACE, AMT's athletics, obituaries of Typescript copies (by Mrs Turing):of obituary notice on AMT AMT. from National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (lipp), and of article on AMT from Nature (18 Sept.1954) by Dr R.O.Gandy (2pp.)-. Photocopy of ‘ManViewed as a Machine’ by John G. Kemeny (Sciontif£ic oe ae American April 1955 pp.58-67). TekhnikaMolodezhi (April 1955 pp.7-10) containinghrticle cu Juring machine(pp.7-8)._ Typescript of translation of this artics.f'Can "thinking"machines solve any problem?' by V. Pekelis), ma e ty H.J.Norton, dated 4 May 1960 (3pp.). King's Coilege, Cambridge may think fit.' Mrs Turing notes (6 June 1960):'Alan M. Turing's letters to me may be used ~- e.g. quoted in whole or in part as Provost & Fellows of PHOTOGRAPHS AMT aged 5, in sailor suit (full length; negative) AMT aged 16 AMT AMT running (inscribed on back ‘National Physical Lab. and in 3S miles) aged 39 (" " " (head and shouide A tf Hy (head and shoulders) ) rs A.M. Turing CSAC 53/7/77 A, Biographical and personal (A.1 - A.13) eK Misc. printed obituaries and tributes, including Memoir by M.H.A. Newman, Biographical Memoirs ofFellows of the Royal Society, aS 955, with book plate for the 'Alan Turing Prize for Science' offered at Sherborne School, inside front cover. Press~cuttinas of inauest on Turing. no] i uv Misc. articles and press-cuttings referring to Turing and his work, assembled by Mrs. Sara Turing (Turing's mother), rinly press-cuttings, and some typescript translations of items frowi foreign periodicals. ers', by Brian Randell. 2 copies of the article, o..2 as first pubtisiied as University of New~ cestie Upon Tyne Computing Laboratory Technical Reports Series no. 33, 1972, and as offprint from Machine Intelligence 7, Edinburgh University Press, 1972. ‘Don! [Bayley] Mrs. Sara Turing Typescript of Turing's Will. m ‘Christopher’ [Benneti] Photegraphs of Turing and co!le-gues. Philip Nicholas Furb1k (Suring's executor) Letters fo R.O. Gandy on Turin, 's death, June 1954, from: (not published). Corrected ms. of obituary of Turing for The Times by M.H.A. Newman. Typescript Ovituary notice for Nature by R.O. Gandy. Typescript additional obituary notice for The Times by R.O. Gandy A.M. Turing CSAC 53/7/77 A.7. Correspondence addressed to M.H.A. Newman, with recollections of Turing and comments on Newman's Royal Society Memoir, 1955 from: Mrs. Sara Turing James Hardy Wilkinson Robin O. Gandy N.E. Hoskin Letter to Newman from R.O. Gandy (undated, 1955), with extensive references to Turing's published, unpublished and projected work (some annotations by Newman); see also D.4. Letters to Newman re publication of Turing's papers, 1958, from: Haroid Davenport Kurt Mahler Alonzo Church A.i0. Letters and reco!lections of Turing sent to Mrs. Turing, before and after the publication of her biography Alan M. Turing, Heffer, Canmridge A. Lerner | Ralph O. Erickson E.T. Goodman 1959, from: A.C. Pigou Walter H. Lee D.W. Davies Printed reviews of Mrs. Turing's biography. 1956 1957 1966 1967 1971 n.d. Loose-leaf ring folder inscribed on cover by Mrs. Turing ‘Additional notes iributes, comments and assessments of Turing's work, etc. on Alan M. Turing and papers relative to him and his work’. Turing, with quotations from her own letters about her son's dated but not all in chronological order and some unatiributed), The folder contains ms. and typescript notes made by Mrs. childhood, recollections of Turing's school and university career assembled from teachers, colleagues, etc. (generally A.M. Turing CSAC 53/7/77 There is also a section 'on the manner of Alan Turing's death’; see A.12 below Correspondence between Mrs. Turing andvarious colleagues is also intercalated. It includes letters from: Albert M. Uttley 1958 (on ACE - Automatic Computing Engine) Vivian Bowden 1964 and an extract from a letter by Donaid Michie on chess~playing machines: see also D.3. A.12. Teaspoon, with label by Mrs. Turing: 'This is the spoon which | found in Alan Turing's laboratory. Ii is similar to the one which he gold- plated himself. It seems quite probable he was intending to gold-plate this one using cyanide of potassium of his own mur:- facture. §&. Sara Turing’. (The verdict of the inquest on Turing was suicide. Mrs. Turing never acceptedthis, believing that his death was an accidental consequence ofscientific exweriments carelessly conducted. A.13. May (21954). See also A.11, above). Non-scientific writings: Publications, lectures, talks (B.1 - B.7) & pp. ms. short story by Turing, untitled and undated. additions 24p., on ACE (Automatic Computing Engine}. Letter from Turing to 'Lyn' [Lyn Irvine (Mrs. Newman)], 1 p. on! ‘Lecture to L.M.S. Feb. 20 1947', Turing's typescript with ins. lectures on the design ofthe Xerox copy of ms. notes taken by D.R. Hartree of lectures on ACE given byTuring. (The original of this document is with the (L.M.S. =London Mathematical Society.) Professor M.V. Wilkes, to whom 1were Hartree papers in Christ's College, TOASL 1946 and January 1947, AA Lace ol 1 Re Mnursday afternoons Dec. maa gianni aint Wes aati de aa s In an attached note Pro . ) delivered o course of . t a1 : A.M. Turing CSAC 53/7/77 ACEat the Ministry of Supply ia London’. The notes are dated 23 and 30 January by Hartree. They refer only to lectures 6 and 7 of ?he course. B.3. ‘A practical form of type theory I.' Heavily revised typescript, pages numbered 1-30, with 3 additional unnumbered pages, the last bearing note by R.O. Gandy ‘Practical Forms of type theory. First Draft’. Pages 1-2 of this document explain the purpose of the paper, which was to have appeared in two parts. The first part, considerably altered from the draft, appeared as 'Practical forms of type theory’, J. SymbolicLogic, 13, 1948, pps. 80-94. An offprint of this article sent to A.E. Ingham ‘with the author's compliments' is included. R.S.1948b. For the ms. of Part ii of the projected work, see C.4, and also D.2. B.4. ‘Intelligent machinery, a heretical theory.' Lecture given to one numbered 1-10, the other 96-101. see also letter from C. Strachey in D.5. discussion transmitted on BBC Third Programme 14 and 23 January 1952, between M.H.A. Newman, A.M. Turiiig, Sir Geoffrey Jefferson, R.B. Braithwaite. B.6. B.7% ae 2 'Can digital computers think?! ialk broadcast in BBC Third Pro- '51 Society’ at Monchester (c) 1951. 2 typescript version:, gramme 15 May 1951, typescript with ms. corrections, 7 pp.; ‘Can automatic calculating machines be said to think?', broadcast R.S. 1953b. ‘Digital Compuiers applied to Garnes', contribution to 'Faster than thoughi', ed. B.V. Bowden, London 1953, typescript with ms. 2 typescripts, one with ms. note ‘This script is sent witn the consent of the BBC. EST', and the other with ms. note 'Please return to R.O. Gandy’. corrections, 10 pp. A.M. Turing CSAC 53/7/77 Unpublished manuscripts (C.1 - C.22) 'The difference Y (x) - x', ms. 7 pp., with red ink correctionsin Turing's hand. n.d. (c) 1937. Blueprint, 'Zeta function machine', signed D.C.M. and dated 17/7/39. Probably prepared in connection with Turing's article 'A method for the calculation of the zeta function! published 1943 but received 1939 (see Bibliography in Royal Society Memoir). C.3.-C.5. Papers on Church's system. (Turing worked with Alonzo Church at Princeton 1936-38 and published 2 articles oa the subject in 1942.) "Some Theorems about Church's system', with ms. note by Gandy on unnumberedfront page, ‘numbers inserted by ROG' and note by Gandy on last page 'Some Theorems about Church's system (including falicecious consistency proof)’; heavily corrected same subject but not pc: 4 ef this paper. Censscvcnces of the Peano axioms’, Finive woueis of Church's and Zermelo's systems’. Lust page has ms. no’? by R.O. Gandy ‘Continuation of a and annotated typescript 19 pp., with one further page on compieteness for the system with axioms of finitude in place poper about Virtual tyves in Church's system? Consistency and Untitled, probably contincation of above, pps. numbered 60-73, Untitled, probably continustion of above, pps. numbered 37-43, Sede by Turing 'in this paper Theorems A and B enunciated in ie)Part | are proved’. "A practical form of type theory II', see also B.3, D.2 (c) 1948. P.1 also bears o ms. note by R.O. Gandy'Pages noo by ROG continuation of B.3, the contents being summarised on p.i This ms., which is in very poor condition, was intended as a (manuscript pages given letter, Nbcara Bae: SES ee Spy ese 1 , ‘ e.g., 50A. S5ORB, 7, JURE, Ge; mi ~ . efc.).' of inf. are sketched’, beginning '§5. beginning '9. as they fay + ‘ , A.M. Turing CSAC 53/7/77 Heavily corrected typescript, with many ms. additional pages, numbered 1-81, followed by a sequence of manuscript pages as follows: 1, 'note to p.7', 2-16, 18, 19, 22. C.7-C.10. Work on Morphogenesis n.d. but (c) 1952 'A diffusion reaction theory of morphogenesis in plants', typescript, with ms. corrections, 19 pp. and title page reading: ‘(The mathematical author (A.T.) is the originator of the Theory (which will eppear shortly in the Proceedings of the Royal Society) and is responsible for the exactitude with whichhis ideas and the relevant physical and mathematical concepis are represented, while the botanical author (C.W.W.) has tried to give the theory an appropriate botanical setting)’. (C.W.W. = Claude Wilson Wardlaw. ) "Morphogen theory of phyllotaxis. Port 1. Geometrical and des- criptive phyllotaxis.’ Heavily corrected typescript 41 pp. given in Manchester’. 13 pp. typescript with ms. corrections. equations for the case of spherical symmeiry' (by B. Richards), 14 pp. + Appendix, 2 pp. Accompanying ms. note by R.O. Gandy reads 'Draft of paper iniended for Transactions of Royal Society writien by N.E. Hoskin and B. Richards frommanuscripis of A.M.T. and notes of lectures Continuation of above, ‘Part I]. A solution of the morphogenetical Continuation of above, 'Part IT. Chemical Theory of morphogenesis', typed draft’. ‘Intelligent machinery’, n.d. typescript and ms. with corrections and additions. Pages numbered 1-37, with 2 unnumbered pages of references and notes. P.1 has ms. note by Gandy 'Turing's A.M, Turing CSAC 53/7/77 Cake. 'The reform of mathematical notation and phraseolegy', typescript and ms. corrections, and annotations by R.O. Gandy. Pages numbered 1-8, 13-18 and one unnumbered last page. P.13 has a note by R.O. Gandy 'no sign of pages 9-12". ‘General tensors in a group', ms., pages not numbered, 21 pp. ‘Minimum cost sequential analysis.’ Heavily corrected typescript, with some ms. pages and calculations. ‘A note on normal numbers.' Ms., 6 pp. very fragile, written on back of draft of another paper; typescript and ms. versions, 4 pp. ‘The word problem in compact groups', typescript with ms. corrections 3 pp. with 1 p. ms. 'The word problemis solvaole in simple groups’. P.1 has ms. note by Turing ‘Please let me have this back soon'. Corrected typescript, first page(s) missing, but last page bearing title by R.O. Gandy 'On Permutation Groups'. (Probably related to work at the Cypher School, Bletchley.) 'The Game of Poker'. Unfinished draft (pps. 1-13 only numbered), with extensive notes and calculations, many on ‘The Elliptic Integrals K, E.'| Ms. 1 p. only with ms. note oii verso ‘The game of Psychology.' Ms., pages unnumbered, 9 pp., iiost Cambridge writing~paper , ‘Precis of Relativity Theory.' (A Xerox copyof [f on p.9 cbove.) ‘The rules of GO', ms. written on double sheet of King's College, by Mrs. Turing 'Problem on Elliptic Functions worked out by A.M, Turing for the amusement of Malcolm MacPhail, Humble Oil and Refining Company, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.'. reverse of schoo! exercises. written on reverse of school exercises. A.M. Turing CSAC 53/7/77 Correspondence (D.1 - D.5) Letters from Turing to his mother: from Princeton, 1 p. only, Xerox copy Oct. 14 1936 no.43 on p.5 : rs. Turing's typescript copy Mar. 15 1937no.55 on p.6 : "Mar. 29 1937 no.57 on p.6 Jan. 1954no.87 on p.8 D.2. Folder inscribed by R.O. Gandy "Letters from AAT to MHAN[Professor Max Newman] (c.1940) mostly about Church's 'calculus of conversion' but also about ‘ordinal logics' and Church's Theory of types. + 1 unsent to Church. i The letters also bear suggested dates and notes by R.O. Gandy. from King's College, Combridge, wiih notes by R.O. Gandy ‘Early ~ fy 1940's' and ‘concerning Church's lecture notes on X calculus and ordinal logics’. from Bletchley, Merch 23, with notes by R.O. Gandy on fron? 'Must be 1940! and 'mostly abzut A calculus’, and also annotations and corrections in pencil. in Church's type Th.covy. Summer or autumn (or winter) 1940', extended work on type theory; see B.3, C.6. in collaboration v.'th Newman (R.S. 1942a) and also referring to 1 p. of letter to Churcli, n.d., but begins 'l enclose corrected proof Turing's work on ' st us brackets (see R.S.1942b) and his projected from Bletchley, Anril 271, with note by R.O. Gandy 'must be 1940". no heading or daiz, win note by R.O. Gandy 'must be 1942! re paper from Bletchley, n.¢., with note by R.O. Gandy 'About Ax. of Inf.” additional copies of nos. 76a, 76b and 77 on p.7.) Mrs. Turing's typescript copies of a letter to Turing from 1.J. (Jack) Good, machine intelligence; cilso refers to the 'Shaun-Michie' cness~playing machihe described by Michie and included in A.11. (These are and Turing's reply, 1948, re numbers of neurons in the brain, and about ‘Turing machines’. Aline is drawn throughthis letter. artes Atul ae a, OE we SN ter gr DRE aBR ay, ES 7 D.3, A.M, Turing CSAC 53/7/77 D.4 Letiers and postcards from A.M. Turing to Robin Gandy 1952-54 These are Xerox copies of the originals which are retained by Dr. Gandy. The letters are all written from Wilmslow where Turing was living when Reader ai Manchester University, and where he died. They contain personal material, comments on Gandy's work and thesis, and references to Turing's work. In some cases all or part of the date has been added in Gandy's hand, indicated in quotation marks. 10 items as follows: ‘Early 52’ (no.&0 onp. 8); Nov. 23 1952 (no.81 on p.8); two letters (the first is no.82 on p.8) written on computer type~ writer with ms. corrections; March 11 1953; 1953 (before May 30) (no.84 on p.8); 3 cards 1954 with ‘Messages from the Unseen World', when Turing and Gandy had been discussing Eddington's Fundamental Theory (see Gandy's explanation of these in his letter to D5. (notes) The material is presented alphabetically. Paul Bernays 1937 re R.S. 1937d Rupert Crawshay-Williams 1951 re R.S. 1950b M.H.A. Newmanin Itern A.8); 1954 (no.86 on p.8). a reference is given in brackets to the Bibliography problems. In cases where a link can be established with a pub- Letters to Turing from colleagues and friends, mainly on mathematical S. Skewes 1937 Maxweil Herman Alexander Newman, 1935 re R.S. 1935a Sir Charles Darwin 1947 re paper by Turing on ‘Intelligent Machinery’, published in Machine Intelligence 5, 1969 Albert Edward Ingham 1937 (2), 1950, 1951 Von Neumann, John, 1949-1950 re R.S. 19500, Norman Routledge ? 1952 vv Heinrich Scholz 1937, 2 postcards re R.S. 1937a 4 A.M. Turing CSAC 53/7/77 Christopher Strachey 1951 re broadcast talk Edward Charles Titchmarsh 1937 Conrad Hal Waddingt on 1952 re R.S. 1952 John Henry Constantine Whitehead 1952, 2 letters re R.S. 1950a John Zachary Young 1951, written in answer to no.78 on p.8. > 0 U w n = — > P o v e r r r e e r U > r e e e O 8 3 0 Index to correspondents Bayley, Don Bernays, Paul Bowden, Bertram Vivian, Lord Bowden of Chesterfield Rs . . T. (. >o o o r o G p O n o s 0 1 O 0 = o o O S t w o o w Church, Alonzo Crawshay~Williams, Rupert Darwin, Sir Charies Davenport, Harold Davies, D, WwW. Erickson, Ralph O. Furbank, Philip Nicholas Gandy, Robin Oliver Goodmen, E. Hardy, Godfrey Harold Hoskin, N. Ingham, Albert Edwar + Lee, Walter H. Lerner, A. Mahler, Kurt Newman, Mexwell Herman Alexander Pigou, A. Routledge, Norman Scholz, Heinrich skewesos, S. Sirachey, Christopher Tivehrrsh; Edward Charles Turing, Sara Uitley, Albert M. Von Neumann, John Waddington, Conrad Hol Whitehead, John Henry Constantine Wilkinson, Jares Hardy Young, John Zachary O C o r r C C V o T F P U O =N e s s i C r G r r O r O 3 e r O r O & N M U ° . . C S o °