NEEDHAM, Joseph v2

Published: 20 November, 2023  Author: admin


Catalogue of papers and correspondence of JOSEPH NEEDHAM CH FRS (1900 - 1995) Material relating to Chemical and Biological Warfare Compiled by Timothy E. Powell and Peter Harper 1995 All rights reserved University of Bath Deposited in the Department of Documents, Imperial War Museum, London NCUACS 55/4/95 J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 The work of the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists has been made possible by the support of the following societies and organisations: The Biochemical Society The British Library British Petroleum plc The Geological Society The Institute of Physics The Royal Society The Royal Society of Chemistry The Society of Chemical Industry The Wellcome Trust J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 NOT ALL THE MATERIAL IN THIS COLLECTION MAY YET BE AVAILABLE FOR CONSULTATION. ENQUIRIES SHOULD BE ADDRESSED IN THE FIRST INSTANCE TO: IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM THE DEPARTMENT OF DOCUMENTS LONDON J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 LIST OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION LIST OF PAPERS INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 INTRODUCTION PROVENANCE The material was deposited in the Department of Documents, Imperial War Museum by Joseph Needham in 1992, as a result of arrangements made following an oral history interview in 1987. It was received for cataloguing from the Department of Documents in December 1993. DESCRIPTION OF THE COLLECTION The papers relate to Needham's service as a member of the World Peace Council sponsored 1952 International Scientific Commission investigating alleged United States use of bacteriological warfare in North Korea and north east China during the Korean War, and subsequent material relating to the findings of the Commission and to chemical and biological warfare (CBW) in general. In early 1952 the governments of North Korea and the People's Republic of China claimed that the weapons against Chinese civilian targets. He was persuaded by evidence from the Chinese bacteriological warfare to which they would have had access during the occupation of Japan. they believed the charges to be true and accused the US of war crimes. report to this effect. When the allegations of US use of bacteriological agents arose Needham During his period in China as head of the Sino-British Science Co-operation Office, 1942-1946, Needham had been asked to investigate reports that the Japanese were using bacteriological US was dropping infected insects and other material into their territory from the air in an effort to International Association of Democratic Lawyers. This commission reported in March and April that spread disease. Unwilling to accept investigation of these charges by the World Health Organisation or International Red Cross, the North Korean and Chinese authorities invited a commission from the Surgeon-General's office that the Japanese were engaged in bacteriological warfare and submitted a its prepared a set of 'Notes on alleged Bacterial Warfare in Korea’ indicating that he found the claims of findings of the International Association of Democratic Lawyers' commission and in April 1952 Needham was involved in organising a number of meetings to discuss the allegations and the widely regarded as suspect, in part because of the lack of scientific knowledge on the part of believed that the US military could have been building on the Japanese experience with the North Korean and Chinese authorities plausible. However, the commission's findings were J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 members. The Chinese and North Korean authorities therefore established an International Scientific Commission to add credibility to the investigation of its allegations. Needham was a member of this, receiving a formal invitation to P.R. China from the Academia Sinica. The Scientific Commission, comprising seven scientists from Europe, USSR and Brazil was led by the Swedish scientist Andrea Andreen. It arrived in P.R. China in late June and continued its work through to September. On his return to Britain Needham held a press conference to report the Commission's findings and shortly thereafter the Commission's report was published. It concluded that the US was waging bacteriological warfare in North Korea and China, albeit not a great scale. The Commission's findings aroused great controversy. Needham spoke at many meetings, some organised by the Britain-China Friendship Association, to defend the Commission's work, and also was involved in a number of exchanges in the press. The controversy was reawakened when the US airmen who had testified to the use of bacteriological weapons withdrew their evidence on their release by North Korea. In 1956 the editors of China Monthly Review, J.W. Powell, his wife S.C. Powell and J. Schuman were charged in the US with sedition. Amongst the seditious material said to have been published were the findings of the Commission. Needham and other members of the Commission wrote in support of the defendants against whom all charges were finally dropped in 1961. the findings of the 1952 Commission. seemed to throw on its findings. Commission's enquiries. There is also extensive material relating to the reception of the Lawyers', the formation of the International Scientific Commission, and all stages of its work, Needham thereafter maintained an interest in the subject of CBW and from the late-1970s, after the Commission's Report in the UK and worldwide, including press-cuttings and correspondence with including copies of evidence placed before the Commission and Needham's notes made during the The bulk of the papers relate to the 1952 allegations. There are correspondence and papers relating passing of the Freedom of Information Act in the USA, evidence was released appearing to support to the reception of the reports of the commission from the International Federation of Democratic other background material on CBW assembled during the 1960s, relating in particular to the conflict The collection also includes correspondence and papers relating to the trial of J.W. Powell and his the US airmen and the doubt that their retractions of evidence given to the Scientific Commission co-defendants and to Needham's efforts to enlist support for their case in the UK, press-cuttings and defending its findings and these are documented here. There is also material covering the release of interested parties. Needham spoke at many meetings explaining the work of the Commission and J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 in Vietnam, and correspondence from the late 1970s on arising from the renewed historical interest in the possible use of bacteriological weapons by the Japanese in the Second World War and by the US in the Korean War. Item 113 is an audio recording of Needham's account of his work on the Commission made for the Imperial War Museum in 1987. LOCATIONS OF OTHER MATERIAL Books on CBW donated by Needham to the Imperial War Museum are held by the Museum's Department of Printed Books. The principal collection of the papers and correspondence of Joseph Needham is deposited in Cambridge University Library. It is catalogued as NCUACS no. 54/3/95. Where appropriate references have been given in the present catalogue to folder numbers. of complementary material in the papers deposited in Cambridge. P. Harper T.E. Powell BATH 1995 J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 LIST OF PAPERS The material is arranged as follows: 1-113 International Scientific Commission Establishment of Commission Commission investigations Reception of the Commission report 114-122 Powell-Schuman case 123-153 Later CBW material 1962-1989 1960s 136-140 1970s 141-153 123-135 1980s J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 International Scientific Commission Establishment of Commission '‘Pre-Commission'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into eight for ease of reference: papers re response to allegations of US use of of bacteriological the International Association of Democratic Lawyers. commission findings warfare and the the of Joint Meeting of Britain-China Friendship Association (BCFA) and London Peace Council, London, 25 April 1952. Annotated agenda; manuscript notes; BCFA broadsheet 'America is using Germ Warfare’; letter arising. Joint Meeting of national committees of Science for Peace and Medical Association for the Prevention of War, London, 28 April 1952. The meeting was addressed by J.D. Bernal. Includes letter re arrangements and 5pp typescript ‘Bacteriological Warfare in Korea and China’ by Bernal. to British ‘Is on meeting discussion Draft resolution, with covering letter; poster; hand-bill. Invitation bacteriological warfare, London, 9 May 1952. Peace Committee private Public Meeting organised by Cambridge Peace Front and BCFA on America using Germ Warfare?', Cambridge, 9 June 1952. Manuscript and typescript drafts of Needham's 'Notes on alleged Bacterial Warfare in Korea’; duplicated typescript copy, 27 April 1952. Other printed and typescript background material. 2 folders. Press-releases and publicity material of New China News Agency. Press-cuttings on the alleged use of bacteriological warfare. J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 Copy of Reports on Investigations in Korea and China March-April 1952. International Association of Democratic Lawyers' commission Formation of Commission’. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed ‘A divided into three for ease of reference. Correspondence re need for scientific investigation of Chinese claims and re possible membership of a scientific commission, April-May 1952. Correspondence re Needham's visit to P.R. China, June 1952. Includes typescript of letter to Dorothy Needham Miscellaneous material. (wife) his re with account of preparation of joint statement by members of the Commission explaining the limits of their professional competence. likely movements in China, and material Commission investigations Prevention of consider Warfare to Association for the Contents of Fr, [Chinese] and Russ’, Queries and Comments ‘Al Needham's folder so inscribed divided into four for ease of reference. Background material’. ‘Documents (first series) given for reproduction in 23 June 1952. Includes reports of meetings of joint subcommittee of Science for Peace and Medical the allegations, 5 May and 10 May; and ‘critical comments' by J. H. Humphrey and W. H. Thorpe. Manuscript notes; press-cuttings; etc. ‘Comment and summary (by a scientist March 16, 1952)', 2pp typescript; ‘An investigation to determine whether the flies naturally occurring in Shenyang city carry intestinal pathogenic bacteria and B. Anthracis', 5pp duplicated typescript, 8pp typescript abstract of 1947 article by T. Rosebury et al. Miscellaneous typescript and duplicated typescript notes and papers. ‘The vector-borne July and August 1952; infections’, J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 17-19 Documents of Commission’. 'A2 inscribed divided into three for ease of reference. Contents of Needham's folder so Duplicated typescript reports of meetings 1-17 of the Commission, 23 June - 19 July 1952. Needham attended from the second meeting. Typescript manuscript notes for Needham's ‘Dinner spch at Mukden 1st night’. biographical Pesséa, Commission member; notes S.B. on 'B Prague documents and their analysis’. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into four for ease of reference: typescript and manuscript notes on evidence for bacteriological warfare, and duplicated typescript World Peace Council 'Documentation on Bacteriological Warfare’ bulletins and reports on alleged incidents from Chinese government agencies, some annotated by Needham. Retained in original order. The 'Prague documents' were statements, reports, scientific data and other evidence that had been assembled by earlier investigations into allegations of the use of bacteriological weapons. They were so-called because they were disseminated through Prague. The documents bore the code SIA. The Scientific Commission, to identify the evidence it gathered, used the code ISC. Four Zero series’. The ‘Four Zero series' was a sequence of cases from alleged incidents in north east China, numbered 00001 - 00010. Additional Releases mainly non-scientific’. 'B1 Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: World Peace Council ‘Documentation on Bacteriological Warfare’ bulletins; press-cuttings. 'B Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into four for ease of reference: duplicated typescript reports on cases of alleged use of bacteriological warfare, some annotated by Needham, with accompanying photographs of evidence. The Commission visited Kan-Nan on 14 July 1952. 'B2 Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into two for ease of reference: typescript report (2 copies) of incident of plague at Kan-Nan, extensively annotated by Needham; manuscript and typescript notes; etc. Plague Kan-Nan'. J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 31, 32 Containers cf K'uan-Tien Burchett 'B3 Pilots’. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into two for ease of reference: typescript and manuscript notes, photographs etc on types of canisters and bombs described in the incidents; notes on case of American POW allegedly infected by germ-carrying insect. Ch'ang-Pai Anthrax'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: 14pp typescript 'B4 ‘Commentary on the incidents in Liaotung province connected with the dissemination of anthrax and cases arising therefrom’; manuscript and typescript notes. Encephalitis'. 'B5 Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: manuscript and typescript notes, including incomplete typescript ‘Commentary on the cases of a new form of encephalitis occurring at Shenyang (Mukden) after American air intrusions’. Phytopathol.'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into 'B6 two for ease of reference. Duplicated typescript reports on cases of alleged dispersal of fungus-laden plant material by US air force, with accompanying photographs of evidence. Manuscript and typescript notes. ‘C2 manuscript and typescript notes re alleged use of cholera at Dai-Dong. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: ‘C1 Korea general’. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: typescript ‘Questions addressed to the (North) Korean Minister of Health’, 30 July 1952, with replies; manuscript draft of 'Questions' in French; manuscript notes. Korea to ascertain effects of bacteriological warfare. ‘C3 Plague and Jap plague etc’. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: manuscript and typescript notes re alleged use of plague at Kang-Sou and Hoi-Yang. ‘C4 Korea agents'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: typescript and manuscript notes re South Korean agents allegedly sent into North Korea Cholera etc'. Korean material J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 41-45 Korea pilots'. ‘C5 five for ease of reference. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into Chinese and The confessions of captured US airmen. see 106-112 below. Korean North allegations the These were subsequently retracted, supported were by S.W. Green, Cambridge Peace Front, re importance of Letter from Westerners being allowed to interview captured airmen, 25 July 1952; 'Notes on typescript; manuscript notes. four captured American airmen’, interviews 15pp_ with World Peace Council 'Documentation on Bacteriological Warfare’ bulletins on confessions of US pilots, May - June 1952. Press-release supplements of the New China News Agency reporting the statements and ‘interrogation’ of the airmen by the Scientific Commission, September 1952. 2 folders. Photographs of written testimony by US airmen; printed material. 'D for ease of reference. Exhibitions'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into two Manuscript notes on and bibliography from 'BW exhibn' at Shenyang. Brochure for ‘Exhibition on Bacteriological War Crimes committed by the Government of the United States of America’, Peking, 1952. miscellaneous manuscript and typescript notes; press-cuttings etc. Report’. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into three for Scientific and ‘Selected papers from ISC files'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: 'E ease Commission's corrections. of annotations sections manuscript Needham's reference: typescript report, with of drafts of the J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 52 Chinese material re hygiene measures: three illustrated booklets 'The Health of the Village’, ‘The Happiness of the Farmer' and ‘Crush the American Bacterial Warfare'; 10pp typescript, 'Some aspects of the Patriotic Health and Sanitation Campaign’. Report of the International Scientific Commission for the Investigation of the Facts concerning Bacterial Warfare in Korea and China (with appendices), Peking, 1952. French version of the Report. Reception of the Commission's Report ‘Press conference’. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into five for ease of reference. to publication of the On his Needham held a press conference in London on 26 September 1952. return from the Commission, prior report, typescript duplicated of Needham's statement, 6pp manuscript corrections; insertions for the statement and transcript of Needham's replies to questions; duplicated typescript copy of letter to Press Association listing other scientists who had been invited to China to investigate the claims. See 65 below. with Correspondence appearing in The Times, re the Commission's report, 3-29 October 1952. See 86, 87 below. Needham's duplicated typescript copies of material relating to the reception of the Commission's report, October 1952 - March 1953. White MP, December 1952 - March 1953. See 67 below. Correspondence arising with Chairman of the Eastern Region of the United Nations Association, and resolution of executive committee, objecting to Needham writing to the press in his capacity as a Vice President of the Eastern Regional Council of the Association, November 1952. See 86 below. Parliamentary debates and questions; correspondence arising with J.B. J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 58 Summary booklet of Report of the International Scientific Commission for the Investigation of the Facts concerning Bacterial Warfare in Korea and China; manuscript notes etc. 'Distribution'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into six for ease of reference: correspondence re distribution of the report, including requests for copies, and lists of those to whom the report was to be sent. Correspondence, July 1952 - February 1953. 1952 July, September. 1952 October. 1952 November. 1952 December, 1953 January - February. Typescript lists of those to receive the report. Manuscript lists and notes of those requesting the report. ‘British scientists approached’. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: list of and correspondence with other scientists approached by the Chinese authorities to join the Commission. Correspondence, September 1952 - March 1954. Needham was accused of being asked by the Chinese authorities to join the Commission less his Communist sympathies. Needham was able to show that other British scientists without such political affiliations had been approached by the Chinese but had felt unable to join the Commission. See 55 above. Contents of Needham's untitled reference: papers arising from Commission. folder expertise than for for his scientific divided into nine for ease of J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 66 1952 September - December. Chiefly re parliamentary exchange between S.O. Davies MP and A. Nutting MP, Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Includes Needham's letter to Davies, refuting statement made by Nutting in reply to question by Davies. Correspondence with J.B. White MP, and 1952 December - 1953 March. with Hewlett Johnson, Dean of Canterbury, re White's letters; manuscript list of recipients. Needham produced duplicated typescript copies of the correspondence for circulation. See 57 above. Includes 'Memorandum by a British scientist...The 1953 January, February. alleged B.W. incident at Changteh', 25 March 1942, sent to Needham by Foreign Office at his request, and correspondence re invitations to speak on biological warfare. 1953 March - June. Chiefly re invitations to speak on biological warfare. 1953 July - 1954 March. Needham's manuscript notes Service Training School, Kweiyang, recording his observations on Japanese use of bacteriological warfare. to Emergency Medical visit on Needham's manuscript notes on Ishii Shiro, Japanese World War Two expert on bacteriological warfare, said to be involved in alleged US use of bacteriological warfare in Korea. From 1942 to 1945 Needham was head of the Sino-British Science Co- He visited many Chinese research operation Office, based in Chungking. establishments and kept the rough notes he made during these visits in a numbered sequence; the notes found here being numbered '153'. The main sequence is to be found at NCUACS 54/3/95, C.57-C.69. Warfare in Korea, Peking, 1953. Press-cuttings on bacteriological warfare allegations and accusations of Chinese torture of UN POWs. Depositions of Nineteen Captured U.S. Airmen on their Participation in Germ J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 74 Miscellaneous printed and duplicated typescript material. 'BW after return _ finished'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into ten for ease of reference: chiefly invitations and correspondence re arrangements for lectures on bacteriological warfare in Korea and China, September 1952 - March 1953. Correspondence, and telegrams of appreciation for Needham's work on the Scientific Commission. September - Includes October letters 1952. Correspondence, November 1952 - February 1953. Invitations to lecture and correspondence re arrangements: Central Union of Chinese Students, London, 4 October. Staff of New Statesman and Nation, London, 6 October. Association of Scientific Workers, National Institute for Medical Research, London, 13 October. Fleet Street Forum, London, 7 November. University College London biologists, 7 November. Birkbeck College London branch Science for Peace, 7 November. London School of Economics Socialist Society, 15 October. Cambridge University ?Socialist Club, 6 or 7 November (declined). Wembley Peace Council, Wembley, Middlesex, 1 November (declined). Fabian Society Weekend School, Dorking, Surrey, 7-9 November (declined). Cambridge, 25 November. Britain-China Friendship Association, Cambridge Peace Front etc, Students’ Union, Reading University, 11 November (declined). Socialist Medical Association, London, 18 November. of Scientific Workers Executive Committee, Association November. London, 8 J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 80 Bristol University Socialist Society, 28 November (declined). Cambridge Heretics, 30 November. Leeds University Socialist Society, November (declined). Congress of Peoples for Peace, Vienna, 12 December (declined). Lecture Edinburgh, Manchester, 17 December and Birmingham, 18 December. December, Glasgow, tour 15 of 16 December, Association of Scientific Workers London Area, 19 January. Socialist Medical Association South West Essex branch, Ilford, 9 February. South Place Ethical Society, London, 17 February. Queen Mary College London Science for Peace Society, 18 February. Association of University Socialist Society (declined), 19 February. Scientific Workers North West branch, and Manchester Ipswich Peace Council, 21 February. Imperial College London branch Science for Peace, 3 March. Invitations to visit France to speak on bacteriological warfare. Bristol University Science Faculty Society, February (declined). ‘Current’. ease of reference: correspondence and papers re reception of the report. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into nine for November 1952. See 56 above. Cuttings from Daily Worker, 22 September 1952, featuring Needham's return Commission; correspondence arising; the Chinese allegations that the United States are employing Germ Warfare in Korea and N.E. China’ by G. Bing MP, 26 September 1952; Britain-China Friendship Association Newsletter, September. Correspondence with United Nations Association and English-Speaking Union re findings of Commission and letters The Times, October - typescript 10pp duplicated China, 'A note upon UK from of the to the to and the work J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 Correspondence, October 1952, chiefly re response of Needham and others to letter in The Times from Sir Henry Dale and Sir Robert Robinson, Past Presidents of the Commission's investigations. Includes drafts of letters of reply to The Times. Society, Royal the on Correspondence and papers, November 1952 - February 1953. Includes material re response of Science for Peace to Commission's findings, and public meeting in Birmingham, 18 December. See 81 above. Needham's manuscript notes on possible replies to criticisms of the Report, etc. Press-releases of New China News Agency. Press-cuttings and miscellaneous material. 2 102-105 Contents of Needham's untitled folder divided into four for ease of reference. 102 Background information on spread and control of infectious disease. folders. ‘Press cuttings since return'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into eight for ease of reference: press-cuttings and press-releases. Défense de La Paix 17 (October 1952), with interview with Needham re the findings of the Commission; pamphlet The Communists' New Weapon - Germ Warfare by J. Clews, London, 1952. 114-121 below. Correspondence, August 1953 - August 1954, re the case of R. Brun, a Swiss scientist criticised by the Swiss press for support of the findings of the Commission; correspondence, 1956, chiefly re charges in USA against J.W. and S.C. Powell and J. Schuman, editors of China Monthly Review. See J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 104, 105 Duplicated typescript 'Documents lent to Science for Peace’, 1953. 2 folders. 106-112 ‘Repatriation Flare-up inscribed divided into seven for ease of reference. Nov/Dec 1953'. Contents of Needham's folder so In autumn 1953 the North Koreans, in accordance with the terms of armistice with the UN forces, released POWs. These included the captured US airmen who had given testimonies to their North Korean captors and to the Commission in support of the allegations of bacteriological warfare. On their release they withdrew their testimony, claiming the Communists had placed them under mental and physical duress. This threw doubt on the Commission's Report but Needham insisted that the Commission had not relied on the testimony of the POWs in their case. See 41-45 above. Correspondence, April - October 1953. Correspondence, November 1953. Needham and others, defending the work of the Commission. Includes drafts of letters to the press by Correspondence, December 1953 - March 1954. Statesman and Nation, December 1953. Chiefly letters to the New Nations, 28 October 1953, attacking Press-cuttings. Press-releases of New China News Agency. 2 folders. Manuscript notes on speech of Selwyn Lloyd MP, Foreign Secretary, to United the Commission's report; miscellaneous typescript material. International Commission. of Needham's recollections Audio-tape cassette of the work of the J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 Powell-Schuman case ‘Powell case’. for ease of reference. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into eight J.W. Powell, his wife Sylvia C. Powell and J. Schuman were editors of China Monthly Review. \|n 1956 J.W. Powell was charged with sedition and his wife and J. Schuman of conspiracy. Amongst the seditious material said to have been published in China Monthly Review were reports alleging use of Needham was asked to support the bacteriological warfare by the US. defence case by testifying at the trial. He was unable to do so but sent a letter in support and was active in enlisting support for the defendants in the UK. In 1959 the judge declared a mistrial but the prosecution then filed charges of treason. In 1961 all charges were dropped. See also 103 above. The material is chiefly correspondence and papers re the progress of the trial, including circular letters of the Committee of Friends of the China Monthly Review for the Defence of its Editors. 1956 (1). Copy of Indictment. 1956 (2). Correspondence re enlisting support for the defendants. 1957 June - December. Includes material re R. Brun. See 103 above. 1958, 1959. Includes material re mistrial and new charges of treason. 1957 January - May. Includes Needham's manuscript notes of conversation with A.L. Wirin, a lawyer for the defendants, re progress of the trial, 2 May. Copies of articles by Tibor Meray from newspaper Franc-Tireur, May 1957, re allegations of bacteriological warfare Correspondence re biological warfare research at Dugdale, Utah, 1957. 1960, 1961, nd. Includes statements by J.W. Powell. Press-cuttings and other background information. J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 Later CBW material 1962-1989 1960s Correspondence 1962, 1963. Includes requests from Hewlett Johnson, Dean of Canterbury for information in preparation for TV programme, and from P.D. Goodstein for discussion on chemical and biological weapons, with Needham's manuscript notes arising. 124-127 Correspondence with and re S. Buckingham, 1965-1969. Sue Buckingham was a member of the US organisation Physicians for Social Responsibility gathering material on CBW. Correspondence, 1965-1968, and obituary 1969. 125:127 Photocopies of articles on CBW sent to Needham by Buckingham. folders. 3 Correspondence with ‘Horizon' programme on CBW, 1967. British Broadcasting Corporation re contribution to Correspondence, 1966-1967. Includes correspondence re arrangements for talk on CBW to Cambridge University CND, 9 May 1967. Includes 16pp typescript 'Chemical and bacteriological warfare’ prepared by Needham for the programme but not used. Correspondence, 1968-1970. Includes invitations to give talks on CBW and material Bernal Peace Library Conference on Chemical and Biological Warfare, 22-23 February 1968. Miscellaneous printed background material. 3 folders. Manuscript notes and printed material re possible use of CBW in Vietnam. re J. D. Press-cuttings etc re UK CBW research establishment at Porton Down. 133-135 J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 1970s Material re death of Andrea Andreen, 1972. Andreen was chair of the 1952 Scientific Commission. Correspondence, 1976-1977. Correspondence from J. van Ginneken, 1977-1978, re 1952 Commission. Includes 29pp typescript draft 'Bacterial Warfare: was it employed or wasn't it?’ by van Ginneken. Correspondence, 1978-1979. Includes 39pp typescript of 'Germ Warfare and "Plausible Denial" in the Korean War 1952-53' by S.L. Endicott with invitation to Needham to write a comment to be published with the article in Modern China. 1980s re re-opening of Correspondence, investigations into US and Japanese use of bacteriological warfare. Powell chiefly 1980, J.W. with Papers by E. Broda, sent to Needham 1981. ‘Jon Halliday material Spring 1984'. inscribed: correspondence and photocopies of background material. Contents of Needham's folder so Correspondence and papers, 1981, chiefly re ‘Appeal against an escalating chemical arms race in Europe’. October. Includes post production script. Correspondence and papers, November - December 1984, re BBC TV ‘Horizon’ programme 'Biology at War: a plague in the Wind’, broadcast 29 Correspondence, August - September 1984, re possible TV programme on the Korean war. Halliday was a researcher studying the work of the 1952 Commission. J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 Correspondence and papers, 1985-1986. Chiefly re 1952 Commission. Correspondence, Museum re Needham's CBW papers. Includes 1987. correspondence with Imperial War Correspondence, 1988. re N.H.K. [Japan Broadcasting Corporation] TV Correspondence, 1989, programme on bacteriological warfare, with particular relation to World War Two and the Korean War. Needham provided information and was interviewed for the programme. Press-cuttings. 10 1=193 Miscellaneous background material. 3 folders. J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 Index of correspondents ADRIAN, Edgar Douglas, Baron AIREY, Willis ALEXANDER, William M. ALLARD, A., Baron ALLEY, Rewi ANDREEN, Andrea APRAHAMIAN, Francis ARNOTT, D. G. ARUP, Jens 11 70 61 76 115, 116, 119 10515216,.08, 108, 106, 107, 115, 116 See also 136 2, 65, 87, 88, 109 61,119 80 ASSOCIATION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKERS 79, 81-83 AUSTIN, Warren R. AZZALINI, Aldo F. 10 70 69 59 BERNAL, John Desmond BIQUARD, Pierre BAILEY, Sydney D. BALDWIN, Robert L. BARNETT, S. A. BARRETT, John F. 59, 60, 76 60, 61 BENNO SCHWABE & CO. 61 BIRMINGHAM UNIVERSITY GUILD OF BOURGUIGNON, Georges UNDERGRADUATES BOUCHER, J. P. BOWDEN, Frank Philip BRAY, R.S. J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 BRISTOL UNIVERSITY SCIENCE FACULTY SOCIETY BRISTOL UNIVERSITY SOCIALIST SOCIETY 80 BRITAIN-CHINA FRIENDSHIP ASSOCIATION luli 55:'61, 62) 65; 66, 77-83, 88, 115 See also 1 BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION 129, 145 BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL BRITISH PEACE COMMITTEE BRUN, Rudolf BRUNT, Martin BRYAN, Derek BRYAN, Hung-Ying BUCKINGHAM, Sue BULLETIN OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS BURCHETT, Wilfred 66 3 See 103, 118 60, 66 daa4.16 75 CAMBRIDGE PEACE FRONT NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT CASTLE, William B. BURHOP, Eric Henry Stoneley CADOGAN, Peter W. CALLARD, Patrick 60 3, 41, 75, 79 CENTRAL UNION OF CHINESE STUDENTS CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY CAMPAIGN FOR 128 CHEN Minzheng CLARK, F. W. CHAPPLE, Alton R. F. CHARLES, Rev. Edward CHAIN, Sir Ernst (Boris) CHAPMAN, J. M. J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 CLARKE, Dorothy CLAYSON, D. H. F. CLEWS, J. C. COHEN, J. A. CROOK, Eric M. CRUIKSHANK, M. M. DAILY WORKER DAVIES, Stephen Owen, MP DAVIS, Forest K. DAVIS, Guy DONE, E. A. DRIBBON, Jack 76 60, 61, 76 85 66 60 70 Al,.05, 61) 62565, 66, 77-83, 88, 103, 122 DUCKWORTH, W. L. H. 61 EASTERN WORLD EEEIS dé 75 60 Aclio ENDICOTT, Stephen L. ENDICOTT, Rev. James G. 'ESPINASSE, Paul Gilbert Oe See also 139 ENGLISH-SPEAKING UNION 106-108 FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTS EVANS, Rev. Stanley G. FABIAN SOCIETY Wks 78 59 137 BERRY. WH: FISK, Alfred G. EVANS, E. S. EVANS, Gordon 86 60 60 86 J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 FLEAR, Cecil EOGGITT. C6. A. FOREIGN OFFICE FREETH, Francis Arthur FREMLIN, John Heaver FULLER, Archibald GASTER, Jack GITTINGS, John GOODSTEIN, Peter D. GORDON, A. Hugh GRANADA TELEVISION LIMITED GREEN, S. W. GREGORY, F. A. GRUNDFEST, Harry 81 86 144 137 123 66, 76, 107 128 41, 75, 79, 108 107 61 HALLIDAY, Jon 85 143, 146, 148 MEEEM: P. ible DG: HILL, Marjory HACKETT, David P. HAUDRICOURT, André HALDANE, John Burdon Sanderson 59 HINSHELWOOD, Sir Cyril (Norman) HINTON, Howard Everest 84 75 60 19 68 60, 61, 76, 82, 106 HILTON, Margaret HOWARD, Evelyn 81, 11 65 60, 88 HIRST, L. Fabian HORTH, James R. HILLABY, John D. J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 HUAN Hsiang HUMPHREY, John Herbert 116 TSO 97.0; 2.7615 107, 108 HUMPHREYS, Dorothy 86 IGARASHI, Kyohei IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON SCIENCE FOR PEACE IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM 60, 61, 147 JACKSON, F. L. JEWELL, Peter JOHNSON, C. G. 88 61 65 JOHNSON, Very Rev. Hewlett 67, 106, 107, 123 JOHNSON, Paul B. 61 JOLIOT-CURIE, Frédéric KEAN, J. E. KLEINMAN, Arthur KRAUS, Frederick W. KUO Mo-Jo KING, Alexander KIRBY, Diane LEEDS UNIVERSITY SOCIALIST SOCIETY LYNE, L. O., Major-General LANDMAN, J. LAMPARD, M. E. LABOUR MONTHLY LATHE, Grant Henry LU Gwei-Djen J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 McDERMOTT, Jeanne McFARLANE, A. M. MAJID, Kamal MALTERRE, Jean 61 148 103, 107, 120 MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY SOCIALIST SOCIETY 81, 83 MANTON, Sidnie Milana MARTIN, Kingsley MASLIN, David 62 LO. Wako 128 MEDICAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE PREVENTION 68, 69 OF WAR MELLANBY, Kenneth MESTITZ, P. MILLER, H. MILNE, Alec MIRSKY, Jonathan 60 60 60 65 MITCHELL, Rt. Rev. Walter MODERN CHINA MOORE, W. Harvey MURRELL, Stanley MITCHISON, Denis Anthony NEEDHAM, Dorothy Mary Moyle 1, We eet 69 NIPPON HOSO KYOKAI (JAPAN BROADCASTING NORTH AND WEST WILTSHIRE PEACE 105 77, 10%, 108; 115 107 61, 76 149 NEW STATESMAN AND NATION NEWTH, David Richmond NEW WORLD REVIEW CORPORATION) COMMITTEE NEW BLACKFRIARS 78 130 J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 NOTTINGHAM, Judith OFFORD, Albert Cyril OLIVO, Oliveiro OWEN, Bernard PEACE NEWS PESSOA, Samuel Barnsley PEEIFRER, EW: eh 66-68, 106 103-115 116 See also 19 122 PIRIE, Norman Wingate (‘Bill’) 65, 69, 106, 107 POWELL, John W. PRATT, Sir John (Thomas) PRIGE: Ask PRITT, D.N. 137, 140, 148 See also 103, 114- 422 10, 76, 88 62 87,115 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING SOCIETY RAJCHMAN, Ludwik PURCELL, Victor 11, 88, 108 PROGRESSIVE BUSINESS MEN'S FORUM 66, 68, 106 READING CO-ORDINATING COMMITTEE FOR QUEEN MARY COLLEGE SCIENCE FOR PEACE 82 ROOSEBOOM, Maria ROSE, Steven P. R. REID, Charles RITCHIE-CALDER, Peter Ritchie, Baron ROBERTS, Jacob D. RODGERS, William Thomas, Baron J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 ROSS, D. M. ROYAL SOCIETY ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE RUSSELL, Dora Winifred, Lady RYLE, Anthony SACKLEY, Ralph R. SAVILLE, John SCIENCE FOR PEACE SCIENCE JOURNAL SELIGMAN, G. SHEN Chih-l. SIMMONS, Robert SMITH, Sydney 61 145 60, 68, 69 61 147 2, 06, 165088. 107, 108 132 60 36 SOCIALIST MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 137 59 THE TIMES TOWNSEND, Peter TRAUB, E. TSIEN San-Tsiang 86, 87, 106, 107 STEVENS, C. C. 82 60 1113 THORPE, William Homan SOKHEY, Sir Sahib Singh SOUTH PLACE ETHICAL SOCIETY 61 UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION TSUNEISHI, Kei-ichi 10, 11 139, 148 1 TUNSTALL, Julian TVEIT, Martin J. Needham NCUACS 55/4/95 VAN GINNEKEN, Jaap VAN HEYNINGEN, William Edward ('Kits') VAN NESS, Peter WALKER, Doris Brin WARREN, Susan WEMBLEY PEACE COUNCIL WHITAKER, lan WHITE, John Baker, MP 138 10, 65 139 115, 116, 118-120 61 77 60 67 WIGGLESWORTH,, Sir Vincent (Brian) HOF 1480 WILKINS, Maurice Hugh Frederick WINT, Guy WOMEN'S INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE FOR PEACE AND FREEDOM WOOSTER, W. A. (‘Peter’) 131 11 130 Loer9 WORLD COUNCIL OF PEACE 60, 61, 75 WU Lien-Teh 103 76 11 YUDKIN, Simon YOUNG, Amicia Melland YOUNG, Sir Frank (George) 69