BAKER, John Randal v1

Published: 13 September, 2023  Author: admin


THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Report on papers of JOHN RANDAL BAKER (b 1900) FRS cytologist 1928-1974 deposited in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (CSAC 69/7/79) Reproduced for the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre London WC2A 1HP by THE ROYAL COMMISSTON ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Quality House, Quality Court, Chancery Lance, CSAC 69/7/79 CONTEMPORARY SCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE British National Committee for the History of Science, Medicine and Technology under the guidance of the Royal Socicty’s Catalogue of the papers of JOHN RANDAL BAKER FRS b.1901 Research and lectures at Oxford University 1928 - 1969 Compiled by: Jeannine Alton Deposited in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 1979 Julia Latham- Jackson J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 LIST OF CONTENTS GENERAL INTRODUCTION SUMMARY OF CAREER SECTIONS A- C RESEARCH AND LECTURES AT OXFORD UNIVERSITY F928.~ 1969 A. Cytology B. Histochemistry A.1 - A. 52 B.1 - B.14 C. Microscopy and microtechnique C.1 - C.43 SECTION D PUBLICATION J.R. Boker CSAC 69/7/79 GENERAL INTRODUCTION The papers were received from Dr. Baker in 1977 when he removed from pop his house in Oxford to smaller premises. Dr. Baker was Reader in Cytology at the University of Oxford; he lectured regularly on several aspects of the subject and conducted research in cytological technique and the practical possibilities of different types of microscopy, with particu- lar reference to the phase contrast and later the electron microscope. forms the bulk of the present collection and covers lectures and practical classes given to members of the university from 1928 to 1969, and the research data on which they This material were based. and extensive revision, as do the duplicated typescript sheets for distribution in practical in longhand, show evidence of frequent The lectures, which are all In addition, the laboratory notebooks indicate very carefully the aims, classes. techniques, methods and results of Dr. Baker's research, and experiments are frequently accompanied by reflections on the results, memoranda for alterations and revisions, or notes of new ideas to be tested and incorporated. Although many of the lectures are written out in full, Dr. Baker did not use the full text in the lecture room, but spoke from very short notes without using any memorized phrases. ltem D.1 consists of the autograph ms. of chapter 23 of Dr. Baker's book Race (London, 1974). After his retirement, Dr. Baker continued his research and lecturing, especially Item C.24 is There are no correspondence files as such, but Dr. Baker kept a few letters of gave in 1969. C22 immediate scientific relevance with the papers to which they refer: see A.45, C.15, a set of lectures for graduates on the construction on electron microscopy. and operation of the electron microscope, delivered in 1968 and 1969, while item C.25 is an experimental one-day course in electron microscopy for undergraduates, which he Hebrides which he made in 1922-23, 1927 and as leader in 1933-34, as well as 60 laboratory notebooks and the diaries kept during scientific expeditions to the New Dir. Baker currently retains the rest of his scientific papers which include some JR. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 correspondence about the Society for Freedom in Science (S.F.S.) which he co-founded with Michael Polanyi and Sir Arthur Tansley, and which he served as Honorary Secretary and Treasurer throughout its existence (1940-1960). He also holds personal and family papers, some of military interest. 8 bound volumes-of correspondence and papers relating to the Indian Mutiny, Ashanti Campaign, Egyptian Campaign of 1882, and other military campaigns of General Sir Archibald Alison, Bart. (Dr. Baker's maternal grandfather) are already deposited in the Bodleian Library (shelf-marks: Ms. Eng. Lett. C.448 - 452, D-419 - 20, E.151). J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 SUMMARY OF THE CAREER OF JOHN RANDAL BAKER b.1900 1908 - 16 Educated at Boxgrove School, Guildford W218 =22 923-50 New College, Oxford Demonstrator in Zoology, Oxford University 1923 m. Inezita Davis 1933 - 34 Leader, Oxford University Expedition to New Hebrides 1938 1939 1940 DSc. (Oxon) m. Mrs Helen Savage Founder member, Society for Freedom in Science (Hon. Secretary and Treasurer, 1940 - 60) 1946 - 64 1950. = OF 1964 - 65 1968 Joint Editor, Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 1958 Fellow of the Royal Society 1964 - 67 Professorial Fellow, New College, Oxford Reader in Cytology, Oxford University President, Royal Microscopical Society (Hon. Fellow 1968) Reader Emeritus in Cytology, Oxford University J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 SECTION A A.1-A, 17 Notebooks on laboratory research 1929-67 The notebooks were numbered from | to XVI by Baker and also dated by him. The first item in this Section (A.1) does not strictly belong under the heading of Cytology, but it has been included because it was kept by Baker with the Cytology notebooks. Although all the notebooks are labelled 'Cytology', the later ones contain a considerable body of notes on microscopy, particularly in relation to phase contrast microscopy (A.9 - A.12, A.16, A.17) and the function of the eye as an integral part of the light microscope (A.16, A.17). Baker used the first person extensively in describing experiments, commenting on methods and planning future work which makes the notebooks read more like a diary and contributes to their interest as an illustration of his methods of work. Ae Notebook labelled inside front cover 'Notes for use in the demonstration of Invertebrates’. ‘Cytology I'. 1934-40 There is no more Notebook labelled inside front cover 'Notes on Cytological Technique. Vol.1'. Contains descriptions of procedure for cytological experiments, with comments on the results. Contains notes for dissection procedure, lists of slides and diagrams with an index at the front. material in the collection relating to the course on invertebrates. wv Record of experiments, mainly for preparing and staining slides. photo-micrography . There are ‘also a few notes on microscopy, especially Notebook labelled inside front cover 'Notes on Cytological Technique. Vol.2'. Notebook labelled inside front cover 'The Cytology of Digestion. I'. Record of experiments, mostly using newts. { é 'Cytology HII’. 1940-42 ‘Cytology II’. 1940-42 J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section A. Cytology ‘Cytology IV'. Notebook labelled inside front cover 'The Cytology of Digestion. Il'. (Deleted. ) Contains notes on other aspects of cytology as well as digestion. "Cytology V'. Mainly contains records of experiments to perfect various Many of these techniques techniques for staining slides. were learnt by students in practical classes (see A.47-A. 52), and Baker was constantly working to refine and improve them. ‘Cytology VI’. Contains similar material to A.6. 'Cytology VII". 1943-44 1944-45 Further experiments to perfect various cytological techniques. "Cytology VIII’. 1946-49 ‘Cytology IX’. "Cytology X'. The subject-matter of this notebook is partly cytological technique and partly phase contrast microscopy. Includes at front of notebook a typed alphabetical index and list of contents by page number. similar to A.10. The subject-matter is The contents of the first part of the notebook continue the work described in A.6-A.8. notes on phase contrast microscopy, particularly experiments with different types of phase plates and annuli. The second half mainly contains relating to mordanting. This notebook also has a typed contents list, but no alphabetical index. topics in cytology and microscopy. Mainly material on mordanting. Inside the front cover there is a note referring to p.32, ‘was this the beginning of my work There is also an index to items on mordants? (11 June 1958)', "Cytology XI’. 1954-57 Experiments described cover a wide variety of "Cytology XII’. J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section A. Cytology 1959-60 1960-62 1963-65 'Cytology XIII. This notebook is also mostly concerned with mordanting and has an index to experiments on aluminium haematein at the front. ‘Cytology XIV". Mainly contains a record of further experiments on aluminium haematein; with an index at front of notebook. "Cytology XV'. The experiments in the first part of the notebook cover both cytological techniques and various types of microscopy. Later in the notebook there are a number of experiments on 'the function of the eye as an integral part of the light microscope’, and these are indexed at the front of the notebook. ‘Cytology XVI’. The work begun at the end of A.16 is continued in this note- The remainder of the book and is also indexed at the front. work covers various aspects of cytological technique. J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section A. Cytology A. 18-A. 52 Notes for lectures and practical classes 1928-66 The majority of these lectures were delivered to undergraduates, but the course in Advanced Cytology and Fine Structure (A.40, A.42) was intended for research workers as well as final year undergr aduates. All the lectures are in manuscript, usually fully written but very occasionally in note form. They show evidence of frequent and extensive revision; often large parts of a lecture would be discarded and only a few pages retained to be included in the re-written version. Baker kept some of his old notes, but only those that contained points of continuing interest, so that this collection is far from complete. The material is presented in chronological order as far as possible, and where a lecture has more than one date it is filed under the most recent one. Reading lists and lists of slides to be shown have normally been left with the lectures to which they apply. Titles and descriptions in inverted commas are those which appear on the manu~ scripts. A.18 Incomplete. A. 19-A.46 Lecture notes, 1928-64. A.19 A.20 A.21 A.22 One page of notes headed 'Gynandromorphism', 1928. Loose leaf binder labelled 'Lectures on Cytology, 1938, 1941, 1942". Timetables and schedules for lectures and practical classes, 1938-66. n.d. 13 photomicrographs with accompanying notes to illustrate ‘meiosis and mitosis in the brine shrimp Artemia Salina’. Typescript list of dates for history of cytology. J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section A. Cytology notes 1941-49. Lecture for this period, as Baker threw away any notes that were no longer usefu! to him. There are only a few lectures Subjects covered are: 'The Freezing Drying Method! (1941) ‘Natural Parthenogenesis' (‘Up to and including 1941') 'The Golgi bodies' (1941. Additions 1942) ‘Modern Cytological Technique’ (1944) 'Mitochondria’ (1944) 'Mitosis' (1947) ‘Chromosomes of Sciara' (‘up to date 1947") ‘The chromosomes of Habrobracon juglandis' (‘Up to date 1947. Revised 1949') 'Vital studies of cells' (1949) Undated lecture notes, probably written before 1949. notes are headed as follows: The 'The Chromosomes in Sex-Determination'; 'Protoplasmic 'Chromosomes'; ‘Mitotic poisons’; ‘Interpretation Course in Cytology, Hilary Term, 1950. Notes headed 'Parthenogenesis. summary of this subject in "Animal Cytology and Evolution" Analysis of (M.J.D.) White's ‘Plasma membrane and cell wall'; inclusions'; ‘The Chemistry of Cytoplasm'; 'Spiralization of chromosomes'; 'The arrangement of cells in insect testes'; of the classical appearance of the Golgi element’. both marked 'Have used this in writing 1950 lecture’. For an outline of this course see A.18. notes are all dated 1950 and almost certainly belong to this course: 'The Physical Properties of Protoplasm'; Membrane'; 'Golgi Element'; Cytology of Natural Parthenogenesis’. Notes on artificial fertilization and artificial parthenogenesis 'Fertilization'; 'The Cell- 'The The following lecture J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section A. . Cytology "Cytology for Honour Moderations. cell'. Brief notes, May 1951. Microscopy: the living 1951 'Mitochondria and microsomes’. and annotated 'Old notes ... probably not wanted again’. Dated 1947, 1950, Cytology course, 1952. 2 lectures, dated 1952 'The Rdle of the Nucleic Acids'. with notes on the same subject annotated 'Papers not used in 1954', ond a lecture on 'The Golgi Controversy’. Included here are notes headed 'The cytoplasmic inclusions in spermatogenesis’, and some on spermatozoa, 1952. Notes headed 'Vital Dyeing. contain something’. Superseded 1954. Might Cytology course, 1954. 'Methods for the study of the living cell' and ‘The rdle of the nucleic acids'. undated notes headed 'The synthesis of DNA' and 'The structure of bacteria’, which were filed with the lectures. 2 lectures, 1954, with two sets of Cytology course, 1956. p. typescript headed ‘Classification adopted 1955. Phylum Lecture notes, 1956, with Also typescript Also 2 sets of notes headed 'Golgi apparatus’ Cytology for Honour Moderations, 1955. 9 pp. of notes mainly on vital dyes and phase contrast microscopy. and ‘Qogenesis'. "Unusual forms of mitosis'. 1 Protozoa’ kept with above, and a lecture dated '1954. Rewritten 1956', headed 'Methods for the Study of Living Cells. Vital Colouring’. 1758, 'The pH of Cytoplasm'. list of ‘Selected papers on the structure and composition of cytoplasm'. Lecture notes, 1958. 8 pp. of notes headed 'These papers were not used in 1958. File them under "physical properties of protoplasm" ', Lecture notes headed ‘Endoplasmic reticulum in striated muscle’, J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section A, Cytology Advanced Cytology and Fine Structure. 1958. Michaelmas Term, Reading lists for this course are included in A.42. ie 'Introduction' 'The interpretation of electron-micrographs'. Il. This lecture is annotated 'Based on my address to the Histochemical Society at Philadelphia’. ‘Introduction to Animal Cytology’. Moderations, 1959. Lecture for Honour Advanced Cytology and Fine Structure. Michaelmas Term, Reading lists for this course are included in A.42. 1959. 'The Viscosity of Ground Cytoplasm'. with ms. note 'In a letter dated 14 May 1959, Dr. L.V. Heilbrunn says | am quite right: "careless error" | discovered’. he did make the Dated 1959, Notes for an address 'Can we trust electron micrographs?'. to Bios., 30 November 1959. This may not have been used as a university lecture, but it was included with the lecture on electron=micrographs at A.38. Reading (It was used again for Honour Moderations, 1961 - 'Résumé before 3rd lecture’ (1 for 1960) p. brief notes. Probably 'A gland cell in action’ (undated, but annotated 'The cytology of secretion. Papers not used in 1964') "Ground cytoplasm: refractive index' (undated, but one section is annotated ‘omitted 1960') Advanced Cytology and Fine Structure, 1960. lists for this course are included here, with 3 sets of lecture notes: Continued in anote as 'An address to zoological students at Makerere College, August 1957. Modified for Institute of Biology at Reading University, 19th October 1957. Moderations, January 1959. 1960'. note on envelope in which it came.) Cytology and Fine Structure, Trinity Term, 1960. Reading lists for this course, which is sometimes referred to by Baker as part of the 'B' course, are included here with the following 2 lectures: Modified for Honour Re-written for 'B' course, April 'The idea of a "Typical Cell"'. This lecture is described J.R. Baker ESAG 69/7/79 A.43 (Cont'd. ) Section A. Cytology 'Meiosis'. This lecture is described in the schedule (A.18) as elementary. It ‘Largely rewritten 1950. and used again 1960'. pages of notes on chromosomes that were found in the same place. is dated 1947 and annotated Additions 1958. Corrected is accompanied by two loose It Cytology. Trinity Term, 1962. This folder contains notes for four out of the eight lectures in this course, and a set of reading lists. covered are: The subjects 'Polytene chromosomes' 'The structure of cytoplasm as revealed by the electron microscope’ 'Mitochondria' 'The Golgi problem' Cytology, Trinity Term, 1964. '‘Polytene chromosomes' ‘Mitochondria’ 'The Golgi apparatus! 'The cytology of secretion’ 'Oogenesis' The titles of the lectures are: In most of the lectures there are ‘Cytoplasmic inclusions in spermatogenesis' A course of six lectures. several pages of new notes interspersed with older ones and the whole set provides a good illustration of Baker's method of work. Notes on the literature, used as a basis for lecture notes. Also included here is a letter from A.B. Novikoff dated 14 February 1964 which was filed with material on the Golgi apparatus, and mainly contains comments on a paper by Baker published in the Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society on 'New developments in the Golgi controversy’. J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section A. “Cytology A.47-A. 52 Notes for demonstration and practical classes 1935-66 These include lists of equipment needed, duplicated instruction-sheets for distribution to the class, demonstrations, lists of slides, etc. Although the objects (slides, models, etc.) that were on show are not a part of this collection, it is still possible to get a clear picture of many of the demonstrations because of the full descriptions on the labels. lobels for Timetables and schedules for the practical classes are included in A.18. The material is presented in chronological order as far as possible. To 1949. Includes 3 pp. headed 'Dissociation, etc.’ dated 'before 19a. 1950-1953. 1954-1959. 1960-1962. 1964. Includes a letter from Baker to research workers in his depart- ment re arrangements for the use of microtomes, 27 April 1962. Includes a letter from Baker to ‘all workers in the Cytology Lab.' about the problems of noise in the laboratory, and some electron micrographs, mainly illustrating the cytology of secretion. Misc. undated material. J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 SECTION B __ HISTOCHEMISTRY B.1-B.14 Notes for lectures and practical classes 1934-65 Much of the material on histochemistry relates to the practical classes. Baker prepared typewritten duplicated sheets for distribution to his students outlining methods for histochemical tests to be performed in class, and these, were constantly being revised as a result of his own experiments. The Cytology notebooks (A.2 - A.17) provide frequent examples of a series of experiments undertaken to improve a given technique. q I Pp { The material is filed in chronological order as far as possible. Schedules of lectures and practical classes, 1949-65. Incomplete. Includes lists of students attending in 1956 and 1963. Histochemistry lectures, 1934-65. ‘Histochemical methods’. with 3 pp. on 'Lipides and Lipoids', 1934. Lecture notes dated 1937, 1938, 1939, 'Micro~incineration', Lecture notes, 1941. ‘Histochemistry. Notes additional to lecture notes', n.d. 'Microspectroscopy with Zeiss microscope, January 1951. For histochemistry class and prelim. ' Notes for introductory lectures on history and methods of histo~ chemistry, dated 1949-65 (and some undated). Several versions of a hand-out on the classification of histochemical methods, and a reading list dated 1963 are included here. g Various lectures, mostly delivered 1962-65 (some are undated). Subjects covered are: 'Aldehydes', ‘Nucleic Acids', ‘Carbohydrates’, ‘Phenolic compounds', 'Lipids', 'Amino-Acids', 'Metals, Enzymes'. There is also a set of notes headed 'Tests not done in the class' (1962) and 3 pp. of miscellaneous notes. Includes list of those attending Baker's lectures in histochemistry Misc. undated notes on various histochemical tests. all undated) and a letter fo Baker on lipids signed 'H.S.' | Misc. shorter notes. J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section B. Histochemistry B.10-B.14 Notes for practical classes in histochemistry, 1947-65. Lists of equipment needed and duplicated instructions for tests to be carried out by students. up to date every year. These were revised and brought 1947-1951. Includes a set of ms. drafts of the tests and the first duplicated versions (1949). 1952-1954. 1956-1960. 1962-1966. Misc. material relating to histochemical tests and demonstrations. J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 SECTION C MICROSCOPY AND MICROTECHNIQUE Baker's interest in and involvement with this field is reflected by the fact that he was joint editor of the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 1946-64, and President of the Royal Microscopical Society in 1964 and 1965. His book, Principles. of Biological Microtechnique was published in 1958. The Cytology notebooks (A.2 - A.17) show considerable evidence of work in microscopy, particularly in the field of phase contrast microscopy and investigations of the function of the eye as an integral part of the light microscope. There is also a notebook on photomicrography (C.1) containing a record of constant efforts to improve and regulate the quality of photographs produced from microscopical slides. The majority of these lectures and classes were for undergraduates, the only exception being the lectures on electron microscopy (see C.24) which from 1967 were restricted to graduates, although Baker did experiment with a one-day course on electron microscopy for undergraduates in October 1969 (see C.25). The papers are presented as follows: Ci2..- = G20 Notes for lectures and practical classes in microscopy C28. ~ C43 Notes for lectures and practical classes in microtechnique Co2).2 Coz The electron microscope; notes and lectures Within each section the material is arranged chronologically as far as possible. Incomplete. Notebook labelled 'Photomicrography 2' covering the years 1941-67, and containing records of experiments to ascertain the best conditions for photograshing microscopical slides. There are also a few observations on photomicrography scattered throughout the notebooks on Cytology (see A.2 ~ A.17). Schedules and timetables of lectures, demonstrations and practical classes in microscopy, 1951-66. Notes for lectures and practical classes in microscopy, 1949-66. JR. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section C. Microscopy and Microtechnique Lectures on microscopy, 1949-66. The following notes were kept by Baker in 14 numbered envelopes. The titles on the front of the envelopes are listed below with a brief indication of their contents. originally in the envelopes was transferred by Baker to a sepcrate course on ‘Physics for Biologists', and: this is to be found at C.17. Some of the material ‘Microscopy 1. and practical classes. recommended books. Syllabus of course. Current lists of lectures Lists of lecture diagrams. Introductory remarks. ' List of The syllabus and list of lectures have been transferred to C.2. There are two drafts of introductory remarks dated 1955, 1960 and 1963. ‘Microscopy 2. The objective (introduction; resolving power)'. Contains 5 pp. ms. notes labelled 'Old notes on resolving power. Not used in 1952, but could still be useful’. on this subject see C.17. For other notes ‘Microscopy 3. The objective (aberrations; types of objective)'. ‘Microscopy 5. The eyepiece.' ‘Microscopy 4. Diffraction by the object.' Contains undated ms. notes for lecture on different types of eyepiece. Contains 7 pp. ms. notes for lecture on this subject dated '1963, Slightly modified 1964, 1965'. The notes in this envelope were transferred by Baker to the course on 'Physics for Biologists' and are now at C.17. 1962, 1963. 3 pp. undated ms. lecture notes and some background material. Contains 1 p. ms. notes headed 'The Camera Lucida’, dated ‘Microscopy 6. Lighting and condenser systems. ' ‘Microscopy 7. The reflecting microscope.' Undated ms. notes for lecture on this subject. ‘Microscopy 8. Micrometry. The camera lucida.' J.R. Baker CSAG 69/7/79 Section C. Microscopy and Microtechnique ‘Microscopy 9. Phase contrast.' Céntains: 'Phase contrast microscopy. 1953, largely rewritten 1960, ditto 1964, 1965.’ 9 pp. lecture notes dated 'Non-vectorial treatment. Not used 1964.' lp. 'Vectorial treatment, more advanced than that given in the lecture to B-course students.’ 5 pp. ‘Phase contrast. Lecture notes removed and not used when lecturing to the Prelim. (Physics for biologists), 1966.72. 2 pes 2 pp. notes on ‘Wilfrid Llowarch's film’. Reading lists, diagrams, etc. See also C.17. ‘Microscopy 10. Polarized light (lectures). ' Contains lectures on polarized light numbered I-V. Nos. | and II are dated '1949, and annotated 'Lecture-notes not used 1955-6, but worth keeping'. Misc. notes and reading lists are also included. Revised 1951, 1953, 1955' ‘Microscopy 12. Includes: Lecture. worth ‘Microscopy 13. (Unclassified papers).' ‘Microscopy 11. Polarized light. Unclassified papers. ' Interference microscopy. Background notes, discarded sections of lectures, etc. Contains 2 lectures, one annotated '1953 lecture; keeping’ and the other dated '1955, revised 1959". list of references. Report on a meeting and some correspondence with F.H. Smith (representative of C. Baker of Holborn Ltd., manufacturers of microscopes and scientific instruments) re the operation of a recently purchased microscope (1955). Letter from 'Wilfrid' ELlowarch] re ‘a device to illustrate circular polarisation’, September 1955. Fluorescence microscopy.’ Misc. notes and diagrams. "Microscopy 14. Notes dated 1949, 1952; J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section C. Microscopy and Microtechnique ‘Physics for biologists', 1963-66. This course was for first-year undergraduates taking the Preliminary Examination in Biology. Microscopy course at C.3-C.16 above. lists specifically headed 'Physics for builogists' are included here. The titles of the lectures are: These lectures also formed part of the Only notes and reading 'The resolving power of the objective lens' ‘Diffraction by the object' 'Phase contrast’ ‘Polarized light' C, 18-Cree Notes for demonstrations and practical classes, 1949-66. Mainly lists of equipment needed and labels for demonstrations, with some instructions and diagrams. 1949-1958. 1960-1966. Includes a letter from Baker to Miss Misc. undated material. B.E.H. Charke about arrangements for starting work in his department, 5 September 1963. J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section C. Microscopy and Microtechnique G. 2156: 2/ The electron microscope: notes and lectures, 196] “70 These lectures and demonstrations were designed to teach students the basic principles of electron microscopy and to prepare anyone who was interested for training as an electron microscopist. Until 1966 the course was for Final-year undergraduates and research students, and very little material from this period survives. From 1967 it was restricted to graduates and there is a complete set of notes for 1968 and 1969. The Zoology Department acquired a new electron microscope, the EMé6B, in 1965. Baker was in charge of electron microscopy inthe department from autumn 1967, after his retirement, and he was active in ensuring that research workers were given the opportunity to take the best possible advantage of the new instrument (see C.23). CEA Timetables and schedules for lectures and demonstrations on electron microscopy, 1963, 1965, 1968. 1967, Lecture notes on 'The electron microscope: construction and operation’, 1961-67. 3 bundles of notes labelled 'Papers that might be useful’, 'Papers probably not wanted again (except for teaching Akashi)', and ‘Unclassified papers used in 1967 but not in 1968'. Typescript ‘Report on electron microscopy in the Department of Zoology', 22 February 1968. 'The electron microscope: construction and operation’. Michaelmas Term, 1968 (modified 1969). Baker's retirement from full-time work in the Department of Zoology, this course was intended for graduates and research workers. form a complete set including an outline of subjects to be covered, a reading list and a for each lecture. of the transmission electron microscope. ‘One-day course in electron microscopy for undergraduates’. October 1969. Atypescript report on this lecture by Baker dated 2.2.70. is included in this folder, with 2 photographs of a model designed by Baker to illustrate the basic principles Delivered after The lecture notes are in a loose-leaf binder and list of lantern slides and diagrams required J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section C. Microscopy and Microtechnique Notes for demonstrations of electron microscopy. Includes a letter Misc. material re electron microscopy. from W.Llowarch, 23 September 1967, re the Pirani gage and an undated letter from A.C.T. North lapping of courses. possible over- re J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section C. Microscopy and Microtechnique C.28-C.43 Notes for lectures and practical classes in microtechnique, 1934-64 Baker's book, The Principles of Biological Microtechnique, was published in 1958 as a result of his work in this field, and some of the lectures have headings to the effect that they are based on parts of his book. C28 C29 C.30 Schedules and timetables of lectures and practical classes in microtechnique, 1948-64. Incomplete. Brief notes for introductory lecture, 1949, 1951. Notes on fixation. Includes: 'Fixatives. 1940, 1941. Superseded 1944! 'Fixative mixtures. This needs rewriting’ (undated) ‘Fixation Il. of a fixative. Formaldehyde in detail, as an example Rewritten 1955! ‘Fixation Ill. rewritten 1952, ditto 1954' Other fixatives. 1949. Revised and be Ls It. Written Feb.-Mar. 1957. Revised 1961' 1957. Slightly modified Notes on 'Fixation' numbered I-VI: ‘Introduction. Based on my new book. 'The reactions of fixatives with proteins. The visible effects. Used again 1961' 1957. 'The reactions of fixatives with lipids and carbo- hydrates. 'The reactions of fixatives with proteins. The chemical changes. 1961' Continued 'The reactions of fixatives with tissues and cells: methods of research. Omitted 1961' 'The chemistry of fixation, exemplified by formaldehyde’ and gluteraldehyde, "Summary of what has been said' (undated) 'Fixative mixtures. 1957. Modified 1961' Notes on 'Fixation' numbered I-IV: Ve Vii Vil. 1957! 1957. "Introduction. 1964' 1966' J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 and Microtechnique Section C. Microscopy Ill. IV. yi of the chief properties of the selected ‘Summary primary fixatives (other than formaldehyde and Partly rewritten 1966' luteraldehyde). 1964. POF g Y Y 'Fixative mixtures. deliver this lecture’ In 1965 there was no time fo Notes on stoining and dyeing: 'Old notes on staining. Dated 1934, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940 Probably not wanted again’. 'Lecture on The use of colouring agents in micro~ technique ... Superseded 1951' 1946. "1 i Undated notes on 'Dye-chemistry'. Notes on 'The principles of staining’ numbered I-IV: i Il. Hl. 'What are dyes?’ 1954 'Mordants and dye-lakes' 1952 'The electrostatic charges on dyes and tissue- elements' n.d. IV. ‘Specificity’ n.d. heen 1965. 1966' Classification. Methods of Notes on 'Dyeing' numbered I-III, V1; 'Parts of Staining II] and IV not used in lectures in 1955 (because there was no time)’. 'The differential action of dyes. Metachromacy. The blood dyes. Mordants. 'What are dyes? direct attachment (electrovalency, hydrogen bonding). 1959 'Vital colouring (based on chapters 15 and 16 of my book'). 'Notes on blood=stains, from Langeron' ‘Embedding’ Misc. notes on microtechnique. Undated notes paginated 7-11. 'The staining of blood' ‘Blood methods! 'Mordants. 1961. Old lecture not used 1964' Includes: Il. Vi. 1946. 1965! 1957. 1951 n.d. J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 Section C. Microscopy and Microtechnique Notes for lectures to Honour Moderations students, 1953, 1955. Notes for demonstrations and practical classes in microtechnique, 1936-66. Mainly duplicated sheets of instructions for distribution in class. For timetables and schedules of practical classes, see C.28. 1936-1952. 175es F255. 1956-1959. 1960-1966. "Lecture demonstration of the effect of pH on the staining of celloidin and gelatin'. Various notes, 1952-59. g f Misc. notes re microtechnique, mainly undated. copy of a letter from Baker (16 January 1961) to members of the Department of Zoology re arrangements to give under- graduates facilities for making microscopical preparations, and 4 pp. typescript headed 'Notes on the use of carminic acid and haematein with mordants. licludes Not used finally in book but worth keeping’. J.R. Baker CSAC 69/7/79 SECTION D _ __ PUBLICATION ; The assessment of cognitive ability’. eee if 1974). 82 pp.