BURHOP, Eric Henry Stoneley v1

Published: 13 September, 2023  Author: admin


Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of ERIC HENRY STONELEY BURHOP FRS (1911 - 1980) Compiled by Peter Harper and Timothy E. Powell London Deposited in the Library, University College, 1993 NCUACS 40/2/93 All rights reserved University of Bath E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 The work of the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists, and the production of this catalogue, are made possible by the support of the following societies and organisations: British Petroleum plc The Institute of Physics The Royal Society The Wellcome Trust E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 LIST OF CONTENTS GENERAL INTRODUCTION SECTIONA BIOGRAPHICAL SECTIONB =PUGWASH CONFERENCES ON SCIENCE AND WORLD AFFAIRS INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 GENERAL INTRODUCTION PROVENANCE The papers were received in March 1993 from Dr Brenda Swann. OUTLINE OF THE CAREER OF E.H.S. BURHOP Eric Henry Stoneley Burhop was born at Hobart, Tasmania in 1911. His parents were Salvation Army officers in poor financial circumstances who made considerable sacrifices to enable him to attend Ballarat and Melbourne High Schools, and enter Melbourne University as an engineering student in 1928. After one year he changed over to science, specialising in physics. In 1929 he was awarded the Aitchison Bursary which provided financial assistance for the rest of his undergraduate studies. He graduated with first class honours in physics in 1931 and then took an M.Sc. in the subject working with T.H. Laby. In 1933 an Exhibition of 1851 Overseas Scholarship took him to the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge where he carried out experimental research in nuclear physics working under Rutherford. After two years he returned to Melbourne to take up the post of Research Physicist and Lecturer in the University. During the Second World War he undertook war-related research at Melbourne and Sydney until May 1944 when he joined the British team working on the atomic energy project in the USA. He worked on isotope separation in the group led by H.S.W. Massey. In 1945 Burhop accepted a post of Lecturer in the Department of Mathematics at University College, London (Reader 1949). In 1950 he transferred to the Physics Department as Reader in Physics and in 1960 became Professor of Physics by conferment of title. He researched widely in atomic and nuclear physics including the Auger effect Burhop was strongly committed to the political left and sought a rapprochement between the Soviet bloc and the West during the Cold War. To this end he was actively involved in the work in 1966 and the Lenin International Peace Prize in 1972. of the World Federation of Scientific Workers, of which he was President for many years. Burhop played an important role with Bertrand Russell, C.F. Powell and J. Rotblat in the organisation of conference brought together senior scientists from East and West to discuss the dangers of this and related topics. Burhop was awarded the Joliot-Curie Medal of the World Peace Council the first Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs which met in July 1957 at Pugwash, Nova Scotia. Financed by the American industrialist Cyrus Eaton who was born at Pugwash, the nuclear war, and provided the model for a series of similarly organised Pugwash conferences on and electronic and ionic impact phenomena. He was a founder member of the European K meson collaboration and played a leading role in the UCL Bubble Chamber group. Burhop was elected FRS in 1963. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 For a full account of the life and career of Burhop see the memoir by H.S.W. Massey and D.H. Davis, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 27, 1981. DESCRIPTION OF THE COLLECTION This small collection contains interesting biographical material relating to Burhop’s interest in furthering rapprochement between East and West, and documentation of the first Pugwash conference. There are no records of his scientific research or scientific correspondence. Section A, Biographical, contains records of the ‘passport case’ when the Foreign Office withdrew Burhop’s passport on the eve of a visit to the Soviet Union in 1951 and the award of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1972. There is also correspondence on the possible nomination of Bertrand Russell for the World Peace Council’s International Peace Prize in 1957. Section B, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, relates principally to the first conference in July 1957. The material includes documentation of the role of the World Federation of Scientific Workers in the organisation of the first conference, and manuscript notes of the proceedings. P. Harper T.E. Powell There is also an index of correspondents. BATH 1993 E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL Application for Chair of Physics, University of Adelaide, 1948. Appointment as University Reader in Physics, University College, London, 1950. Press-cuttings only. Conferment of title of Professor of Physics in the University of London, in respect of post at University College, 1960. Letters of congratulation, press-cuttings. Passport Case 1951-1962 Press reporting of the cancellation of Burhop’s passport led to libel actions against the press in Britain and Australia. Burhop’s solicitor was Arnold (later Lord) Goodman. Burhop planned to visit the USSR in July 1951 as a member of a scientific delegation organised by the Society for Cultural Relations between the Peoples of the British Commonwealth and the USSR (SCR). Shortly before his departure the Foreign Office cancelled his passport. In a parliamentary written reply this action was justified by the argument that it was ‘in the national interest to discourage atomic scientists who had at any time had access to classified information from going to Russia’. Burhop had worked on the atomic energy project in the USA from May 1944 to October 1945 but subsequently had no connection with the atomic energy project and no access to classified information in the field. In August 1951 Burhop was issued with a new passport in return for assurances that he would not proceed to the USSR or to any countries regarded as within the Soviet orbit at any time without prior consultation with the Foreign Office. Burhop continued to advise the Foreign Office of his plans to visit Eastern Europe until 1962 when he was released from his undertaking. 1951 August (1). 1951 July. 1951 June. his Documentation includes correspondence with scientific colleagues, politicians, journalists, trade unionists and ordinary members of the public concerned at the cancellation of Burhop’s passport and his treatment by the of solicitor representations to Foreign Office and the libel actions. correspondence with respect press, and in E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 Biographical 1951 August (2). 1951 September, October. ‘Opinion’ in respect of ‘Dr Burhop v. Australian Associated Press’, 27 November 1951. 1952 January-May. Includes ‘Statement of claim’ in respect of ‘E.H.S. Burhop Plaintiff and Australian Associated Press Proprietary Limited Defendants’, February and ‘Defence’ in respect of ‘E.H.S. Burhop and the “Daily Telegraph” Limited’, 21 March. 1952 June-December. Includes ‘Notice to admit facts’ in respect of ‘E.H.S. Burhop and The “Daily Telegraph” Limited’, 6 June. 1953 January-June. 1953 July-December. Includes typescript copy of statements in Burhop’s libel case returned to him in July by the editor of Atomic Scientists’ News. ‘Facts concerning Includes documents returned to Burhop in March: cancellation of passport of Dr E.H.S. Burhop ... ’, copies of correspondence with Foreign Office July, August 1951, and ‘At home to the press’, Burhop’s account of his treatment by the press after the cancellation of his passport. Nd. Correspondence with Foreign Office re Burhop’s undertaking to inform Foreign Office of his plans to visit Soviet bloc. 1954. 1955. 1955-1962. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 Biographical Press-cuttings. Correspondence re Hungarian surgeon Professor Paul Rubanyi and his family, 1956-1957. Correspondence with Burhop’s family and others in Australia, 1953, 1957- 1958. A.20-A.32 Lenin International Peace Prize 1972. Burhop was awarded the Lenin Prize ‘For Strengthening Peace Among the Peoples’ for the years 1970-71 on 21 April 1972. He received the prize at a ceremony at the Soviet Embassy in London on 18 October 1972. Notification and arrangements for presentation of prize, April-October 1972. A.21-A.23 Letters and telegrams of congratulation on announcement of prize, May- July 1972. A few with replies by Burhop. May (1). May (2). October. June, July. congratulations. Includes list of names and addresses of those who sent List of those invited to award presentation, invitation card, speech of presentation and Burhop’s reply. Correspondence and papers re donations from Lenin Prize money. Letters and telegrams of congratulation on the presentation of the prize, October-December 1972. A few with replies by Burhop. November, December, nd. Includes Christmas and New Year cards. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 Biographical A.28 Award presentation photographs. A.29-A.31 Press-cuttings. 3 folders. ‘Speech on occasion of presentation of prize to James Aldridge’. 4pp manuscript draft by Burhop. Miscellaneous correspondence and papers, various dates, 1951-1959, 1972. Correspondence re possible nomination of Bertrand Russell for the World Peace Council’s International Peace Prize, 1957. Russell’s letter of 30 November explained why he did not wish to be nominated. The Times obituary of Burhop, 24 January 1980. Invitation to a memorial meeting ‘to pay tribute to Eric Burhop’s work for the abolition of nuclear weapons, for disarmament and international understanding’. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 SECTION B PUGWASH CONFERENCES ON SCIENCE AND WORLD AFFAIRS Burhop played an important role in the organisation of the first conference which was held at Pugwash, Nova Scotia in July 1957. With the exception of B.14 all the material relates to this first conference. ‘Relations of WFSW [World Federation of Scientific Workers] and 1st Pugwash. Incomplete.’ Contents of Burhop’s folder so inscribed divided into four for ease of reference. Correspondence and papers re organisation of first Pugwash Conference. Photocopies. 1956 October-December. 1957 January-March. 1957 May, June. 1957 July, November. ‘Pugwash’. Contents of Burhop’s folder so inscribed divided into ten for ease of reference. version dated 14 August 1957. Correspondence arising from first Pugwash Conference, July-December 1957, March 1958. Duplicated copy of paper presented at first Pugwash conference; revised Correspondence and papers re organisation of first Pugwash Conference, March, June 1957 and nd. Includes lists of possible participants, conference programmes. Discussion paper on ‘Disarmament’ by E. Rabinowitch. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Notes of discussions at first Pugwash Conference, etc. 39pp manuscript + 4pp duplicated typescript on ‘Legal questions relevant to use of nuclear weapons (in connection with discussion on international control)’. the B.9 Miscellaneous drafts re first Pugwash Conference. B.10-B.12 Press-cuttings re first Pugwash Conference. 3 folders. B.13 ‘Chapter 7 Conference’ by Burhop. Actions of the W.F.S.W. leading up to the first Pugwash Photocopy of published text. Miscellaneous items re Pugwash, nuclear energy and peace issues, 1974- 76. Includes correspondence and Vietnam war photographs. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS ADAMS, Ruth (Mrs Robert McCormick Adams) AINLEY, T. ALLEN, Douglas AMALGAMATED ENGINEERING UNION ANNAN, Noé! Gilroy, Baron ARTOBOLEVSKY, Ivan Ivanovich ASSOCIATION OF CINEMATOGRAPH TELEVISION AND ALLIED TECHNICIANS ASSOCIATION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKERS ATOMIC SCIENTISTS’ ASSOCIATION AUSTRALIAN ASSOCIATED PRESS BARBER, Noel BARNABY, Frank BATCHELOR, A.L. BAUDISCH, Kurt BENJAMIN, John A. BRITISH PEACE COMMITTEE IN SCIENCE BURHOP, Henry A. BUSH, Alan BRITISH SOVIET FRIENDSHIP SOCIETY BERNAL, Eileen BIQUARD, Pierre BOYD-CARPENTER, John Archibald, Baron BRITISH SOCIETY FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY COOTE, Colin R. CHALMERS, R.A. CHOU, Pei-Yuan COCKROFT, Sir John (Douglas) BUTLER, Sir Clifford (Charles) CARRUTHERS, Leslie W. COLE, George H.A. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 Index of Correspondents CORNFORTH, Maurice COULSON, Charles Alfred CUSACK, Dymphna DAILY TELEGRAPH DARLOW, Roy DEBENHAM, Celia de CASTRO, Josue DOMBEY, Norman DREFAHL, Guenther DUNCAN-JONES, Vincent DUTTON, J.K. EATON, Cyrus Stephen ENTWISTLE, W.W. EWART, Arthur E. A.4 B.3 A.22 A.25 A.34 A.2 B.1, B.3, B.6 A.4 A.4, A.5 FEATHER, Norman GOLDRING, Patrick FITZPATRICK, Brian FOOT, Michael FOREIGN OFFICE GABOR, D. GEORGE W.H. A.4, A.5 A.5 A.7, A.9 A.6, A.7 FIRE BRIGADES UNION GOODMAN, Arnold Abraham, Baron A.18 HADEN-GUEST, Leslie Haden, Baron HODGKIN, Dorothy Mary Crowfoot HAMPSTEAD PEACE COUNCIL HUMPHREY, John Herbert See A.22 A.4, A.5 HASTED, J.B. HAZI, Vencel A.18 A.2 A.13 A.4, A.5, A.15 A.4-A.7, A.9-A.13 A.4, A.7 A.7 A.21 A.25 HORNER, John E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 Index of Correspondents ISHLINSKI, Alexander Yurievich JAMES, J.1.P. (‘Jip’) KOTLIAR, Vladimir S. KRISHNAN, Sir Kariamanikkam Srinivasa LACASSAGNE, A.M.B. LEEDS PEACE COMMITTEE LESCOMBS, Bertram MARTIN, Sir Leslie (Harold) MAYHEW, E.B. MIDDLETON, Peggy MOTT, Sir Nevill (Francis) MOUSSATCHE, H. A.2 B.3 A.19 A.1 B.1-B.3, B.5 B.2, B.4, B.6 MUNRO, Duncan C. NEMEC, Th. PFEIFFER, E.W. (‘Bert’) PEIERLS, Sir Rudolf (Ernst) OPARIN, Aleksandr Ivanovich NETTLETON, Vera May née BURHOP OLIPHANT, Sir Mark (Marcus Laurence Elwin) A.22 RITCHIE-CALDER, Peter Ritchie, Baron B.3 See also B.7 PYE, Sir David (Randall) A6 B.14 A.21 A.7 ROSENHEAD, Jonathan RABINOWITCH, Eugene I. RAHMAN, A. RAWSON, R.R. REID, lan D. POWELL, Cecil Frank POWER, Edwin A. A.21, A.33 A.5 A.7 A.5 E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 Index of Correspondents ROTBLAT, Joseph RUBANYI, Agnes RUBINSTEIN, Harold Frederick RUSSELL, Bertrand Arthur William, 3rd Earl RUTMAN, R.J. THE SALVATION ARMY SAMUEL, Howard SANDELLS, George W. SANDER, H. SELOVE, W. SISAKYAN, Norair Martirosovich SKIDMORE, Howard SKOBELTSYN, Dmitri Viadimirovich SOCIETY FOR CULTURAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PEOPLES OF THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND THE USSR (SCR) B.1 A.18 A6 A.34, B.1, B.3 B.3 A.6, A.19 B.1 A.19 A.26 B.6 B.1, B.2 B.6 A.20 A.3 TIOMNO, J. TITELMAN, Gregory VALKO, E. STEELE, Eric S. SVESTKA, Bedfich SZILARD, Leo SOUTH EAST ASIA COMMITTEE TODD, Judith TOMONAGA, S. TURI, Susanne VIRE-TUOMINEN, Mirjam VOZAR, Libor UNION OF SHOP, DISTRIBUTIVE AND ALLIED WORKERS VERNON, Major Wilfrid Foulston E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 Index of Correspondents WALPOLE, Joseph WEISSBACH, H. WEST, Jenny WILKINS, Maurice Hugh Frederick WOOSTER, William Alfred (‘Peter’) WORKERS’ EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION A.33 A.25, A.26 A.33 A.22 A.27 A.7 WORLD FEDERATION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKERS A.27, B.1-B.4 YANUSHKOVSKAYA, Tamara Petrovna A.25