Edward Victor Appleton

Published: 13 September, 2023  Author: admin


THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Report on correspondence and papers of SIR EDWARD VICTOR: APPLETON, FRS (1892-1965) physicist deposited in Edinburgh University Library a c i l a c e F - : S R E T A R S R E e e R e e C a c r e c a h t i e L Reproduced for the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre (CSAC 82/6/81) by THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS, Quality House, Quality Court, Chancery Lane, London WC2A 1HP 1982 All rights reserved No 82/3 e R P T a T e E E E A R N R I Y M E R E E S Y R CONTEMPORARYSCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of SIR EDWARD VICTOR APPLETON GBE, KCB, FRS (1892-1965) Compiled by Jeannine Alton and Julia Latham-Jackson Deposited in the Library University of Edinburgh CSAC 82/6/81 All rights reserved E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 The work of the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre, and the production of this catalogue, are made possible by the support of the following societies and institutions: The Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland The Biochemical Society The British Pharmacological Society The Charles Babbage Foundation for the History of Information Processing The Institute of Physics — The Institution of Electrical Engineers The Nuffield Foundation The Physiological Society The Royal Society of London E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 LIST OF CONTENTS GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2 Items Page 3 A B BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL SCIENTIFIC NOTEBOOKS Introduction to Section B A.1-A.94 B1-B.60 Cc RESEARCH TOPICS c.1=-¢.45 Index to Section C Introduction to Section C D LECTURES, SPEECHES, PUBLICATIONS D.1-D.73 Introduction to Section D CORRESPONDENCE E.] - £.15] Introduction to Section E CHARTS, GRAPHS, DATA F.l - F.69 Index to Section F Introduction to Section F 9 17 17 31 31 32 108 108 123 123 144 144 145 REPORTS AND PRINTED MATTER G.1- G.3]1 152 NON-PRINT MATERIAL H.1 - H.39 155 INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS 158 E F G H E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 3 PROVENANCE AND HISTORY OF THE COLLECTION The material was received in several instalments and from several sources: from Lady Appleton, from Mr. W.R. Piggott, and from the Appleton Room and other locations in the Library of the University of Edinburgh where it had been In the intervening transferred over a period of time after Appleton's death in 1965. period, some of the papers had been inspected by Appleton's colleagues and friends, and byhistorians of science, some of whomleft notes of identification on a few of the In particular, Professor C.S. Gillmor consulted some of the material in documents. the course of his work on the Project for the History of lonospheric Physics of Wesleyan University, Connecticut; Professor Gillmor's notes and identifications have been quoted with acknowledgement in some of the catalogue entries. Probably also during this period Appleton's correspondence with B. van der Pol was partly catalogued (see E.117 - E.144 and the accompanying Some ofthe other letters, mainly those dating from Appleton's explanatory note). time in Edinburgh, also bear numbers of unknown origin and not apparently forming part of any chronological or topical sequence; since they are often in ink or ball- point pen, these numbers remain on the documents but are not relevant to the present arrangement of the material. There was however no attempt after Appleton's death to sort or list the whole range of the papers, and the system adopted in this catalogueis entirely the responsibility of the present compilers. ADDITIONAL MATERIAL A number of notebooks, and additional folders of research notes, working papers and correspondence, were located in Edinburgh University Library and received when the main sequence of item numbers had been allocated, and the catalogue was already in typescript. The notebooks have been intercalated in Section B in their approxi. ~ The research notes are listed at the end of the main sequence mate chronological order. of such material in Section C with cross-references in the index and in the body of the — E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 4 text to the topics to which they refer. As well as supplementing research topics already identified, the additions include fairly substantial material on ionospheric storms which had not previously appeared as a separate heading on Appleton's folders; this topic has accordingly been added to the index to Section C. A folder of notes relating to lectures given for the Diploma Course on the lonosphere at Edinburgh has been added to Section D and appears at D.69 - D.71. CAREER AND WORK OF E.V. APPLETON Born in Bradford in 1892 of modest origins, Appleton became one of the pioneers of ionospheric research and an important figure in scientific and public life in Britain. After education in primary and secondary schools in Bradford, Appleton won a scholarship to St. John's College, Cambridge, where he was awarded first-class honours and several prizes in both parts of the Tripos (1913, 1914). He began research at the Cavendish Laboratory with Lawrence Bragg, but during his service in the Army Signal Corps in the First World War he developed theinterest in valves and ‘wireless’ signals which informed his subsequent research career. Cambridge and the Cavendish Laboratory in 1919, continuing to work on valves and, He returned to with B. van der Pol, on non-linearity, and on atmospherics. with M.F. Barnett, he performed a crucial experiment which enabled a reflecting layer in the atmosphere to be identified and measured; subsequent research indicated the existence of more than one reflecting layer, and Appleton was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1947 for his investigations into the ionosphere in the 1920s. to 1936 Appleton was Wheatstone Professor of Physics at King's College, London, In 1924, in collaboration From 1924 directing research teams and, in 1932, heading an expedition to Troms’ in northern Norway as part of the programme of observations scheduled for the Second Polar Year. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1927, and was President of the Inter- national Union of Scientific Radio (U.R.S.1.) 1934-52. In 1936 he succeeded C.T.R. Wilson in the Jacksonian Chair of Natural Philosophy at Cambridge, where he continued collaborative research on many ionospheric problems, including solar and lunar tides E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 5 in the E layer; from September 1936 he served on the freshly re-constituted Committee for the Scientific Survey of Air Defence (the 'Tizard Committee'). In October 1938 he accepted appointment as successor to Sir Frank Smith as Secretary to the Departmentof Scientific and Industrial Research, where he remained throughout the Second World War (he was made K.C.B. in 1941) and until 1948 when he was appointed Principal of Edin- burgh University. He took up the appointment in May 1949 and remained in office until his sudden death in 1965. He was twice married. Although Appleton's career from 1938 was passed primarily in administration, he never lost his interest in ionospheric research. During his tenure of the Secretaryship of the D.S.1.R., he kept up his contacts with the Radio Research Board and with individual colleagues such as R. Naismith and W.R. Piggott; his position in U.R.S.1. kept him in touch with data and research in progress at observatories through- out the world; and, though he had no laboratory or research department at Edinburgh as he had initially hoped might be the case, he worked with a succession of assistants and with the famous 'lonospheric Young Ladies' - mathematical students - to maintain a steady output of research papers right to the end. Clark, Sir Edward Appleton, p.217, mentions 87 papers produced from Edinburgh, and many biographical accounts of Appleton describe the 'little black books' in which he jotted down his own ideas and madenotesat conferences and discussions. Fuller accounts of Appleton's life and work can be foundin the Memoir by J.A. Ratcliffe (Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 12, 1936, 1 - 21) and R.W. Clark, Sir Edward Appleton, Pergamon Press, 1971. DESCRIPTION OF THE COLLECTION The collection, though extensive, deals almost exclusively with Appleton's scientific work. There is very little personal or private correspondence and almost no surviving material, other than lectures, speeches and addresses, relating to his public life as scientific administrator or university principal . The collection is presented in Sections as outlined in the List of Sections A - F are manuscript, mainly by Appleton himself but including Contents. collaborative work and correspondence from colleagues. Section A contains the sur- viving material relating to Appleton's career, thoughit is unfortunately not a complete E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 6 record. There is, however, a good run of diaries and engagement books, and these, together with the scientific notebooks in Section B, comprise the legendary - not to say mythical - ‘little black books' which Appleton always carried with him to record his past, present and future activities. The main documentation of Appleton's scientific research is in Section C. The considerable time-lapse already alluded to between Appleton's death and the receipt of the papers, and the fact that they had had to be moved several times, added greatly to the problems of sorting. Very few of Appleton's own namedfolders survived, and they were so crammed with material that it was thought best to divide the papers into more manageable units while preserving the original folder andtitle or description. Most of the material, however, was received as loose papers. Appleton's handwriting was fine and showedlittle variation, at least until the arrival of the ballpoint pen; he very rarely dated his notes and although he would sometimes give them a heading he usually had several research projects in hand simultaneously and would refer to more than one phenomenonor theory in the course of each sequence of notes. Eventually, after advice had been sought from scientists and historians of science, the material was assigned whereverpossible to a specific theme, and the title 'General lonospheric Topics' was coined to cover papers which could not be more closely identified. Every effort was made to ascribe and date the papers, and any of Appleton's owndescriptions have been retained and appear in inverted commasin the catalogue entries. Section C thus consists of Appleton's own notes, drafts and correspondence with colleagues, and background information specifically related to them. The further extensive background data of observations, charts, curves and analyses compiled under Appleton's direction Both these Sections (C and F) by assistants mainly at Edinburgh appears in Section F. are preceded by an outline list of topics. Section D contains manuscript or typescript drafts for shorter talks or writings; although it is not a complete record it includes several items not listed in the published bibliographies, the material for the paper 'Appleton's last note on the E-region anomaly' prepared for publication by L.M. Muggleton and published in Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 1971, anda folder of articles on problems of radio reception contributed by Appleton in the 1930s to Wireless World, World Radio and other journals. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 7 Section E contains a little personal correspondence, and all the scientific correspondence not included in Section C. Of interest are the exchanges with Van der Pol, 1921 - 24, on oscillations and non-linearity, the long and frequent correspondence with W.J.G. Beynon, R. Naismith and W.R. Piggott, as well as material relating to Ambrose Fleming, J. Larmor and C.T.R. Wilson. Section G consists of Appleton's extensive collection of reports and published papers by others, some being preprints or of limited circulation. LOCATIONS OF FURTHER MATERIAL Lady Appleton retains copies of Appleton's speeches and writings, which will be left to Edinburgh University Library on her death. Edinburgh University Library holds a substantial sequence of 396 letters by Appleton to J.A. Ratcliffe, 1925 - 36 (ref. Gen.1985), and various diplomas and scrolls of honorary degrees conferred on Appleton (ref. P.C. 61 - 62). There is a permanent display of medals and awards in the Appleton Tower of the University. The Institution of Electrical Engineers (Savoy Place, London) housesa film inwhich, Appleton describes his ionospheric research, made for the Institution by British Movietone Ltd. in 1962, anda typescript text of the film. Sir Granville Beynon, Sir Bernard Lovell and Mr. W.R. Piggott retain among their personal papers correspondence and other material relating to their contacts with Appleton, and have given permission for this to be noted here. Sir Bernard Lovell's papers are held at the John Rylands Library of the University of Manchester. Professor C.S. Gillmor holds a collection of photocopies of letters written by Appleton, which he has assembled from many sources. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 8 Weare grateful for help and information from many sources, and in particular to: Lady Appleton, for making the material available, for her unflagging encouragement, and for comments on the draft catalogue; Mr. W.R. Piggott, for making available the 1932 letter from J.A. Fleming included in E.39; Mr. R.W. Clark, for information and for allowing quotations from his biography of Appleton; Professor C.S. Gillmor, Wesleyan University, Connecticut, Professor W.T. Sullivan, University of Washington, Seattle, Dr. D.J. King, Mr. G. Gardner and Mr. Smith, all of the Appleton Laboratory, for help in identifying and assigning material; Professor W.E.J. Farvis, for information; Professor M.M. Gowing, for comments on the draft catalogue; Mrs. M. Edwards, for her usual accurate typing of the catalogue, and for her more than usual patience with additions and alterations to the draft. Jeannine Alton Julia Latham- Jackson E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 2 SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL _A.1 - A.94 A.1 -A.4 Biographical and bibliographical A.5 - A.59 Career, honours and awards A.60, A.6]1 Press cuttings A.62 - A.94 Diaries and notebooks See Section H for photographs, recordings and non-print material illustrating Appleton's life and work. A.1-A.4 Biographical and bibliographical A.1 Miscellaneous biographical information, articles on Appleton and his work, obituary tributes, etc. A.2-A.4 Bibliographical information. Typed lists of papers and addresses by Appleton, currently held by Lady Appleton and which will go to the Appleton Room, Edinburgh University, at her death. A.2 A.3 A.4 Bibliography of publications, 1918-33, 1934-48, 1949-65. Addresses and speeches, mainly scientific topics, 1931-65. Addresses and speeches delivered as Principal, Edinburgh University, 1949-65. A.5-A.59 Career, honours and awards The material, which is presented chronologically, is sparse for many periods of Appleton's life. A.5 Letter from Appleton to 'Edward' in 1962 describing his award of The Wiltshire Prize for Geology and Mineralogy in his Cambridge Tripos, 1913. 2 letters from Rutherford, 1922, recommending Appleton for 'The King's Professorship’ (N.B. Appleton became Wheatstone Professor at King's College, London, only in 1924), and 1925, accepting his resignation as Assistant Demonstrator at the Cavendish Laboratory. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 10 Biographical and personal A.6 Letter from C.T.R. Wilson offering to propose Appleton for election to The Royal Society, 1926. Congratulations from Rutherford on award of prize by Radio Engineers of U.S.A., 1929. Letter of thanks from H.G. Lyons on work at Troms’ and contributions to Polar Year, 1934. A.7 Miscellaneous items of biographical interest. Includes postcard, 1928, re Appleton's golf handicap (24), photograph of his house, menu of dinner at Athenaeum, 1936, with signed sketch (? of J.J. Thomson) by Sir William Llewellyn P.R.A., humorous sketch of Halley Stewart Laboratory. A.8 Invitation to serve on the re-constituted Committee for the Scientific Survey of Air Defence (the 'Tizard Committee'), September 1936. Included here is a mock-heroic poem referring to the last meeting of the previous C.S.S.A.D. on 15 July 1936. A.9 Hon. D.Sc., Oxford, 1940. A.10 A.1] Presentation address by Public Orator. Grant of Knight Commander, Order of the Bath, 1941. 2 pp. ms. draft of letter by Appleton to 'Dear Barlow’ (Sir Alan Barlow) on relations between D.S.I.R. and other government departments especially the Treasury Establishment Section. n.d. but Appletonrefers to his four years in the Civil Service, so 1943. Hon. D.Sc., Leeds, 1945. Presentation address, Appleton's ms. notes for speech at ceremonial banquet. Hon. D.Sc., Cambridge, 1946. Presentation address. United States Medal for Merit, 1946. Certificate and citation. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 11 Biographical and personal Visit to Norway, September 1946. Typescript accounts from newspapers of Appleton's visit, synopses of lectures and interviews, press-cuttings, etc. Photocopies of two ms. letters by Appleton to the Master, St John's College, Cambridge (E.A. Benians) re Appleton's visit to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, arrangements to meet St John's men there, etc., 1946. Society of Dyers and Colourists, March 1947. Dinner menu. Honorary Life Member, Institution of Radio Engineers, Australia. Certificate May 1947 Admission as Honorary Freeman, Bradford. Brochure of arrangements June 1947 Cross of Freedom, Norway. Certificate June 1947 Fellowship, Royal Society of Edinburgh. Diploma July 1947 Nobel Prize for Physics, November 1947. Tagged folder, with some loose material, of press releases and cuttings. Valdemar Poulsen Gold Medal, Academy of Technical Sciences, Copenhagen. Certificate of award. 1948 Album of signatures of Members of Advisory Council and Chairmen of the Research Boards of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, associated with Appleton in his work for D.S.1.R. 1939-49, given to him on his resignation. E.V. App leton CSAC 82/6/81 12 Biographical and personal -A,25-A. 29 Material relating to Edinburgh University. A.25 Copy of Appleton's letter re Abden House (official residence of Principal), December 1948. Press-cutting re g re App leton's appointment as Principal. Pp pa A. 26 Correspondence and papers re Appleton's proposals for post-graduate research at Edinburgh. Includes: Appleton's 'Proposal for the institution of a post-graduate radio-physics research group in Edinburgh University’. 4 pp. typescript, April 1949. Letter re proposal from N. Feather, April 1949. ‘Developments in electrical engineering. 1 p. typescript, June 1949 (not signed). ‘Report on the development of a post-graduate school in electronics and communications in the University of Edinburgh', by W.E.J. Farvis, 3 pp. typescript and plans, June 1949. Letter from W. Jackson re similar work at Imperial College, June 1949. Report on Imperial College school, by W.E.J. Farvis, September 1949. A.27 Continuing correspondence, re possible setting up and financing of an ionospheric laboratory in conjunction with Edinburgh research, from Sir Gordon MacMillan, W.R. Piggott, R.L. Smith-Rose, October 1949. A. 28 Correspondence with University Grants Committee (Appleton's carbons only), 1952-60. Correspondence 1955-60 deals mainly with the expansion of the: University and the George Square development, and includes various briefings and submissions to the U.G.C. A. 29 Correspondence re George Square development, with former Appleton's carbonsonly, graduates opposed to the scheme. not indexed. A.30 Miscellaneous items of biographical interest. Humorous or mock-heroic poems about Appleton andhis activities (1951, 1953), and other verses. | E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 13 Biographical and personal Award of Emblem of Honour, Norwegian Polytechnic Society. Press-cutting only. 1952 Ms. letter from Appleton to his parents, describing his return sea-voyage from Australia, his daughter's engagement, etc. October 1952. (quoted in Clark, SirEdward Appleton, p.199). Honorary D. Litt., Liverpool. Presentation address. 1953 Honorary Membership, Institution of Electrical Engineers. Typescript presentation address. 1956 Technical High School, Hanover, 125th Anniversary. Letter and photograph. 1958 (Appleton had been unable to attend. ) Royal Society Tercentenary Programme. 1960 Ring-back plastic binder of press-cuttings, photographs and material relating to visit to Cincinnati, March 1957, to participate in Centennial Program of Academy of Medicine and Fiftieth Anniversary of Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Cincinnati. See also H.39. Icelandic Order of the Falcon. Certificate. 1963 A.39-A. 57 Letters of condolence received on Appleton's death, 1965. A.39 A.40 A.4] A.42 A.43 A.44 A B C D-E Edinburgh University societies, organisations, clubs, etc. (not indexed) Edinburgh and Scottish organisations, schools, societies, etc. (not indexed) E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 14 Biographical and personal A.45 A.46 A.47 A.48 A.49 A. 50 A.51 A.52 A.53 A. 54 A.55 A. 56 A. 57 K-L Mac T U-W and unidentified Letters from institutions, societies, firms, organisations, etc. (not indexed) A.58 Correspondence with Royal Society re establishing an Appleton Memorial Lecture to be given at the triennial assemblies of U.R.S.1. Includes information about the lectures, and programme for discussion meeting held at the Society 5-6 December 1974, to mark the 50th anniversary of radio investigations of the ionosphere. Various dates, 1966-75. A.59 Miscellaneous items of biographical interest. Includes: Letter re arrangements for change of name of Radio and Space Research Station, Slough, to the Appleton Laboratory, 1973. Photographs of the ‘Appleton Crater’ on the moon. Photocopy of front pages of 'Field Telephones and Telegraphs', by E.J. Stevens, 1918. the Fifth Edition’ acknowledges the help of ' Lieut. E.V. Appleton’. The 'Note to (The book was purchased by Mr. A. Gardner of the Appleton Laboratory who sent the photocopy to Lady Appleton.) E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 15 Biographical and personal A.60, A.61 Two folders of press-cuttings relating to Appleton and his activities. See also A.22, A.37. A.62-A.94 Diaries and notebooks, 1936-65 These are small pocket diaries, containing notes of engagements, addresses and telephone numbers, personal and financial notes, titles of books read or to be read, epigrams, notes and anecdotes for speeches, etc. observations, experiments or formulae and a note is made of these cases in the list below. Generally speaking, however, these are personal diaries as distinct from the scientific notebooks in Section B. In addition, some contain jottings of scientific 62 1936 Includes some scientific notes m e r F F > -65 - 66 -67 > 7 > .70 > = > Wy: A.73 A.74 A.75 A.76 1938 Includes a little scientific material Cambridge University Diary, 1938-39 1939 Includes scientific notes and observations 1940 1941 1942 1942 Includes scientific notes and observations 1943 1944 1944 1945 1946 1947 1947 Mainly financial E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 16 Biographical and personal A.77 A.78 A.79 A.80 A.8] A.82 A.83 A. 84 A.85 A. 86 A.87 A.88 A.89 A.90 A.91 A.92 A.93 1948 1949 1949 1950 1951 1951 September-Decemberonly, loose pages removed from a larger diary. Mainly scientific notes 1952 Includes scientific notes, and engagements in Australia 1953 Edinburgh University Diary, 1953-54. and ideas Includes scientific notes Edinburgh University Diary, 1954-55. notes Includes a few scientific Edinburgh University Diary, 1955-56 Edinburgh University Diary, 1956-57. Not used. Edinburgh University Diary, 1957-58 Edinburgh University Diary, 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 Includes some scientific notes Edinburgh University Diary, 1960-61 N.B. There are no surviving diaries for 1962 and 1963 A.94 Edinburgh University Diary, 1964-65. Not used. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 17 SECTION B SCIENTIFIC NOTEBOOKS B.1 - B.60 These books have a twofold origin. Some are laboratory notebooks in the usual sense, documenting experimental work with dates and descriptions, and sometimes kept partly by research assistants and collaborators as well as by Appleton himself. Others are more diverse, and belong to the category of ‘little black books'. Appleton's lifelong habit of keeping small notebooks in his pockets was well known and commented on by his biographers, who often quote from them. The description ‘little black books' is clearly no more than a generic term, since very few are black and some are quite large. Nevertheless they have many features in common; few are dated, and Appleton seems to have kept several of them in play at the same time so that each book might remain in sporadic use for years, entries being made at the front, back, or on odd blank pages in the middle. Conversely, certain books are hardly used at all. The content is heterogeneous and includes notes for experiments to be performed, theories to be tested or papers to be written, diagrams, calculations and ‘thinking aloud', notes on the literature, of lectures or discussions at conferences, of points to be raised at meetings, quotations, anecdotes, epigrams or longer paragraphs for inclusion in Appleton's speeches or writings - not all of them on scientific subjects. To a small extent, the material is similar to the diaries in Section A, but the notebooks in Section B differ in containing only Appleton's ideas on scientific or general topics with no details of engagements or chronology. Dated material, or that to which a date can betentatively assigned on internal evidence, is presented as a sequence. Undated material is placed at the end of the sequence (B.48 - B.57). All the material is in Appleton's hand unless otherwise stated. Continued E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 18 Scientific notebooks Further research material in the form of loose notes and narratives, graphs and data, and exchangesof correspondence, is in Section C. Additional note- books can be found at C.310, C.311 (Tromsé expedition), C.256 (radar), C.384-C. 388 (valves), D.67, D.68 (lecture material), H.1. Attention is drawn to B.58 - B.60, which comprise two bound volumes and one folder of press-cuttings recording developments in 'wireless', radio and television. Appleton began the first of these (B.58) during the First World War and continued some- what less methodically until about 1939. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 19 Scientific notebooks B.1 Hardback notebook, inscribed inside ‘Victor Appleton St John's College, Cambridge. Magnetism and Electricity’. Both ends of book used. Notes and calculations, perhaps of undergraduate work (Appleton usually signed himself 'E.V. Appleton’ after 1919). Some notes on negative ions, ionisation, etc. may be of later date. Army notebook, few pages only and front cover remaining. Notes on differential equations, perhaps for lectures as Instructor in R.E. Signals during First World War. B.1B Army notebook, inscribed on cover 'E.V. Appleton ii Lieut R.E. Electricity Notes’. Both ends of book used. At front of book, notes on electricity and magnetism, perhaps for lectures during First World War. In middle of book, sequence of pages (some numbered) of experiments on ‘Oscillator with Leaking Grid Condenser', at Cambridge, 1920-21 (not all in Appleton's hand). At rear of book, press-cuttings on valves, electricity, etc., mainly during First World War. B.2 Hardback notebook of graph paper, inscribed on cover and inside 'E.V. Appleton. Cavendish Laboratory 1919'. Both ends of book used. Notes and calculations on electricity, perhaps from lectures by C.T.R. Wilson. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 20 Scientific notebooks B.2A Red softbacked notebook, inscribed inside 'E.V. Appleton. St. John's College, Cambridge’. 1919 Both ends of book used. Notes (some dated 1919) of experiments on oscillating . circuits. Notes on glassblowing. Notes of work planned, including 'Van derPol's coils’. Narrative of experiments conducted. B.3 Hardback notebook. 1919-22 Notes of experiments and ideas on oscillators and circuits, some with various dates, December 1919-October 1922. Notes for 'Further Experiments on Atmospherics' . A few notes at rear of book. See also B.4. Miscellaneous pages of notes and calculations, originally tucked into B.3. Hardback drawing book of graph paper, n.d., c.1920. Both ends of book used. At front: graphs and calculations of valves andoscillators. 12 monthly graphs, labelled January-December. At rear: B.4 B.5 B.5A Black ring-bound notebook. Notes and narratives of experiments on atmospherics The work begins July and on Aperiodic Impulses. 12 £1920] and continues to April 17 £19214. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 B.6-B.8 Scientific notebooks 2] Sequence of three small hardbacked notebooks, numbered 1, 2 and 3 by Appleton. Thefirst is also dated 'April 2nd 1923' and the third has an indistinct date 1925. and off for several years and contain similar material. well be the origin of the description 'little black books'. All three books were used on They may B.6 Small notebook '1', dated 'April 2nd 1923' and inscribed inside 'E.V. Appleton, St. John's College, Cambridge. Please return’. Some entries dated 1924. Notes and ideas on research carried out or projected on triode, circuits, etc., notes on the literature, or of discussion with Van der Pol ('Balth'). Back cover and page contain lists of papers 'Published', 'Possible' and ‘Projected’. B.7 Small notebook '2', no inscription. Notes and ideas for research, ‘Suggestions for articles’ (on oscillators), headings for discussion meeting, work on absorption, 'Points for short wave paper', notes possibly of conference contributions by Bohr, Chapman andothers. Includes some material on TromsS (c.1931) and a note 'Good wave-traps in W.W.°(Watson-Watt) dated '16/9/32'. This book also contains a note (undated) 'Could an aeroplane get us direction of vector?' quoted in Clark, Sir Edward Appleton, p.48. B.8 Small notebook '3', with an indistinct date 1925 on cover. Notes and ideas for research, notes on a paper by Watson-Watt, notes for ‘Progress Report RRB' (Radio Research Board) dated '2/6/27', notes on URSI meeting, note 'Try spark method of Breit and Tuve', other notes dated 1928, 1932, narrative on aurora referring to 'Tromsd last year’ (c.1932), drawings of spectra, etc. B.9 Soft-backed notebook, front only used. Calculations and graphs of experiments with oscillators. n.d. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 Le Scientific notebooks B.10 Notebook, inscribed 'E. VV. Appleton’ on cover. Notes on the literature, mainly on oscillators. n.d., but book was bought in Haarlem, where Appleton is known to have visited Van der Pol in 1924. Black notebook inscribed 'E.V. Appleton Atmospherics' on cover. Miscellaneous notes, tables, calculations, plan for paper 'On the Nature of Atmospherics' (Part | published with R.A. Watson- Watt Proc. Roy. Soc., 103, 1923), drafts for paper or note on oscillations in discharges. At rear of book is draft for Appleton's farewell speech on leaving Cavendish, 1924. Hardback notebook, inscribed inside 'E.V. Appleton. Wheatstone Laboratory, King's College, London. of Papers’. lonization of Gases. Digests Only a few pages used, at front of book. Thick notebook, inscribed on cover 'Atmospheric Data' (not in Appleton's hand); inside 'Wheatstone Laboratory' in Appleton's hand, 'May 1925! in another hand. Early entries begin December 1924 in Appleton's hand headed 'Tests of Constancy of 2LO intensity from fading experiments’ . Entries continue with dated experiments to 25/8/27, not in Appleton's hand but with occasional notes by him. See also B.14. B.14 Miscellaneous loose pages of notes and calculations originally tucked in B.13, some dated 1926. Hardback notebook, inscribed 'Edward V. Appleton, Captain R.E.' presumably acquired during service in 1914-18 War. Detailed observations and comparison of various stations, almost all in Appleton's hand or with comments by him. Inside front cover is a detailed list of experiments numbered 1-77, dated March 1926 to November 1928, which form the contents of the book. Also includes some narratives and summaries of the experiments by Appleton. Work continues to July 1929, on Modulation FrequencyTests. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 23 Scientific notebooks Thick notebook, inscribed inside 'Simultaneous Measurements in Downcoming Rays’. Inside front cover is a list of experiments numbered 47-62, dated December 1927 to August 1928 (not all were completed), of reception data received at Cambridge, Peterborough, King's College. See also B.17. Miscellaneous loose pages of notes and calculations originally tucked into B.16, various dates 1928. Includes a letter re research from A.L. Green, 1928. (Appleton published a collaborative paper with Green in Proc. Roy. Soc., 128, 1930.) Thick notebook, inscribed 'E.V. Appleton' on page edges. Mainly notes on the literature, latest date 1927. Only a few pages used, at front of book. B.19 Hardback notebook, inscribed inside 'N.P.L. Transmissions on Short Waves'. Inside front cover isa list of experiments, dated August- November 1928, recorded at King's College, Peterborough and Cambridge. The records are not in Appleton's hand but almost all have comments by him. Towards rear of book is a later test (numbered 92), July 1929, and a narrative 'Notes on Test' by Appleton. See also B.20. B.20 Miscellaneous loose pages of notes on tests, and tabulated results, February 1928-April 1929, originally tucked into B.19. Also included is a sheet of records for Tromsé, 1951. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 Scientific notebooks 24 B.2] B.22 Hardback notebook, inscribed on cover 'Daily N.P.L. Transmissions 100 X' and inside (not in Appleton's hand) 'N.P.L. Transmissions on 100 Metres Daily, Commencing November 18 1929 from 12 to 12.30 o.mMs' Daily log of experiments and notes, all in Appleton's hand, for 33 days (to 20 December), with observations for January 16 1930, and earlier notes from 1928 and 1929, and a narrative summarising results. Inside rear cover is a log of the experiments numbered 1-35 (not all completed). Hardback notebook, inscribed inside ‘Month's Run. 1931 to March 21. Measurements of Critical Frequency’. February 23 Records all in Appleton's hand. to 3 June. Someshorter notes continue B.23 Hardback notebook. n.d., ¢.1931. Includes notes on 'Dielectric Constant of lonised Gas', polarization, work of Tonks, 'Notes for Discussion’. At rear of book, extended narrative on 'Probe Analysis’ . B.24 Large ledger-type notebook inscribed on cover 'E. V. Appleton. Magneto-lonic Theory’. n.d. Calculations, only a few pages used. pages. Includes a few loose B.24A Black ring-back notebook. Lectures on Fourier analysis and statistics, n.d. ¢.1932. B.25 Hardback 'Minute Book', pages numbered 1-197 (only 1-107 used). Notes of very heterogeneous nature, probably begun c.1930 and continuing to 1948. Includes notes on the literature, notes for experiments or of discussions, ideas on various aspects of ionospheric research. p.85 contains very brief notes for 'Bakerian Lecture’ (given in 1937). E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 B.26 25 Scientific notebooks Hardback notebook, inscribed inside 'Notes on Atmospheric Electricity, pp.1-25. K.G.E. (K. G. Emeleus), 1934'. Notes on the literature, on experiments and hypotheses, conclusions. All in the hand of K.G. Emeleus. B.27 Large ledger-type notebook. B.28 B.29 B.30 B.3] Notes on mathematics, some labelled ‘Lecture II’, etc., perhaps for lectures at Cambridge, ¢.1936. See also B. 28. 11 pp. notes on integrals, sent with a covering note November 1935 by G. Cook, and originally tucked into B.27. Large ledger-type notebook, n.d. Mainly notes on atomic and particle physics, perhapsfor lectures at Cambridge. Thick black notebook. n.d. Miscellaneous notes, calculations and references, on recombination, ‘Correct magneto-ionic formulae’, critical frequencies. Latest reference 1937. Only a few pages used, at front of book. Small softcover notebook, inscribed inside 'E.V. Appleton, 16 Old Queen St... S.W.1.' Notes on the literature, many research ideas on a wide variety of topics in ionosphere, latest dated reference 1941. B.31A Hardback notebook of graph paper. Both ends of book used. Miscellaneous notes, narratives and calculations probably made over a considerable period (latest date 1940). Includes work on electron density (¢.1935-36), recombination, theories of Massey, Pekeris, Eckersley, Chapman, Booker, etc. At rear of book, ideas and questions for research. See also B.31B. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 Scientific notebooks B.31B Loose pagesoriginally tucked into B.31A. Includes: Notes on 'Tides in the Upper Atmosphere’ and "Light of the Night Sky’. Notes on 'Lunar Tides in Region E', with analysis of experiments 1937-38. Correspondence from J.E. Best, 1936, J.A. Ratcliffe, n.d. B.32 Hardback notebook of graph paper. Diary entries, and notes, 1938-41, describing aspects of work at D.S.1.R., fuel, food, glass, etc. Last entry, dated 25/12/41, sets down some of Appleton's views on the Civil Service. Only a few pages used, at front of book. B.33 Loose-leaf ring-back notebook. Miscellaneous notes and calculations, probably made over a considerable period. Begins with extensive sequence on 'Aerials', perhaps for a course of lectures, continues with notes on scattering, etc., typescript and ms. bibliography on waves(latest date 1942), 2 pp. ms. note on 'Effects of Bombing on Structures’. B.33A Large red ‘Minute Book’. Few pages used, widely scattered through the book. Notes, mainly on radar, very short waves, anomalous echoes, influence of water vapour, etc. c.1942. B.34 Hardback notebook, inscribed inside 'E.V. Appleton, 39 Westleigh Avenue, London S.W.15.' Extensive notes, calculations and narratives on radar, and for a lecture or paper alternatively called 'The Technique of Radar (or Radiolocation)', 'The Principles of Radiolocation', 'The Elements of Radar or Radiolocation'. (Appleton's 36th Kelvin Lecture was entitled 'The scientific principles of radio location’, J. Instn. Elect. Engrs., 93, 1946.) See also B.35, C.248-C.274. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 Scientific notebooks 27 B.35 Loose papers originally tucked into B.34. Includes: 5 pp. ms. letter by Appleton to 'Mr. Piggott, Mr. Gorwyn', 21 January 1945, discussing research on energy flux. 3 pp. note 'The obliquity factor in diffraction problems’, by P.M. Woodward, 1 June 1945. Note from R.L. Smith-Rose on 'radiolocation of the moon', 5 September 1945. B.36 Black notebook, first page headed 'Fy Layer anomalies’. Notes, tables and references, latest dated reference 1944 though work may continue later. Only a few pages used, at front of book. B.37 Hardback notebook, inscribed on cover ‘Solar noise. noise’. Galactic Notes, observations, drafts, notes for discussion, comments on others' work or papers, etc. Related especially to work with J.S. Hey, 1946. C.323-C,357. See also B.38 Hardbacked notebook. Monthly comparative charts of average nooncritical Fo layer frequency on 5 disturbed and 5 quiet days for 1948 (at Washington station). 1 loose page graph of observations. Inside rear cover, brief notes of 'Points for investigation’. B.39 Black loose-leaf ring-back notebook. Typed-upseries of notes on the literature, data and graphs, research ideas, etc., with some ms. notes. Includes Appleton's note of ‘Points requiring attention’, 28 December 1951, anda note to Mrs. Pritchard, 25 February 1952. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 28 Scientific notebooks B.40 Small black notebook, inscribed inside 'E.V. Appleton’. Notes made on journey to Australia for URS! meeting and other engagements, 1952. Includes personal notes, list of articles and speeches required during trip, notes of papers read or contributions heard at conference, diagrams and research ideas. Both ends of book used. B.41 Hardback notebook, University of Western Australia, inscribed on cover 'E.V. Appleton (Univ. of Edinburgh) lonosphere'. Notes, research ideas, notes of discussion meetings, on various topics including recombination, sunspot cycle, etc. n.d., ¢.1952. B.42 Red loose-leaf ring-back notebook. Notes, diagrams, ideas, comments on papers and theories by others; p.1 has heading 'I.G.Y.' (International Geophysical Year) and may refer to preparations for the 1957 meetings, or to earlier URSI meetings at which the idea was discussed. Includes notes, perhaps for reports, on E layer and F layer studies, and notes on rockets. B.43 Spiral-bound notebook. Notes and diagrams of papers, contributions, etc. at URSI meeting, Boulder, Colorado, August-September 1957. B.44 Small hardback notebook, inscribed inside 'E.V. Appleton ... Edinburgh’. Notes for speeches and talks, several intended for a medical audience. Somescientific notes, and several references to 1.G.Y. Latest dated reference 1960. B.45 Red loose-leaf ring-back notebook. Various notes and diagrams. Included is a note from C.S. Gillmor 'These notes by EVA are mostly in 1954 prob. at Mixed Commission on lonosphere meeting +some notes possibly in few years after '54'. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 29 Scientific notebooks B.46 Black notebook. Notes for speeches and lectures, on general and scientific topics. Includes headings for 'Granada Lecture' (given in 1959), latest dated reference 1960. B.47 B.48 Small red notebook. Hardly used. Latest datable reference 1962. Small red spiral-bound notebook, n.d. Notes and drafts on electron density, Sq curves, etc. Notes and anecdotes for speeches. B.49 Soft-cover notebook, n.d. Mainly notes on linear equations. Only a few pages used, at front of book. B.50 B.51 Small black loose-leaf ring-back notebook, n.d. Includes sequence of 17 numbered pages relating to work on (fE)2 values at Edinburgh. Black hardback notebook, n.d. Miscellaneous notes, diagrams, calculations and narratives, of various periods, and including work on solar noise, ‘relaxation time of the Fo layer', ‘Points on E and F', ‘Distortion in the E layer', 'The Continuity Equation', etc. Work probably begins c.1940 and continues to ¢.1953. 5.52 Green notebook, inscribed 'F2 Layer Theory’. Notes and calculations, with 2 loose pages inserted. Only a few pages used, at front of book. B.53 Spiral-bound New York University notebook, inscribed on cover, 'E.V. Appleton, Univ. of Edinburgh’. Notes and calculations, draft headed 'Paper on Anomalous Equatorial Belt', with 2 loose pages inserted. Only a few pages used, at front of book. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 Scientific notebooks 30 B.54 Spiral-bound notebook, n.d. Notes and drafts on several topics. Includes 'Some Notes on Methods of Investigating E and Fy Layers', ‘Formation of negative ions', notes for experiments, etc. B.55 Small hardback notebook, n.d. B.56 B.57 Miscellaneous notes, calculations, ideas; notes and anecdotes for lectures. Spiral-bound notebook, n.d. Miscellaneous scientific and university notes, last date 1950. Grey spiral-bound notebook. Miscellaneous notes and drafts, on 'constant time error', 'A Study of the E Layer', 'A Possible Explanation of the A} phenomenon’, andother topics. n.d., but includes loose pages of photographs dated December 1957. B.58-B.60 Press-cuttings. B.58 B.59 B.60 Large Army 'Register of Requisitions' book, containing press- cuttings from technical journals, chiefly The Electrician, on meetings, research papers, discoveries and research. Some loose cuttings are tucked into rear of book. 1916-18. Large green ledger-type book, containing press-cuttings on developments in radio and television, approximately 1927-39. Folder of similar material, mainly 1930s. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 SECTION C RESEARCH TOPICS C.1 - C.425 INDEX TO SECTION C ABSORPTION ATMOSPHERICS B - DETERMINATION see RECOMBINATION CRITICAL FREQUENCY E LAYER F LAYER GENERAL IONOSPHERIC TOPICS INTERNATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL YEAR (1.G.Y.) see U.R.S.I. IONISATION IONOSPHERIC STORMS LUNAR TIDES LUXEMBOURG EFFECT see RADIO RECEPTION MAGNETIC STORMS MAGNETO-IONIC THEORY METEOR TRAILS NEGATIVE IONS see RECOMBINATION OSCILLATORS RADAR RADIO RECEPTION including LUXEMBOURG EFFECT RECOMBINATION AND ATTACHMENTincluding B-DETERMINATION and NEGATIVE IONS SEASONAL ANOMALY SECOND POLAR YEAR’ including TROMSO EXPEDITION SOLAR NOISE SUNSPOTS AND SOLAR CYCLE TROMSO EXPEDITION see SECOND POLAR YEAR U.R.S.1. including 1.G.Y. VALVES 31 Cc, Cc. l= €.7, 389 - C.404 Cc. 8-C.28 D N A «29 - C.35, .405 N A A A N 9 .36 - C.55, -406 - C.409 .56 - C.105 .106 - C.165 O . 166 - C.181 N O -410 - C.421 .182 - C.191 .192 - C.198 .199 - C,221 .222 - C.236 .237 - C.247 O n . 248 - C.274 a .275 - C.287 A O . 288 - C.300 A A A N A .301 - C.303 . 304 - C.322 .323 - C.357 .358 - C.360, 422 - C.425 o O .361 - C.383 a . 384 - C.388 E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 INTRODUCTION TO SECTION C 32 The material in this Section is very diverse. It includes notes and ideas by Appleton, comments and suggestions exchanged with research assistants, collaborators and colleagues, drafts for discussion meetings or for papers and talks, data (charts, graphs, diagrams) and correspondence. The alphabetical sequence in which the material is presented is intended as no more than a guide. Someofthe titles, such as 'Absorption', 'Atmospheric Spectrum', 'lonized Air', ‘Recombination and attachment', 'B - determinations', etc. correspond to Appleton's own file-headings, but others were adopted for the purpose of this catalogue on the advice of scientists and historians of science. In some cases, the headings cover brief exchanges only, while others describe extensive folders and a wide spread of material andtime. Within each topic, the papers are in a chronological sequence, though this is frequently tentative; undated papers come at the end of each sequence. A very substantial proportion of the material was received as loose papers, rarely dated by Appleton and showinglittle variation in his handwriting over the years which might have permitted closer dating. Although efforts have been made, and advice taken, to assign work to some identified field of study or period of time, it has not always been possible to do so with any certainty. Material of this kind has been grouped under the title 'General lonospheric Topics' (C.106 - C.165). It includes especially the collaborative work undertaken during Appleton's service as Principal of Edinburgh University 1949-65, when he pursued several lines of enquiry simultaneously with the help of a series of assistants and colleagues at Edinburgh (particularly Mrs. A.G. Pritchard, later Turnbull, A.J. Lyon, C.P. Bell, and the 'lonospheric Young Ladies' from the Department of Mathe- matics) as well as postal discussion with his lifelong colleagues W.R. Piggott, and W.J.G. (later Sir Granville) Beynon. It should be noted that the data and correspondence in this Section consist only of material either specifically related to the topic in hand, or kept in a named folder by Appleton himself. The correspondence folders in Section E contain similar material; see especially correspondence with W.J.G. Beynon (E.9 - E.16), R. Naismith (E.71 - E.82), W.R. Piggott (E.87 - E.98), B. van der Pol (E.117 - E.144). E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 33 Section F contains extensive additional data, prepared by or under the direction of Appleton in the furtherance of various research projects. Section G includes data and reports sent to him from observatories and ionospheric stations worldwide. These Sections should therefore be regarded as supplementary to Section C. In addition, the notebooks in Section B often provide the embryo of Appleton's research ideas. ADDITIONAL MATERIAL Items C.389 - C.425 represent notes, working papers and corres- pondence which were received too late for inclusion in the main sequence. Many were in Appleton's original bulky folders or binders, which have been retained together with their titles, but the contents have been divided into more manageable units. The material is presented in the alphabetical order of the index of topics and cross-referenced to the items which it supplements. Appleton's work with W.R. Piggott on ionospheric storms was hardly represented in the collection asfirst received. It has now been listed as a separate topic in the index and the material appears at C.410 - C.421. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 34 C.1-C.7 ABSORPTION _c.1935 - ¢.1948 Research topics Contents of a folder so described by Appleton. ‘Absorption of Wireless Waves in lonized Atmosphere’ 6 pp. ms. notes and calculations, no author or date. C.2 'Collisional frequency of electrons in the ionosphere’ Typescript and ms. draft paper by F.T. Farmer and J.A. Ratcliffe, n.d. ¢.1935 (These two items are in Appleton's original folder. ) C3 Two notes by A.R. Meetham, 1942 ‘Absorption and scattering of radio waves by electrons’ ] p., 13 May. ‘Absorption of radio waves by thermal motion of electrons' 2 pp. 9 July, sent with a covering letter saying ‘it is far less intuitive than my note of May 13', 10 July Included here is 1 p. note by W.R. Piggott on 'Dr. Meetham's paper', 4 August 1942. C.4 ‘Note on the Geophysical Effects of an ionospheric irruption' 4 pp. ms. note by Appleton, n.d. Brief 1 p. note from Piggott, on absorption, December 1941. 2 pp. ms. note to Piggott by Appleton, on absorption formula, March 1944. C.5 Papers relating to CX/WP 54. These refer mainly to papers on 'lonospheric Absorption Measurements' and ‘Suggestions for an Absorption Programme’ received by the Combined Communications Board Wave Propagation Committee and discussed at its meeting on 16 May 1945. Included here are 4 pp. ms. comments by Piggott on the CX/WP 54 papers, on behalf of Radio Research Board. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 35 . Research topics C.6 Miscellaneous drafts for papers on absorption. Short sequences only, n.d. 1 p. 'Measurements of Oblique-Incidence Absorption', by G.McK. Allcock, 1948. C.7 Miscellaneous ms. graphs, mainly 1934-39. Ms. graph by Piggott of reflection coefficient. Included here isa 5 pp. ms. note on ‘Evaluation of integral', n.d. The note has the name and address of G.F.C. Searle (d.1954). See C.396. See C.389 - C.404 for additional material on absorption. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 C.8-C.28 ATMOSPHERICS c.1921-45 Research topics 36 Notes, drafts and correspondence. The early material was described by C.S. Gillmor as 'work on pulse characteristics of receivers, and problems of receiving atmospherics'. is mainly on the effects of thunderstorms. The later material (from c.1929) C.8-C.16 Notes and drafts C.8 'On the energy spectra of atmospherics' 2 typescript drafts for a paper so titled, 14 pp. (second copy lacks p.1). n.d. Perhaps not by Appleton, but with ms. corrections in his hand. (In Appleton's original folder, inscribed 'X-Spectrum Analyses', which also includes C.S. Gillmor's above.) note quoted Appleton's ms. drafts for sections of a paper under the general title n.d. 'Effects of X's on Receivers'. See also C.10. Loose pages of notes and shorter narratives, originally found inside C.9 on energy spectra and atmospherics. is dated 1931, and one page ends 'To be Continued. time to elicit facts from my MSSand don't want to delay posting to you. E.V.A.' (Addressee unknown). n.d., but one page | find it takes C9 C.10 C.11 Shorter ms. notes, graphs and calculations, many on verso of Cambridge undergraduates’ exercises. Included here is a list of signatures (including A.J. Eley, N.F. Mott, J.D. Ewen) of those attending a class. Similar material, mainly on conductors, perhaps of later date. c,13 'Note on the difference between British and tropical thunderstorms’ 1 p. duplicated typescript prepared by Appleton for the Atmospherics Committee, Radio Research Board, C.B. Paper no.76, n.d. p.2 only of typescript draft paper on atmospherics, n.d. Photographs. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 37 Research topics Drafts, figures, graphs, etc. for paper on thunderstorms, no author or date, c.1930-31. (Not in Appleton's hand.) Folder of reports, offprints, etc., annotated or with intercalated notes by Appleton. C16 ‘Atmospheric spectrum’ Original folder so titled, including ms. translations of articles on atmospherics, D.S.1.R. and U.R.S.1. reports, National Defense Research Committee report by Jansky and Bailey (1943), etc. C,17-C.28 Corresponden ce Cu C.18 C.R. Burch F.W. Chapman Correspondence, notes and drafts, mainly re his collaborative paper with Appleton 'The| lightning flash as a source of atmospheric’, Nature, 135, 1934. C.19 T.L. Eckersley Including a typescript research paper on ‘Energy of Atmospherics'. Eckersley's letter is addressed to Admiral Jackson and bears a ms. note 'E.V.A. Pl. see & return RLA.W.W.' CWatson-Watt J. C20 A.N.R. Goldie ‘About the Spectrum of Atmospherics' 3 pp. ms. paper +graph, by A. Haubert J.T. Henderson Cal A.G. Lee Post Office reception methods. H. Narinder C.22 J.A. Ratcliffe Enclosing notes comparing grating and oscillator. n.d. 1925 1933-34 *< 1925 1929 1945 1933 1925 1933 n.d. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 38 Research topics G.23 F. Schindelhaver n.d. Correspondence, photographs, offprints, 1928-29, etc. of observations at Potsdam. C.24 B.J. Schonland With a copy of his lecture on lightning discharge. Gu2o G.C. Simpson Critical comment on Appleton's and Naismith's paper 'Weekly measurements of upper atmospheric ionization’, Proc. Phys. Lond., 45 (see corres- pondence from Watson-Watt below). M. Taylor C.26 H.A. Thomas 1934 1933 1931 1943 re Working Committee on Radio Noise. Includes 'Comments on proposed noise investigation’, and a copy of the draft report of the working committee. Geel R.A. Watson-Watt 1934 Very critical comment on Appleton's and Chapman's paper, 'The lightning flash as source of an atmospheric’, Nature, 134, and referring to previous work and publications by Appleton, Watson-Watt and Herd (‘On the nature of atmospherics', Proc. Roy. Soc., III). Includes press-cutting of an article by Watson-Watt on atmospherics, 1930. C.28 Unidentified ms. notes, sent from '282 Fulham Road’. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 39 S,29=G035 CRITICAL FREQUENCY c.1932-c.1946 Research topics C.29 Ms. data, graphs and calculations of E and F layer critical frequencies, based on test runs at King's College, London, 1932. Almost all in Appleton's hand, but includes 2 pp. on 'F layer critical wavelength', by G. Builder, February 1932. C.30 h't measurements on six frequencies. C.31 C 232 C.33 C.34 C.35 Dated graphs, various dates 1932-33, sent to Appleton by J. Zenneck. Ms. notes and graphs by Appleton, with miscellaneous graphs of equivalent heights, etc., some in the hand of L.J. Ingram and dated 1934. Folder inscribed (not in Appleton's hand) 'Critical Frequencies for Fj and Fy, 1934. Slough Records'. Detailed ms. charts, almost all in the hand of L.J. Ingram. Ms. charts and graphs of critical frequencies for E and F layers, no station given, various dates 1935-36. Critical frequency values for January 1936 (no station given), with a letter to -. Gander from R. Naismith. Miscellaneous ms. charts and graphs, mainly of critical frequencies, for various stations and dates. Includes: vertical incidence curves at Slough and Tromsd, c.1936. graphs for 1944, 1945-46 (in Appleton's hand), etc. See C.405 for additional material on critical frequency. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 40 C .36-C, 55 E LAYER Research topics Drafts, notes, data, correspondence. Much of this material was originally crammed into a folder inscribed 'Abnormal E Paper', with a ms. note added later by Appleton 'Mr. Lyon to see. These are approx. 20 year- old notes! ' The bulk of the material refers to work in the 1930s, including Appleton's collaborative papers with R. Naismith and L. J. Ingram (C.36-C.45). The later folders (C.46-C.50) refer to his work in the 1950s with A.J. Lyon and A. G. Pritchard and to his last article on the subject, which was unfinished at his death (C.50). Additional data, notes, etc. dealing with various research projects on the 'E Layer’ but not included with this specific material, can be found in 'General lonospheric Topics’ in Section F. Correspondence on E-layer research appears at C.51-C.55. Notes and drafts for Appleton's last paper on the E-layer, unfinished at his death, are at D.62-D.64. C.36 Miscellaneous ms. drafts and notes for papers by Appleton, n.d. 'On the seasonal and sunspot-cycle variation of abnormal Region-E fonization' "Note on E-persistance’ ‘Variation of Abnormal E with solar activity' ‘Scattering in the E Layer' (2 pp. note ‘written to stimulate discussion in the lonosphere group', n.d., but refers to an article by T.L. Eckersley 1940 of which a copy is included). (These items are in Appleton's original folder described above.) C-37 Miscellaneous longer drafts for papers, n.d., some accompanied by comments by R. Naismith and L.J. Ingram. Not all of these refer exclusively to E-layer but N.B. deal also with equivalent height, critical frequency, etc. Includes: 7 pp. sequence 'The Nature of Electric Wave Reflection’ pp.5-6 of a sequence 8 pp. sequence, 1937, heavily corrected and annotated, 'Some Notes on the Interpretation of P'f records’ ' Continued E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 C .37 (cont'd). p.9 only of a paper on abnormal E Research topics 4] pp.11-18 of a sequence, with corrections and annotations by Appleton and Ingram, 'Critical Frequency Phenomena for Region F9' 5 pp. ‘Further notes' C038 Miscellaneous pages and figure for a paper on E-layer. C.39-C.43 Sequenceof drafts, data and correspondence exchangedchiefly with R. Naismith, mainly on research, analyses of results and drafting of collaborative papers on E-layer. Naismith's material is usually dated and Appleton's notes, comments and suggestions have been tentatively assigned a place on internal evidence. C.39 C.40 C.4] C.42 C.43 C.44 C.45 1936 1937 1938 1939 ' Includes copy of a telegram from Booker. Includes a letter from H.W. Newton, a copy of a report by Naismith on 'lonospheric conditions during the annular eclipse of 19 April 1939', and comments by W.R. Piggott, W.G. Beynon. 1940 Includes a note by A.R. Meetham. ‘Comparison of Slough and Washington E-layercritical frequencies’ Tables and calculations by Appleton for 1935-47. Notes and communications on various problems in E-layer research, sent to Appleton by W.R. Piggott, most dated 1947. C.46-C.50 Drafts for papers and research notes, 1954-65, on collaborative work on E-layer with A.J. Lyon and A.G. Pritchard. C.46 C.47 C.48 ' An approximate theory of ionospheric layer formation’ 5 pp. typescript, by A.J. Lyon, August 1954. 'The rate of electron disappearance in the E Layer of the lonosphere' 11 pp. typescript, n.d., with 1 p. ms. note attached ‘Possible causes of Phenomenon’. Drafts for paper by Appleton, Lyon and Pritchard, 'Some anomalies in the E layer of the lonosphere'. Typescript. "Draft lay-out', 5 pp. Introduction and text, 5 pp. +40 pp. 3 pp. concluding summary ofresults, dated October 1955. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 42 Research topics C.49 Appleton's ‘National Report to Commission III' (U.R.S.1.) 2 pp. typescript with ms. note 'Dr. Lyon. whether you have seen this?' n.d., 1955-56. I don't know 'Note by Sir Edward Appleton' 3 pp. typescript with a ms. note (not in Appleton's hand) 'Copy to Mr. Ratcliffe 29/10/57". C50 'The E Layer of the lonosphere' 5 pp. heavily corrected ms. draft of article for International Dictionary of Geophysics, unfinished at Appleton's death and subsequently completed and edited by W.J.G. Beynon. C.51-C.55 Correspondence on E layer Mainly dating from 1930s and originally kept in folder C.36. Presented in alphabetical order. Cal C.52 H.G. Booker G.M.B. Dobson N.H. Frank C..53 D.R. Hartree 1936, 1938 1936 1937 1936 Includes charts and graphs, a typescript draft ‘Penetration of a parabolic maximum of electron density', with a ms. note ‘(Lecture notes)’, anda draft of a paper 'Notes on the propagation of electro- magnetic wavesina stratified medium' requesting Appleton's comments and suggestions for publication. C.54 J.A. Ratcliffe 1936 Typescript and ms. 'Notes on the ionic structure of the E region’. A.C. Stickland C.55 M.V. Wilkes 1933 1938 Enclosing diagrams and draft paper on ‘Theoretical ionization curves for the £ region', requesting suggestions for publication. See C.406-C .409 for additional material on E layer. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 C.56-C.105 F LAYER c.1936-60 Research topics 43 Appleton's original labelled folders do not appear to have survived for the early research; those which are included here (C.94, C.97-C.99) are mainly from the Edinburgh period. Muchof the material in this sequence has been assembled from loose papers. Appleton's own research ideas, dis- cussion papers and drafts occupy C.56-C.81 followed by an approximately chronological sequence of data and corres- pondence (C.82-C.105). C.56-C.81 Drafts and ideas for researchon F-layer C.56 C..57 C.58 C.59 C.60 C.61 5 pp. sequence headed 'Results', listing nine points for comment and further investigation. With some annotations, probably by R. Naismith. n.d. ¢.1936-37. 4 pp. sequence headed 'Criticism of Martyn and Pulley’ (1936 paper), listing twelve points of comment. With some annotations, probably by L.J. Ingram. 2 separate sheets of 'Further Notes', similar subject and date. 2 pp. typescript outline for two papers on F-layer, 'Paper | - Regularities' and ‘Paper II - Irregularities’. n.d. ¢.1937. 2 pp. sequence headed 'Further Points', listing twelve points for investigation (1-8 in Appleton's hand, 9-12 in that of R. Naismith). With an additional page of notes on the subject by Naismith. n.d. ¢.1937. 5 pp. typescript paper on electron density, no author or date, with 2 pp. ms. note by Appleton attached, on electron production. c. 1937. C .62 'Fo Region lonisation Anomalies' 1 p. typescript note, n.d. c.1940. C.63 "Notes on F2 Anomaly’ ] p. ms. note, n.d. C.64 "A New Approachto the Elucidation of Fz Layer Phenomena’ 2 pp. note, n.d. (written on wartime paper). E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 44 Research topics C65 ‘Outline of a Theory of the Fo Layer' 2 pp. note, n.d. C.66 'A Sketch of a general theory of Fo Layer ionisation’ 3 pp. note, 1 p. graph, n.d. C.67 ‘Possible explanation of world variation of Fy ionisation’ 1 p. typescript note, with a secretary's note 'Copies sent to Mr. Naismith, Dr. Beynon and Mr. Piggott 13/9', no year given. Note on eclipse observations, September 1941. C.68 ‘Discussion of Goodall diagrams' 3 pp. typescript note, signed and dated 9 February 1941. C.69 1 p. typescript note on solstice observations, signed and dated 3 July 1941. C.70 'Note on the Fo Layer "Kink"' 1 p. note reporting W.R. Piggott's observation and suggesting lines of investigation, typescript, signed and dated 22 January 1942. C71 1 p. typescript note to W.R. Piggott on Fy equinox values, signed and dated 11 January 1946. C.72 'Some Notes on Fo Layer Anomalies’ 6 pp. ms. sequence listing eleven points for discussion. C.73 8 pp. typescript version of above, with an additional twelfth point missing from ms. n.d., but circulated 17 November 1947 (see C.74 below). C.74 'Some Further Notes on Fa Layer Morphology’ Unfinished 2 pp. ms. notes to 'continue the discussion of F9 Layer morphology dealt with in the following communica- tions ...', listing Appleton's writings on the subject 1944-47 including C.73 above. C./5 ‘Further notes of Fz anomaly' 1 p. ms. note listing four points, n.d. E.V. Appleton CSAC 82/6/81 45 Research topics Se?6 'Third Note on the Morphology of the F2 Layer of the lonosphere' 4A pp. ms. draft. (Appleton's first and second notes on the morphology of the F2 Layer were confidential D.S.1.R. documents 1943, 1944 respectively. No third note is listed in the bibliography of his writings. ) C77 C.78 14 pp. ms. draft for paper on various aspects of Fo Layer, latest reference 1939. ‘Studies of the Fa Layer of the Ionosphere II. Variation of lonisation in the Fg Layer' The Sunspot-Cycle 16 pp. typescript draft with ms. notes by Appleton and Mrs. Pritchard, and 1 p. comments in another hand expressing cauti