CROOK, Eric Mitchell v1

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NATIONAL CATALOGUING UNIT FOR THE ARCHIVES OF CONTEMPORARY SCIENTISTS Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of Eric Mitchell Crook (1914-1993) NCUACS catalogue no.147/4/06 By Peter Harper and Timothy E. Powell Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of Eric Mitchell Crook (1914-1993) NCUACS catalogue no.147/4/06 By Peter Harper and Timothy E. Powell E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 Title: Extent of material: ca 90 items Deposited in: Compiled by: Peter Harper and Timothy E. Powell Date of material: 1937-2006 Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of Eric Mitchell Crook (1914- 1993), biochemist and biochemical engineer NCUACS catalogue no. 147/4/06 © 2006 National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists, University of Bath Special Collections, Library, University College London Reference code: GB 0103 E.M. Crook E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 NOT ALL THE MATERIAL IN THIS COLLECTION MAY YET BE AVAILABLE FOR CONSULTATION. ENQUIRIES SHOULD BE ADDRESSED IN THE FIRST INSTANCE TO: SPECIAL COLLECTIONS THE LIBRARY UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 The work of the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists in the production of this catalogue is made possible by the support of the following societies and organisations: Biochemical Society Institute of Physics Royal Society Trinity College Cambridge Royal Society of Chemistry University College London Wellcome Trust E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 LIST OF CONTENTS GENERAL INTRODUCTION SECTION A UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON SECTION B LECTURES SECTION C PUBLICATIONS SECTION D SOCIETIES AND ORGANISATIONS SECTION E VISITS AND CONFERENCES SECTION F NON-TEXTUAL MATERIAL SECTION G BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 GENERAL INTRODUCTION PROVENANCE The material was received from Mrs Julia Crook, widow, via Professor Peter Dunnill, Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London. OUTLINE OF THE CAREER OF ERIC MITCHELL CROOK Eric Mitchell Crook was born on 3 November 1914 in Sydney, Australia, the family moving to Melbourne when Crook was three. Here he received his education, graduating from the University of Melbourne with first class honours in Physics and Chemistry in 1937. After graduation he won a Commonwealth of Australia Travelling Scholarship to come to England to study at Cambridge for his Ph.D. under F.G. Hopkins. He was Hopkins’s last Ph.D. student and worked on the isolation and characterisation of redox enzymes and coenzymes. When he had obtained his Ph.D., he was awarded an MRC Postdoctoral Fellowship at Cambridge, moving to University College Hospital Medical School to work on gas gangrene. He moved again during the war to Rothamsted Britain. He was appointed to the Rothamsted staff in 1945. for example the first production of coenzyme A in Britain. This led to the establishment of a developed an interest in the newly developing discipline of biochemical engineering, working on Experimental Station, Harpenden, where he was supported by an Agricultural Research Council of the mechanism of action of enzymes such as ribonuclease and creatine phosphokinase. He also Postdoctoral Fellowship and researched on leaf protein, biochemistry of stored potatoes and the projects in collaboration with the UCL Department of Chemical Engineering (Professor M.B. Donald), In 1947 he moved to University College London where he joined the Biochemistry Department as electron microscopy of plant viruses (with F.C. Bawden), using one of the first electron microscopes in Lecturer; he was appointed Reader in Biochemistry in 1952. Among his wide interests was the study An important UCL Department of Chemical Engineering with research initiated while he was still at UCL on lectureship supported by Arthur Guinness Son & Co. (Dublin) and a postgraduate diploma in enzymes on solid supports. He built up and expanded his department so that it became highly biochemical engineering. However, he was greatly disappointed by the decision not to establish a In 1963 Crook moved to the St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College as Head of the Department of chair in biochemical engineering. Biochemistry and Chemistry. His interest in biochemical engineering continued in association with the successful, finding space, for example, for a research group in gastroenterology. E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 achievement was the introduction of an intercalated year in biochemistry for medical students in the University. This started as an Academic Diploma but was later changed to a B.Sc. He retired in 1982 with the title of Emeritus Professor of the University of London. Crook was a founder editor (with M.B. Donald and E.L. Gaden of Columbia University) of the Journal of Biochemical and Microbiological Technology and Engineering (later Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering), first published in 1959. He was very active into retirement in consultancy with biotechnology companies. He died 4 July 1993. Obituaries of Crook appeared in Cell Biochemistry and Function vol. 11, issue 4, p.ii and St Bartholomew’s Hospital Journal, Spring 1994. DESCRIPTION OF THE COLLECTION This small archive documents Crook’s interest in the development of biochemical engineering while a member of the University College London Department of Biochemistry and for a period after his departure for St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College. The material covers the period 1937-1982, 2006. establish a chair in biochemical engineering. Section B, Lectures, is slight but includes drafts for Crook’s Procter Memorial Lecture ‘in honour of the father of British leather chemistry’. papers relating to biochemical engineering at University College. They include Crook’s historical account of the development of biotechnology at UCL, documentation of research at UCL in in 1959 of the postgraduate diploma in biochemical engineering. The research projects documented Section A, University College London, forms the largest component in the collection. It comprises is the draft of a letter from Crook to the Provost of UCL on his being informed of the decision not to collaboration with the Department of Chemical Engineering and documentation of the establishment are the production of coenzyme A and enzymes on solid supports. An individual item of great interest Biochemical Engineering), 1957-1962. Journal of Biochemical and Microbiological Technology and Engineering (later Biotechnology and Section C, Publications, comprises material relating to Crook’s own publications, especially a bound volume of his offprints, 1937-1964, and correspondence and papers relating to the founding of the E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 Section D, Societies and organisations, presents brief documentation relating to three organisations, Medical Research Council, Science Research Council and University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, 1971-1978. Section E, Visits and conferences, is likewise brief, documenting seven meetings and visits, 1967- 1982, relating to Crook’s biochemical engineering and biotechnology interests. Included is a ‘Biochemistry and Biochemical Engineering Report’ by A.R. Thomson of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell of his visit to the USA in March 1971. Section F, Non textual material, consists of just two photographs, a photograph of Crook taken ca 1952-1953 and an unidentified group photograph. Section G, Biographical, presents biographical notes prepared by the family specially for the collection in 2006. There is also an index of correspondents. Peter Harper Timothy E. Powell Bath 2006 E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 SECTION A UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON, A.1-A.52 1944-1981 This section documents Crook’s role in the development of biochemical engineering / biotechnology at UCL in the 1950s and early 1960s, and his continued association with the work after he became Head of the Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry at the Medical College of St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. A.1-A.9 HISTORY AND GENERAL A.10-A.41 RESEARCH A.42-A.45 TEACHING A.46-A.52 STAFF HISTORY AND GENERAL about N.d. Scope and Potential of Biochemical ‘Notes on Engineering’ 1957-1981 and n.d. ‘How Biotechnology Developed at U.C. London’ 11pp typescript with 1p manuscript ‘insert’ beginning ‘To the development of Biotechnology at talk/write University College is to talk/write about my own career thirty years ago’. 1957 and draft of ‘Memorandum on the Development of Includes draft of ‘Memorandum on the Development of Biochemical Engineering at U.C.L.’ by Crook, 25 June 5pp typescript; manuscript notes found with the typescript. Correspondence and papers relating to the development of biochemical engineering more generally at UCL and engineering biochemical 1957-1960 and n.d. Contents of untitled folder. E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 University College London, A.1-A.52 Biochemical 1a AEST Engineering: University College London; Includes draft of ‘Memorandum on the urgent necessity of setting up a Biochemical Engineering section at University College’ and duplicated copy of ‘Memorandum on the Development University College London’ Engineering Biochemical of Typescript draft with manuscript additions and corrections of letter from Crook to UCL Provost ‘private and confidential’ The letter from the Provost (not with the papers) to which this is a draft reply appears to have informed Crook that the ‘long-agreed’ chair in Biochemical Engineering would not be established. Memorandum engineering rooms by F.C. Webb, 7 January 1962 conditioning on = air to biochemical 1963-1981 1963-1964 Crook’s correspondents include academic colleagues and administrators. Crook’s correspondence with UCL after his departure for St Bartholomew’s Hospital Medical College 1957-1981 Dunnill Includes ‘Immobilized Royal Society meeting ‘New Horizons in Microbiology’, 20-21 June 1979. Miscellaneous biochemical engineering more generally. and Enzyme Technology’ for papers re biochemical printed and_ engineering Two folders. typescript draft of paper by Peter duplicated and _ at UCL 1967-1981 Cell E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 University College London, A.1-A.52 A.10-A.41 RESEARCH 1950-1967 A.10-A.23 Coenzyme A 1950-1962 and n.d. The Coenzyme A project was a collaborative venture between the Departments of Biochemistry (Crook) and Chemical Engineering at UCL (M.B. Donald) supported by the Medical Research Council. The project was originally envisaged to prepare CoA, hitherto unavailable in Britain, in British demand. quantities sufficient present satisfy the to A.10-A.16 ‘CoA 1950s’ 1950-1962 and n.d. Contents of colleagues, suppliers, patent agents, etc. folder so inscribed: correspondence with 1950 (one letter only), 1954-1955 1957 February - June 1957 July -December Includes ‘Interim Proposals for Beginning Production of Co-enzyme A’, 2pp typescript, 29 July 1954. Includes ‘Report of DPN kinase enzyme and about an enzymatic synthesis of Triphosphopryridine nucleotide’, 2pp typescript by H.F. Pogany, 26 July 1957. E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 University College London, A.1-A.52 N.d. Manuscript and typescript notes and drafts. Includes 9pp typescript ‘Analytical Techniques The Co- enzyme A Assay’. A.17-A.20 ‘CO A- MRC & Prof Marrian’ 1954-1958 of folder Contents principally correspondence with the Medical Research Council re its support for ‘work on the large scale production of Co- enzyme A.’ inscribed: so __ Crook coenzyme project and future developments in 1957-1958. corresponded Marrian about G.F. with the 1954-1955 1954-1958 ‘CoA Finance’ Contents of folder so inscribed divided into two for ease of reference: correspondence and financial statements. D.S.I.R.’, 3pp typescript ‘Draft’, n.d. Includes at University College London’, 3pp typescript by Crook, n.d. and ‘Memo for submission to the M.R.C., A.R.C., and Coenzyme financial statements and reports 1954-1957 and n.d. Contents of untitled folder. Co-enzyme A ‘Report on The Project E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 University College London, A.1-A.52 A.24-A.26 ‘Arthur Guinness Dr A.K. Mills’ 1957-1962 Contents of folder so inscribed: correspondence with Mills about biochemical engineering developments, visits by Mills to UCL, etc. research, interests mutual in Mills was the Chief Chemist of Arthur Guinness Son & Co. (Dublin) Ltd. 19ST initiates the correspondence with Mills January 1957 beginning ‘ carrying out some work on Co-enzyme A College, London’ | understand that a letter of you 11 are at University 1958 Includes ‘Memorandum on Development of Large Scale Biochemical Processes at University College London’, ‘3.9.57’. The memorandum was prepared by Crook for the Medical Research Council and a copy was sent to Mills, 14 March 1958. A.27-A.39 1959-1962 1960-1967 Enzymes on Solid Supports This work was supported by a grant from the Whitehall Foundation. It was envisaged as a collaboration between the Departments of Biochemistry (Crook) and Chemical Engineering (M.B. Donald) at UCL. The basic research was under the direction of Crook who was responsible for After | Crook’s drawing proposals. departure for the Medical College of St Bartholomew’s Hospital he continued the research in collaboration with the Department of Chemical Engineering UCL. The grant expired on July 1966 but an unexpended balance enabled the work to re- application to the Foundation in 1967 was unsuccessful. n.d. Includes initial correspondence with the Foundation and Crook’s correspondence with Department of Correspondence and support research especially the financial administration of the grant. papers on enzymes on re Whitehall Foundation supports, be extended for 1960-1967 and a period. A.27-A.32 Donald, solid for A up the original 31 E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 University College London, A.1-A.52 Engineering Chemical and Accounts Departments at UCL and Medical College of St Bartholomew's Hospital, respectively. Finance UCL, and the 1960-1961 1962-1966 perturbation as a factor in enzyme A.33-A.35 1967 and n.d. ‘Whitehall Foundation Reports’ 1962-1966 and IG: Correspondence re reports, administration of grant etc. Contents of folder so inscribed: reports, correspondence re grants, etc. Annual reports 1961-1962 - 1965-1966 (5 reports) and typescript note ‘Enzymes on Solid Supports’ 1965-1966 9pp manuscript ‘Report from C.W. Wharton’. Correspondence with the Foundation. ‘Environmental catalysis’ ‘Whitehall Re-application May ‘67’ E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 University College London, A.1-A.52 A.37-A.39 Manuscript and typescript drafts etc re work on enzymes on solid supports 1964-1965 Contents of untitled folder divided into three for ease of reference. The material appears to relate to the Report to the Foundation for 1963-1964 (copy at A.37) and paper (with M.D. Lilly, C. Money and W.E. Hornby) ‘Enzymes on Solid Supports’, Biochem. J. 1965 (offprint at A.37). Miscellaneous correspondence and papers re research, grants, equipment, supplies etc 1958-1963 Two folders. At A.41 is for 1961-1962. a manuscript draft of Report to Whitehall Trust A.42-A.45 TEACHING 1944-1962 Printed booklet. The diploma course was established in 1959. ‘Scheme for a Degree Course in Chemical Engineering’, Institution of Chemical Engineers, London Correspondence and papers re one year postgraduate diploma course in biochemical engineering and related matters. Includes duplicated practical details of preparations. Correspondence and papers re diploma course including timetables Correspondence Diploma including syllabus and Miscellaneous papers found together ? re teaching 1956, 1958, n.d. papers re introduction of the 1958-1959 1960-1962 E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 University College London, A.1-A.52 A.46-A.52 1954-1961 Correspondence of technicians and research assistants, deferment of national service, etc. appointment re and papers Includes references and recommendations. 7 folders. E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 SECTION B LECTURES, B.1-B.3 ‘Procter Memorial Lecture’ Crook’s lecture begins ‘It a great privilege to be invited to assist in honouring the memory of the “father of British leather chemistry”.’ is Typescript and manuscript drafts. Two folders. Manuscript notes ? for lecture E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 SECTION C PUBLICATIONS, C.1-C.18 OWN PUBLICATIONS 1937-1976 1937-1976 Bound volume of Crook’s scientific papers 1937-1964 Offprints of Crook’s scientific papers 1966-1976 Three offprints only. ‘Some changes in the reactivity of enzymes resulting from their chemical attachment to water-insoluble derivatives of cellulose’ Typescript draft of paper by Crook (with W.E. Hornby and M.D. Lilly) with covering letter to the Biochemical Journal, 21 August 1967. 1957-1962 of folder so PUBLICATIONS CORRESPONDENCE ‘Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering’ Correspondence and papers re Journal of Biochemical and Microbiological Technology and Engineering (later Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering). Contents inscribed: correspondence and papers re the founding of the Journal of Biochemical and Microbiological (later Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering. 1957-1962 Correspondents include Dr Paul Rosbaud, fellow editors, members of and contributors. The initial approach to Crook about a new journal was from Rosbaud. the Journal was published in 1959 by Interscience Publishers, Inc, New York. The editors were Crook, Biochemistry Department The first volume of Papers include typescripts etc of some of the scientific papers that appeared in the first volume of the Journal. editorial advisory board, publisher Technology and Engineering E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 Publications, C.1-C.18 UCL, M.B. Donald, Department of Chemical Engineering, UCL Chemical Engineering, Columbia University. Department Gaden, E.L. and of oo 1958 Two folders. 1959 Five folders. At C.9 are typescript and proof copies of paper by Crook, Donald and M.C. Reece ‘The Evaluation of a process for the preparation of Co-enzyme A from Yeast’. This paper appeared in the first volume of the Journal. 1961-1962 C.16-C.18 C.16 C.12-C.14 1960 1958-1962 Three folders Contents of untitled folder Correspondence with publisher With covering letter from publisher, February 1962. List of 1961 subscribers Production slips 1958-1961 1959-1961 E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 SECTION D SOCIETIES AND ORGANISATIONS, D.1-D.5 1971-1978 MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Re compiling European Biomedical Research Inventory on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities. SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 1971-1977 Contents of folder: correspondence and papers re SRC research on enzyme and microbial technology. Includes papers for meetings. Three folders. UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Paper re Biochemical Engineering Option Course as part of Department of Chemical Engineering’s M.Sc. course in Advanced Chemical Engineering. E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 SECTION E VISITS AND CONFERENCES, E.1-E.9 1966-1982 Meeting of the South East Branch of the Institution of Chemical Engineers on Biochemical Engineering, March 1967 Correspondence re arrangements. UKAEA Research Group Memorandum ‘Biochemistry and Biochemical Engineering Report on a visit to the U.S.A., in March 1971’ The visit was made by A.R. Thomson of the Chemical Engineering Research Division, Establishment, Harwell. Energy Atomic Institution of Chemical Engineers Approved Short Course on Biochemical Reactors - Theory and Practice, University College London, 17-21 April 1972 Provisional schedule, registration form etc. Article discussion’, Chemistry and Industry, 1 April 1978 ‘Enzymes industrial and_ on catalysis - Society of Chemical Industry meeting on Enzymic and Non-Enzymic Catalysis, April 1978 This article served to introduce the meeting that was to take place ‘later this month’. Participants in the discussion with Chemistry and Industrys editor were one of the symposium’s organisers, Peter Dunnill of UCL and three of the meeting’s session chairmen - Crook, Malcolm Lilly of UCL and Clement Bamford of Liverpool. 1977-1978 Chemical Society Review Symposium on ‘Enzymes in Industry and Medicine’, Exeter, 11-12 September 1978 Transcript of session on the state of enzyme chemistry and technology, chaired by Crook Correspondence re arrangements, programme of lectures, Crook lectured on ‘Enzymes in manufacturing processes’. E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 Visits and conferences, E.1-E.9 of participants, summary of Crook’s lecture, general list information, etc. Two folders. Sixth-form Day Conference Enzymes: Structure, Function and Uses, College of St Mark and St John, Plymouth, 28 March 1979 Crook lectured on ‘Enzymes in manufacturing processes’. Programme, brief correspondence re arrangements. Biochemical University College London, 20-21 December 1982 Society Symposium on ‘Biotechnology’, Includes Peter Dunnill’s Biochemical Society Biotechnology’. ‘first meeting’ effort at entitled a piece for ‘The Future the of E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 SECTION F NON-TEXTUAL MATERIAL, F.1, F.2 c.1952-1953, n.d. Photographs. Photograph of Crook inscribed on verso ‘Christmas 1952 or 3 at Mill Hill ...’ c.1952-1953 Unidentified group photograph E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 SECTION G BIOGRAPHICAL 3pp typescript biographical notes. Prepared specially for the collection by Crook's family. E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS ARNOLD, Ben H. ARTHUR GUINNESS SON & LTD BACH, Stefan Joseph BACON, John S.D. BADDILEY, Sir James BALDWIN, Ernest Hubert Francis BARD, B.J.A. BARNES, J.M. BAXTER, J.P. BENGER LABORATORIES LTD THE BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY C9; 6.10 A.15, A.24-A.26 A.12 A.11, A.12, A.14 A.50 A.6, A.43 A.3 A.10 C.5 A.13 E.9 See also C.3 BRITISH FILTERS LTD CHAIN, Sir Ernst Boris CHIBATA, Ichiro COLLINS, H. John COOK, Arthur Herbert C.4 C.13 A.10 See C.7 C.13 A.11 BRITISH DRUG HOUSES LTD BOOTS PURE DRUG CO. LTD AS Ore ets A.6, A.10, A.27, A.28, A.41, A.43, A:46) ASO, A:52; @:5) 6.6, C14 See also A.34, A.44, A.49, C.12 THE DISTILLERS’ COMPANY C.8 See also C.7 C.8 See also C.7 A.10, A.11 DENBIGH, Kenneth George DAGLEY, Stanley A.13 DONALD, Maxwell Bruce DUNNILL, Peter E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 ELSDEN, Sidney Reuben EVANS, Sir Ifor FARNELL CARBONS LIMITED FOGG, Gordon Elliott GADEN, Elmer L., Jr GRANT, James Kerr GREENBAUM, Abraham Leslie GRZYBOWSKI, Andrew GUHA, B.C. HEDEN, Carl-Goran Index of correspondents A.10, A.14 A.6 A.10 C.4, C.5 C.4, C.5, C.10, C.16 A.10 A.10 See also A.6 See A.6 C8614 See also C.7 C.8, C.12 See also C.7, C.13 HERDMAN, N.A. A.28 C2 Cals HORNBY, William E. HUGHES, D.E. JONES, Sir Ewart Ray Herbert JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD A.10, A.11 A.19, A.20 HIMSWORTH,, Sir Harold Percival INTERSCIENCE PUBLISHERS, INC. A.19, A.20 A.6, A.7 See also A.31, A.32 C.5-C.15 C.16, C.18 D.3 A.10, A.14 MARRIAN, Guy Frederic KREBS, Sir Hans Adolf LENHARD, G.H.G. LILLY, Malcolm Douglas E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL MILLS, Arthur Kelman MIZSEI, Antal MORAN, Thomas MORGAN, William Thomas James Index of correspondents A.11, A.17-A.20, D.1 See also A.25 A.15, A.24-A.26, C.5, C.8 C.14 C.4 A.46 NATIONAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION A.3 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PAINTER, H.A. PANCREOL LTD PETERS, Sir Rudolph Albert PIERPOINT, W.S. C.14 C7, C8 A.10 A.12 A.13, A.14 PIRIE, Norman Wingate UW le, EB, RALPH, Bernhard J. REECE, Murray Cyril C.4,C.5 G5, C:6 Gia See also C.13 POPUJAK, George Josepf PROSKAUER, E.S. A.10 A.11 RIRG, SJ PIVNAK, H. C.4-C.6, C.16 See also C.15 E.G RESEARCH ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH FLOUR-MILLERS C.4-C 7, C10; C12, Gls, C6 A.3, A.41 C.6, C.8 ROLINSON, G.N. ROSBAUD, Paul ROWE, Peter Noel RYDON, Henry Norman C5 A.7, A.34 C5; 6:8 See also C.7 E.M. Crook NCUACS 147/4/06 Index of correspondents THE SHARPLES CORPORATION SHOOTER, Eric Manvers SMITH, KLINE & FRENCH LABORATORIES C.16 A.6 A.40 STEVENS, LANGER, PARRY & ROLLINSON (Patent Agents) A.11-A.13 TANNER, J.M. TEPEWMSKYs D:R: TRAIN, David UNILEVER LTD VALE Tee: WATERMAN, H.1. WEBB, Frederick Charles A.51 See A.3 C.4 C.4 C.12 C.5 EM See also A.44 A.27, A.36 WIX, G. WHITEHALL FOUNDATION INC. C:7