CHAIN, Ernst Boris Vol2

Published: 16 January, 2024  Author: admin


THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Report on the correspondence and papers OF SIR ERNST BORIS CHAIN (1906 - 1979) biochemist deposited in the Contemporary Medical Archives Centre, London COSAC S2/G/e3) Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, Reproduced for the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre No: 83/7 THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Quality House, Quality Court, Chancery Lane, London cWGZA -TiHP 1983 All rights reserved CSAC 92/3/83 CONTEMPORARY SCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE British National Committee for the History of Science, Medicine and Technology under the guidance of the Royal Society’s Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of SIR ERNST BORIS CHAIN FRS (1906 - 1979) VOLUME II Sections F - J Compiled by: Jeannine Alton and Julia Latham- Jackson All rights reserved Deposited in the Contemporary Medical Archives Centre, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London 1983 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 SECTION F INDUSTRIAL CONSULTANCIES AND COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH F.1 - F.346 INTRODUCTION AND LIST OF CONTENTS Section F reflects Chain's continuing contact with a wide range of industrial firms. Although not all of the companies listed here had a formal consultancy agreement with him, most of them sought his advice at one time or another and they have been included as part of the general picture of industrial collaboration. The largest group of papers (F.44 - F.174) relates to Chain's consultancy with the Beecham Group which culminated in 1959 with the isolation of 6-amino- penicillanic acid (the 'nucleus' of the penicillin molecule). Chain continued to be associated with the Beecham Group until his death in 1979 and the surviving papers document the extent of his involvement with the expansion of their research effort after 1959 as well as his friendly personal contacts, particularly with H.G. Lazell (Chairman 1958 - 68). Attention is also drawn to the very full record of Chain's collaboration with D:, 127° = 1%. .130, Inevitably, with so many contacts in the industrial world, Chain was often collection is rather patchy. at Imperial College. Correspondence re the negotiation and administration of such collaborative projects is to be found both here (see the references to this Many of Chain's contacts with industry resulted in the funding of collabora- Astra from 1948 to 1957, a period for which documentation in other parts of the tive research projects conducted in his laboratory, both in Rome and, particularly, Section under 'Imperial College’ in the General Index) and in Section D, especially appropriate. responsible for initiating collaborative projects between the various firms with whom he was associated. Such links are noted, but not generally cross-referenced in the catalogue entries which follow. Instead, each firm is included in the General Index with a list of references to this and other sections of the catalogue where E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research see NESTLE AC'CENT INTERNATIONAL INC. ADVISORY SERVICES (CLINICAL & GENERAL) LTD. AFICO LTD. ALTHEA S.p.A. AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY ANIC S.p.A. ANTIBIOTICOS S.A. ASSORENI ASTRA BAYER BEECHAM GROUP LTD. BIOCHEMIE GMBH BRISTOL LABORATORIES INC, BRITISH PETROLEUM (BP) BRITISH PETROLEUM (BP) PROTEINS LTD. CALMIC LTD. CARLO ERBA CIBA-GEIGY LTD. COGER S.p.A. CYANAMID OF GREAT BRITAIN LTD. EDWARDS HIGH VACUUM ENI (ENTE NAZIONALE IDROCARBUR!) FARMITALIA FISONS LTD. GALENIKA GRUNENTHAL (CHEMIE GRUNENTHAL GMBH) HINDUSTAN ANTIBIOTICS LTD. HOECHST (FARBWERKE HOECHST AG) IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES LTD. (1.C.1.) T T O E T e T t e e t a 8 x) 10 a 12-F.4] 42, F.43 44-F 174 175 .176-F.178 179 .180, F.181 .182 .183 .184 .185 .186 .187 .188-F. 190 .191-F. 200 .201 .202 ,203-F.211 .212-F.215 .216-F. 218 .219-F, 227 .228 £229 e e e e ISF S.p.A. ISRAEL PENICILLIN AND BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS CO, ISTITUTO SIEROTERAPICO E VACCINOGENO TOSCANO "SCLAVO"S.p.A. F230 R T S L T T a a a t T E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research LEPETIT S.p.A. LILLY RESEARCH LABORATORIES, ELI LILLY AND CO, MARKS AND SPENCER LTD. MERCK SHARP & DOHME MONTECATINI EDISON S.p.A. (later MONTEDISON) NATIONAL DRUG COMPANY NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL COMPANY (N.1.0.C.) NESTLE ALIMENTANA S.A, PFIZER (CHAS. PFIZER & CO. INC.) PFLEGER (DR. R. PFLEGER CHEMISCHE FABRIK PULLMAN ASSOCIATES GMBH GMS8H) .231-F. 233 234, F235 .236-F .251 .252-F . 257 .258-F . 267 268 .269-F 281 .282-F . 292 .293-F 297 .298-F .310 £311 310, R213 .314-F 324 e N e a e e t e A a d e e e a e e e e e 1325 326 aoe .328-F .330 .331 . 332 see —USV RANK PRECISION INDUSTRIES LTD. RANKS HOVIS McDOUGALL LTD. REVLON INC. RICHARDSON-MERRELL INC, ROCHE PRODUCTS LTD. LABORATO IRE ROGER BELLON SANDOZ LTD. SCIAVO:. see |. 'F.230 INDUSTRIELLE DU FROID) see = AC'CENT INTERNATIONAL UPJOHN INTERNATIONAL INC, USIFROID (SOCIETE D'UTILISATION SCIENTIFIQUE ET LABORATORI BIOCHIMICO-FARMACEUTICI SMIT SMITH KLEINE & FRENCH LABORATORIES LTD. WM. UNDERWOOD CO, USV PHARMACEUTICAL CORPORATION WESTFALIA SEPARATOR LTD. WALLACE LABORATORIES 333, F.334 335 .336-F . 342 .343, F.344 345 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research AC'CENT INTERNATIONAL INC, W7I=73; A979 Chain was introduced to the President of Ac'cent's parent company, Wm. Underwood Co. by S.A. Goldblith in October 1971, andasa resu!t he invited Chain to visit Ac'cent's fermentation plant at San José, California, in January 1972. as a basis for several further discussions, but in August 1973 Wm. Underwood Co. negotiated the sale of Ac'cent to the Stauffer Chemical Company. Chain's report on this visit was used Correspondence (mainly with President, Wm. Underwood Co.) re arrangements for Chain's visit to San José. Includes one letter from the President of Ac'cent with miscellaneous background information on personnel, production processes, etc. Chain's 8 pp. typescript ‘Report on Visit to the Ac'cent MSG Plant in San José, California! (on 10 and 11 January 1972), with miscellaneous letters to President, Wm. Underwood Co. and others. ADVISORY SERVICES (CLINICAL & GENERAL) LTD. 1971 -7451977-79 Correspondence with the Presidents of Wm. Underwood Co. and Ac'cent, January 1972-September 1973 (and one letter, 1979). Includes various arrangements for meetings, 1972, and announcement of Wm. Underwood Co.'s decision to sell Ac'cent in 1973. Correspondence from the Managing Director (R. Kohn), including copies of letters to colleagues at Farmitalia, Carlo Erba and Nestlé re various scientific investigations undertaken by his company. contain arrangements with Chain for musical and social activities. July 1973-January 1974, 1977, 1979 Many of the letters also January 1971-April 1973 May 1973 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research ALTHEA S.p.A. 1955 Correspondence, April-July 1955, re problems experienced with a tomato concentrate, marketed under the brand name "Fiordagosto'. AMERICAN CYANAMID COMPANY 1968-69 Chain acted as expert witness for the Company in patent infringement proceedings. Correspondence with patent agents and legal representa- tives. other related papers. Includes Chain's draft 'Proof of Evidence', and ANIC S.p.A. 1978 Brief correspondence and report on interferon research in Japan. See also ENI. ASSORENI le societa 1979 1959, 1961, 1969 ANTIBIOTICOS, S.A. Brief correspondence only. and future visits by Chain to the Antibioticos laboratories. 1969 letter refers to past (Associazione per la ricerca scientifica fra del Gruppo EN1) further progress of the project, June 1979. Reports in English and Italian of meeting in London, April 1979, to discuss 'ENI Interferon Project', brief corres- pondence re visit to Rome in May, and letter outlining E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research R, t24F 41 ASTRA 1948-79 The documentation for the very Chain's first contacts with Astra appear to date from the end of 1945, although his formal collaboration began in 1946 (see F.12). early period is unfortunately rather sparse, but from mid- 1948 until the end of 1957 there is a very full range of correspondence relating mainly to the development of penicillin production processes. exchanges of information, laboratory specimens and results, drawings of equipment, arrangements for meetings and visits and a little personal correspondence. The material includes After 1958 the surviving papers are very sparse (Chain's carbons only, 1958-59 and less than half a dozen letters for the whole of the 1960s), but there is a further sequence from 1976-79 when Chain was asked to advise on Astra's proposed links with Iran. The brochure 'Astra and Antibiotics', a draft of which is now at F.38, includes photographs of Chain and a summary account of his collaboration with the Astra Group. See also K.5. The letters are numbered 3 letters from E. Sperber, June-July 1948, with details of fermentation runs and arrangements for Chain to visit the Astra laboratories in August. 3 letters from B. SjSgren and H. Berlin, April and July 1946, re detailed planning of penicillin plant and arrange- ments for meeting in Oxford. L, 2.and 5. for information. Correspondence with Sperber and Sj&gren, October 1948- January 1949. December and letter from Sj8gren enclosing summary of discussions during Chain's visit and report on subsequent experiments. Summaries of further discussions at Astra laboratories on research in progress, January-February 1949, sent to Chain Also included is a letter from H. Berlin thanking Chain for past collaboration and | p. ms. notes. Includes arrangements for visit by Chain in E.Bz-@hain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research _Correspondence with Sj&gren and Sperber, February- April 1949, including comments and reports on fermenta- tion runs. Correspondence May-July 1949, mainly re penicillin patents. Includes arrangements for visit by Chain in August. Correspondence September-December 1949, mainly re details of penicillin production process. cussion of possible collaboration with the Czechoslovakian Government. Includes dis- Correspondence February-June 1950, re progress with penicillin production and methods of air filtration. Includes personal letter from H. Berlin. Correspondence July-November 1950. Includes arrange- ments for a visit to Rome by Sperber in September and for Chain's visit to Stockholm with Professor Marotta and his daughter in December. Correspondence February-November 1951. — Includes exchange re difficulty of obtaining Podbielniak extractors and arrangements for visit to Rome by Sjégren in October. Includes arrange- See also F.25. Includes related ms. and typescript notes and Correspondence April-December 1952. ments for visit by Chain in September, negotiations re royalties on sales of benamide penicillin and discussion of possible co-operation with the Danish company Roskilde. Correspondence January-February 1953, mainly re arrangements for meeting in Copenhagen to discuss co-operation with Roskilde. diagrams. penicillin reports. Correspondence March-December 1953, re arrangements for meetings and visits, details of penicillin production, etc. Correspondence re penicillin patents, June~December 1953. Further correspondence re penicillin patents, January-June 1954. a visit to Sweden in March, and extracts from 2 wartime Includes arrangements for Chain to give evidence during E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research Correspondence, April -October 1954, mainly re details of penicillin production process. Correspondence, November 1954-January 1955, including arrangements for visit to the Astra laboratories by A. Tonolo andR. Falini to advise on penicillin production problems, and related correspondence. Correspondence, February-December 1955. ments on fermentation results, more re penicillin patents, and arrangements for ordering copies of the 10-litre fermenters used in Chain's laboratory in Rome. Includes com- Correspondence, January-June 1956. correspondence with Italian firm supplying the fermenters and arrangements for visit to the Astra laboratories by G. Gualandi to make aeration measurements. Includes copies of Correspondence, July-December 1956. of Gualandi's results and further correspondence with firm supplying the fermenters. Includes evaluation These are Chain's Correspondence, June-November 1957. re award of Nobel Prize to D. Bovet (see also C.53). Includes brief exchange Correspondence, January-May 1957. Includes drawings of fermentation equipment and arrangements for a Swiss micro- biologist to work for 3 months in Chain's laboratory before taking up employment at Astra. Correspondence, January 1958-December 1959. second copies of Chain's letters only as the original Astra file for this period does not seem to have survived. letter of 19 December refers to the discovery of penicin in the Beecham Research Laboratories and subsequent correspondence comments on the progress of negotiations for research collabora- tion between Astra and the Beecham Group. is also included here. Brief correspondence with B. Sj&berg, 1973 (request to see Chain during a visit to London) and 1975 (invitation to Chain to come to Astra during visit to Sweden in December). A letter from Sj&gren's widow following his death in 1973 Correspondence, 1960-64 and n.d. only, mainly from Sj&gren. research in collaboration with the Beecham Research Laboratories. Includes several references to A few scattered letters E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research Correspondence with SjSberg and others, 1976, mainly re Astra's activities in lran. Draft brochure describing Astra's antibiotic activities, sent to Chain for approval, August 1976. to the company's early collaboration with Chain in developing methods of penicillin production. The text refers Correspondence, January-November 1977, mainly re Astra's negotiations with the Iranian authorities, including draft proposal for collaboration, June 1977. Correspondence, May-August 1977, re invitation to Chain to be present at the Award of the Astra prize in Brazil. Correspondence, 1978-79, including draft letter frorn Chain to the Iranian Army Health Department, January 1978, advocating collaboration with Astra. r, 42° F045 BAYER 00-7 | F.42 Chain's letter of 29? December 1958 discusses terms on which he would act as a consultant to Bayer. Correspondence 1963 re priority in the discovery of enzymatic penicillin splitting is also included. Correspondence, 1969-71, re interviews for a biographical article on Chain for publication in 'Therapeutische Correspondence, 1958-59, re arrangements for construction in Chain's laboratories of an instrument for the measure- ment of dissolved oxygen in agitated fermentation liquids in the presence of microorganisms. Berichte’. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research F.44-F.174 BEECHAM GROUP LIMITED Chain's association with the Beecham Group began at the instigation of Sir Charles Dodds who introduced him to H.G. Lazell (Managing Director, later Chairman of the Beecham Group) in 1955, The result was a very fruitful collaboration culminating in 1959 with the isolation of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (the 'nucleus' of the penicillin molecule) which made possible the development of a whole series of new synthetic penicillins. Chain continued to act as consultant to Beechams until his death in 1979 and the company also sponsored various research projects and studentships at Imperial College. The following papers trace the development of his collaboration with Beechams and the expansion of their research effort after 1959. Unfortunately some files have been lost and there are gaps for whole years (e.g. 1956, 1957) or parts of years (e.g. November 1960-June 1961). The material is presented more or less chronologically, with the exception of correspondence with Lazell and his successor, Sir Ronald Edwards, which has been kept separate and now appears at F.169-F.174. F.44 For material relating to conferences and symposia organised by the Beecham Group and attended by Chain, see J.77-J.80, J.99-J.111, J.112. Letter from E.C. Dodds, 27 April 1955, suggesting a meeting with Chain, |. Heilbron and members of the Beecham Group (H.G. Lazell - Managing Director, W. McGeorge - Director in charge of research, and J. Farquharson - Director of the research laboratories) to discuss citric and tartaric acid production. lining his proposals for collaboration with the Beecham Group. Includes arrangements for meeting in London, ms. notes and letters re tartaric acid production, andarrangements for meetings in Rome in June and July. Correspondence with McGeorge and others, June-July 1955. Includes arrangements for visits to Rome, letters of thanks from McGeorge and Heilbron and letter from Chain, out- Correspondence with Dodds and McGeorge, May 1955. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research Correspondence with McGeorge, August-September 1955. Mainly re arrangements for visit to London by Chain for further discussions. English and Italian versions of technical data prepared in Chain's laboratory as a basis for his discussions with Beechams in September (see F.47). costing for a 'Fermentation Plant of Six Stainless Steel Fermenters (each of a capacity of 30,000 L culture fluid)’. Includes a detailed Correspondence with McGeorge and Dodds, September- October 1955. Mainly re organisational details connected with the establishment of research facilities in the field of chemical microbiology and plans for penicillin production. Corres- pondence with Dodds includes a discussion of acquired resistance to penicillin. Correspondence with McGeorge and others, November 1955. Includes arrangements for Chain to visit the Beecham Research Laboratories at Brockham Park and correspondence arising from discussions during this visit. Correspondence with McGeorge, December 1955. Detailed financial estimates, March 1956. ‘Microbiological Project for Beecham Research Laboratories Ltd.' Mainly re arrangements for recruiting and training of staff for the new Beecham research team. Includes drafts of letter from Mc George to Professor Marotta re scheme for training Beecham scientists in Chain's laboratory in Rome. twins). There is no correspondence with Beechams for 1956 or 1957 apart from the mainly personal exchanges at F.53 below. Letters from McGeorge, July-October 1957. Mainly personal correspondence. from Farquharson (congratulations on the birth of Chain's Includes one letter E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, January 1958. letter from Farquharson reporting on research Includes 8 pp. in progress in the Microbiological Division of Beecham Research Laboratories anda 5 pp. typescript 'Aims of the research project ... on the production of penicillins with improved properties by suitable modifications of the penicillin molecule’. Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, February-March 1958. te research projects on antibiotics and on production of ascorbic acid from blackcurrant pectin. and report from V.L.S. Charley re the latter. Includes letter Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, April-May 1958. re arrangements for meeting at Brockham Park, progress of the ascorbic acid project and draft memorandum of the Food Standards Committee on Glucose Beverages (see also Foor). Letter of comment from Dodds is also included in the folder. Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, June-July 1958. re various research projects in progress. ms. notes by Chain. Includes some Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, September-October 1958. ‘Comments on Draft Report on Soft Drinks by the Food Standards Committee of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food'. 2 typescript drafts. p-Aminobenzylpenicillin' by Chain and others. Includes agenda for discussion on 12 September, arrange- ments for meeting in October, and 2 pp. typescript by Chain ‘Some comments of [sic] the use of radioactive sugars in the glucose research programme’. re research projects on antibiotics and glucose metabolism. Includes draft paper on ‘Penicillin Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, November 1958. cerivatives of E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research Correspondence with Farquharson, McGeorge and others, December 1958. re work on antibiotics and glucose metabolism. 2 pp. memorandum by G.N. Rolinson on future objectives in 'Penicin-Penicillin Work' and 3 pp. note by $. Johnson and F.R. Batchelor on 'Inhibition of Penicillinase by Triphenylacety! Derivative of Penicin (AB. 1071)'. Includes See also F. 34, Correspondence with McGeorge and others, January 1959. Mainly re the report of the Food Standards Committee on Soft Drinks. A.H. Douthwaite commenting on the report. from McGeorge, 30 January, also refers to negotiations re manufacture of synthetic penicillins with various companies in America. Includes draft letters from Chain, Dodds and Ms. letter Correspondence with Farquharson, McGeorge and others, February 1959, Mainly re work on glucose metabolism. "Progress Notes' by F.R. Batchelor on various projects in the Microbiological Department of the Beecham Research Laboratories, and arrangements for visit We Lis. Charley. Includes 5 pp. to Rome by Correspondence with McGeorge and others, March 1959. Includes draft announcements in English and Italian of the successful production by Beechams of the basic nucleus of penicillin (6-aminopenicillanic acid) and further draft of letter from Chain re the Food Standards Committee Report on Soft Drinks. With covering letter to Chain from F.P. Doyle. Correspondence with McGeorge and others, April 1959. Includes copy of press release in U.K. and U.S.A. re collaboration with Bristol Laboratories (q.v.) in production of synthetic penicillins. Reports by two members of the Beecham Group as follows: ‘Report on a Visit to the United States during the period Ist-16th April 1959', by F.P. Doyle. "Report of Discussions with Members of Bristol Laboratories at Syracuse, New York', by G.N. Rolinson. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research Correspondence with McGeorge, May 1959. Mainly re methods of tartaric acid production and progress in collaboration with Bristol Laboratories. announcement of a change in the structure of the Beecham Group to allow for the expansion of the Research Laboratories. Includes an Correspondence with Farquharson, McGeorge and C.D.W. Stafford, June-July 1959. Mainly re tartaric acid production and negotiations with Farmitalia and Astra re production of synthetic penicillins. Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, July-August 1959. Mainly re progress in production of new penicillins and negotiations re Cephalosporin C. Includes letter from Farquharson re invitation to Chain to take part ina symposium at Bristol Laboratories. Correspondence with Farquharson, McGeorge and R.J.L. Allen, September 1959. te penicillin research, visit to Bristol laboratories, death of Sir lan Heilbron, negotiations with Farmitalia, and ‘slimming’ qualities of PLJ. Correspondence with Farquharson, McGeorge and R.J. Allen, November 1959. re progress in work on penicillins and glucose research. Includes 2 reports by Allen on glucose projects. Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, December 1959. re penicillin, including negotiations with Astra and others, and Cephalosporin C. the folder. ‘Quantitative Radiopaperchromatographic Studies on the Absorption of Sugars from the Isolated Surviving Rat Small Intestine’. Draft of paper by Chain, K.R.L. Mansford and F. Pocchiari, December 1959. Correspondence with McGeorge, January 1960, with suggestions for alterations to the draft, is also included in E. Be Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, January 1960. Mainly re work on penicillins and negotiations with Farmitalia. Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, February 1960, Mainly re progress of penicillin work. from McGeorge for an account by Chain of the early history of penicillin. Includes request 19 pp. typescript ‘Annotations to the history of the penicillin discovery published in "Antibiotics" (... Oxford University Press, 1949)', sent with covering letter to McGeorge, 23 February 1960. For other accounts by Chain of the history of the penicillin work at Oxford, see B.61-B.92. ‘The Story of the New Penicillins' 8 pp. typescript draft by McGeorge, sent to the London Press Exchange Ltd., 23 February 1960. Folder also includes draft of Beecham Research Laboratories brochure on the new penicillins. Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, March 1960. A further draft of 'The Story of the New Penicillins' incor- porating Chain's additions and sent to him by McGeorge, 10 March 1960, is also included in the folder. 5 pp. typescript on 'The Problem of the Penicillin Resistant Staphylococcus' and 3 pp. describing Chain's initial collaborative work with Beechams, both sent to McGeorge, 4 March 1960. See also F.81. Mainly re progress of penicillin work and negotiations with Farmitalia. and reports on penicillin and other research. Includes copies of correspondence re 'Broxil' Correspondence with Farquharson and McGeorge, April 1960. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research "Man-Made Penicillins. Research Laboratories Ltd.' An Achievement of Beecham Ath draft of typescript describing the story of the new penicillins, sent to Chain by McGeorge, 12 April 1960. Correspondence with Farquharson, McGeorge and Stafford, May~-October 1960. Includes arrangements for meetings and visits and discussion of the content of forthcoming lectures by Chain on the new penicillins. Correspondence and papers, July and October 1961. Includes letter from McGeorge, 31 October, enclosing a copy of the Patent Office Decision on H.S, Burton versus ‘his colleagues' re assignment of the patent for Cephalospirin N. See also K.22-K.25. Correspondence, November-December 1961. Chain's carbons only, with the exception of brief notes from Farquharson and G.N. Rolinson. Figen F396 March-April Aujen, Wa dae k, Correspondence with members of the Beecham Group, 1962. re amount of caffeine in an average cup of coffee. From 1962 the record of Chain's collaboration with Beechams is more diverse, both in number of correspondents and spread of subject-matter, and it is therefore presented year by year, with a brief indication of subject-matter. July-December Doyle succeeded Farquharson (q.v.) as Director of Research at Brockham Park in March. Corres pondence is mainly re arrangements for meetings, research planned and in progress and publication of penicillin story. re antibiotics used in treatment of typhoid. Includes a report ona visit to Rome by Croydon to discuss trials of Beecham preparations in Sardinia. Croydon, E. A. Pr; F.87, F.88 Doyle, FE. By March-December March~May March- June E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research Farquharson, J. January-March re meetings, publications policy, research, etc. Includes personal correspondence following the announcement of Farquharson's retirement as Director of Research for reasons of ill health. his wife following his death in 1964 is also included here. A letter from tO Paes McGeorge, W. January- November Includes copies of te research, meetings, etc. reports sent to McGeorge on 'Spartase' (January), "Impairment of Glucose Tolerance by Low Carbohydrate Diet’ (April) and research conference, October 1962, at which Chain gave the opening address. 'Fucidin' (May), and programme for January-March April- November Mallett, A. A. May-December See also F.100. Rolinsenioe > Ni June- September Mansford, K. — R. Li November-December re research equipment and experimental details. Includes drafts of a note on 'Glucose and Brain Metabolism', intended for publication in The Lancet. Includes reports on research planned and in progress, typescript draft of ‘Studies on Penicillinase Produced by a Strain of Staphylococcus Aureus’, by F.R. Batchelor, J. Cameron Wood, Chain and Rolinson, and note from Batchelor, 6 November, re submission of the typescript for publication in Proc. Roy. SG (Bibliog. 103). technology. Mainly re talk given by Chain at Journeés Bretonneaux (see J.39) and correspondence with M. Barber (see K.8). re research, meetings, and development of fermentation SIOEGt. aar 6 Ea Wa March-October Wiking, to. i February- September E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research F.97¢-F. 103 Correspondence, 1963. In alphabetical order. F.97 Doyle, F. rs Janvary-October Arrangements for meetings and visits, reports on research. McGeorge, W. January-October re resistance to penicillin, research on brain metabolism, and negotiations for collaboration with A. Isaacs. Mallett, A. A. re BRL 700. October Manton, Wo RL, February, October Including further draft on 'Glucose and Brain Metabolism! (see also F.93). Rolinson, G. N. February-May re methods and results of research in progress. F.104-F.115 Stafford C . W., January- September Wilk ing; Gis as Mainly re tetracycline patents. Correspondence and papers, 1964. Mainly re resistance to penicillin. Includes some personal correspondence. In alphabetical order. this period does not appear to have survived. Correspondence from Chain for also £19); 3 folders containing data and printed matter are included at the end of the sequence. Mainly re work on penicillin allergy. letter re use of ampicillin against typhoid (see re fermentation problems. Carrington, T. R. February-November Doyle, : fa. - ee July-November July, October Includes E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research Gilby, J. cA. September re fermentation costs. Knudsen; E34 41. January, July Includes copy of memorandum on 'Penbritin in Acute Typhoid and Carriers’. McGeorge, W. April, May Includes press-cutting re penicillin allergy and letters from R.J.L. Allen and E. Stenton. Mallett, A. A. January, October re fermentation techniques. Rolinson, G. oN. July Enclosing typescript of paper by M.O. Moss. stafford, Ga DoW, July, August Includes press-cutting re the drug industry. Wilking; Gi. September-October Miscellaneous printed matter re American legislation on antibiotics. Reports and data, originally contained in folder labelled ‘Worthing Production Reports’. Miscellaneous typescript and printed matter re treatment of typhoid and salmonella with ampicillin (see also F.105). re licencing arrangements and invitation to meeting of the Canadian Pharmaceutical Manu~ facturers Association. on Bacterial Tomato Canker. The main correspondent is F.P. Doyle, often with informa- tion or enclosures for meetings of the Consultants Com- mittee of which Chain was a member. The material is presented chronologically. from Chain in the sequence. PAO SPoETS Correspondence and papers, 1965. .114 ae There are virtually no letters Januvary~April Includes note by R.J.L. Allen of discussion with J. Yudkin re sucrose and glucose and note by Doyle E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research May~August October-December Includes note from McGeorge re cholesterol levels and glucose, 3 pp. typescript 'Notes on the Use of Antibiotics in the Veterinary Field', and copy of letter to the Medical Research Council re virus research. rd feria a. Correspondence and papers, 1966 In chronological order. | There are no letters from Chain for this year. January-April Arrangements for meetings and visits, miscellaneous correspondence re research. May-August Includes invitation to speak at Beecham Representatives' Conference in October, report of meeting re Micro- bial Protein project at Imperial College, review of the South African ethical medicine market and miscellaneous correspondence re research. September- December In chronological order. January-April Fy 122“F 329 Correspondence and papers, 1967 Includes drafts of letter from Doyle to Chain re proposal of Beecham Research Laboratories to sponsor a research project at Imperial College on microbial metabolites, and miscellaneous correspondence re research. See also F.124. Includes draft affidavit by Chain for use in proceedings by the Beecham Group against Bristol Laboratories for infringement of hetacillin patents, a note on negotia- tions re liquid glucose with Ranks Hovis McDougall and miscellaneous correspondence re research and meetings. Includes correspondence re alleged cure for baldness discovered by Israeli scientists, copy of typescript on ‘Sucrose and Cariogenesis', and 2 memoranda on inter- feron sent to Chain for information, May-August E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research Correspondence re journey arrangements for collaboration between Beechams and Plantex of Natanya. to Israel, July 1967, to discuss September-December Includes correspondence te arrangements for work at Imperial College financed by Beecham Research Laboratories and letter from R.J.L. Allen re vitamin C and colds. F.126-F.128 Correspondence and papers, 1968 In chronological order. January-April Includes notes of discussion with M. Sela and others re collaboration with the Weizmann Institute and Yeda, correspondence and press~cuttings re infective drug resistance, and typescript on 'Vitamin C and the common cold', May-August September- December Correspondence and papers, 1968-70, sent to Chain as a member of Beechams' Agricultural Projects Consultants Committee. Most of these are concerned with the Report Includes 'Notes on Meetings at the Weizmann Institute, Israel, 23-26 May 1968', announcement of reorganisa- tion of research departments at Brockham Park, and miscellaneous correspondence re meetings and visits. Includes drafts of letter from Beechams offering to sponsor a three-year research project at Imperial College on the mode of action of penicillins, corres- pondence re grant for research on microbial metabolites (see D.127, D.128) and miscellaneous correspondence re research,meetings and visits. of the Joint Committee on Antibiotics in Animal Husbandry. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research Ps LO0eP hoe Correspondence and papers, 1969 In alphabetical order. Batchelor, F. R. July te proposed Penicillin Symposia in Australia. Sritioh, Ra te Ww, October re Consultants Committee Meetings. Brown, D. M. December re double~stranded (ds) RNA research. Cole, M. July re screening of microbial metabolites for insecticidal activity. Craydon, EE. A; < April Invitation to speak at symposium in New York. Dewdney, J. M. June- December Figo Naylér J. oh eG. F193, #134 movie. f, FP; January-December Miscellaneous correspondence re meetings, research, etc. Includes reports and notes of meetings re ds-RNA research. re organisation and funding of Beecham research project on 'Mode of action of penicillins', con- ducted at Imperial College. Enclosing research data. Rolinson, G. ON. March-December August December E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Industrial consultancies and collaborative research F.136-F.138 Smither, R. September-October 3 letters enclosing copies of evidence re action of Beecham Group Ltd. vs. Zenith Laboratories Inc. (over ampicillin patents), as follows: Letter of 17 September enclosing copy of transcript of Chain's deposition given on 2 September 1969. Letter of 14 October enclosing copies of affidavits by others for Chain's perusal. Letter of 23 October enclosing draft of ‘Second Affidavit of Ernst B. Chain' commenting on material in F.137. Stoo, Ge Be WwW, Personal correspondence. October Wilking? a" f. January-May re symposia in Moscow and Australia. 8 May contains some background information to the Beecham vs. Zenith case. Letter of Invitation to lecture. February-March F.140-F.145 Dewdney, J. M. March-August Croydon, £....A. i January Corrtigion,. 1.