CHAIN, Ernst Boris Vol1

Published: 16 January, 2024  Author: admin


THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Report on the correspondence and papers of SIR ERNST BORIS CHAIN (1906 - 1979) biochemist deposited in the Contemporary Medical Archives Centre, London (CSAC. 92/3/83) Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, Reproduced for the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre No 83/7 THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Quality House, Quality Court, Chancery Lane, London WC2A iHP 1983 All rights reserved CSAC 92/3/83 CONTEMPORARY SCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE British National Committee for the History of Science, Medicine and Technology under the guidance of the Royal Society’s Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of SIR ERNST BORIS CHAIN FRS (1906 - 1979) VOLUME | Compiled by: Jeannine Alton and Julia Latham- Jackson All rights reserved Deposited in the Contemporary Medical Archives Centre, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London List of Contents General Introduction Sections A - E 1983 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 The work of the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre, and the production of this catalogue, are made possible by the support of the following societies and institutions: The Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland The Biochemical Society The British Pharmacological Society The Charles Babbage Foundation for the History of Information Processing The Institute of Physics — The Nuffield Foundation The Physiological Society The Institution of Electrical Engineers The Royal Society of London E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 NOT ALL THE MATERIAL IN THE COLLECTION IS YET AVAILABLE FOR CONSULTATION. ENQUIRIES SHOULD BE ADDRESSED IN THE FIRST INSTANCE TO: THE ARCHIVIST, CONTEMPORARY MEDICAL ARCHIVES CENTRE, THE WELLCOME INSTITUTE FOR THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE, LONDON. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 LIST OF CONTENTS GENERAL INTRODUCTION SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL, A.1 - A.234 Aiki -A.6 General biographical information A.7 -A.174 Career, honours and awards A.175-A.217 Personal and family material A.218-A.234 Photographs and press-cuttings B.34-B.60 B.93-B.112 B.8 -B.14 Scientific correspondence, 1931-38 B.15-B.33 Penicillin: research, reports, B.61-B.92 Historical accounts of the discovery of Sti aBas Research notes and drafts, 1934-39 SECTION B RESEARCH AT CAMBRIDGE AND OXFORD, B.1 - B.112 Penicillin: lectures, drafts, publications Correspondence on the history of penicillin With an introductory note ISTITUTO SUPERIORE DI SANITA, ROME, C.1 - C.101 C.79-C. 101 Lectures and conferences Administrative correspondence, 1948-65 © foeG. ae The 'Marotta Case', 1965-66 Ct ee Chain's career at Istituto, 1947-65 C.28-C.65 ©. 66-G..78 Research projects SECTION C correspondence -penicillin With an introductory note E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 SECTION D IMPERIAL COLLEGE, LONDON, D.1 - D.168 D.1 -D.42 Appointment to the Chair of Biochemistry at Imperial College Correspondence and papers, 1953-64 D.43-D.74 Retirement and the future of the Depart- ment Correspondence and papers, 1972-79 With an introductory note D.75 -D.123 Department of Biochemistry, administrative correspondence, 1961-78 D.124-D.153_ Department of Biochemistry, research and teaching, 1962-79 D.154-D.168 General correspondence on departmental and college affairs SECTION E SECTION F SECTION G G.179-G.221 Introduction and list of contents RESEARCH, F.1 = F.346 Introduction and list of contents SOCIETIES AND ORGANISATIONS, E.1 - E.238 INDUSTRIAL CONSULTANCIES AND COLLABORATIVE lectures LECTURES, PUBLICATIONS, ADDRESSES, BROADCASTS, Published papers and bibliography Correspondence re publications and G.2 -G.125 Lectures, papers, addresses F, View Ss 22) G.1 G.126-G.155 Undated notes and drafts G.156-G.178 Radio and television E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 SECTION H ISRAEL AND JEWISH ORGANISATIONS, H.1 - H.141 Introduction and list of contents SECTION J VISITS AND CONFERENCES, J.1 - J.193 Introduction to Section J SECTION K GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, K.1 - K.34] With an introductory note LIST OF PUBLICATIONS INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS, ORGANISATIONS AND FIRMS E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 GENERAL INTRODUCTION PROVENANCE The collection, which is very extensive, was received from Lady Chain who had assembled it from Sir Ernst's rooms at Imperial College, London, and from their London home. With the assistance of her family and of Miss Vera Owen, Sir Ernst's secretary at the time of his death, she had undertaken a preliminary survey of the material and removed from it ephemera, journals and entirely family material. She had also attempted to make contact with acquaintances of Chain and the Chain family in the hope of tracing more records of his early life, as a result of which the letters to Lola Sarsowsky and Vera Katz were made available and now appear at A.200, A.200a. DESCRIPTION OF THE COLLECTION will be made here at a detailed biographical account. to do no more than furnish a guide to the contents of the manuscript collection, some of which may be less well known than certain familiar episodes. Additional expla- nafory notes accompany the relevant entries in the body of the catalogue. The paragraphs below aim Much has already been written about Chain's career and work, and no attempt most obvious signs of all these movements is the polyglot nature of the documents. fered from the vicissitudes of politics and war. already left his native Russia for Berlin where Chain was born in 1906, and his death in 1919 inflicted hard times on the family; Chain's mother and sister, whom he sup- ported as best he could from his earnings in Britain during the Thirties, disappeared without trace during the Second World War; he himself, after making a home and participating in the great research project on penicillin in Oxford, emigrated once more to Rome for many years before returning to work in London. More even than most Jewish scientists of his generation, Chain's career suf- His father, Michael Chain, had One of the E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Throughout his life Chain continued to write in Russian and, more frequently, in German. English became his language of choice (even, sometimes, when replying to German correspondents) and he also wrote and spoke fluently in French. It remarkable to notice how rapidly he made himself familiar with Italian, writing letters and speeches and giving research talks in that language within a few months of taking up his post inRome. This linguistic facility can be seen throughout the is collection. Although, for obvious reasons, so little survives relating to Chain's immediate family (see A.201 - A. 205), he himself enjoyed a close and affectionate domestic family life, with his cousin Anna Sacharina, another émigrée for whom special per- mission was obtained to come to Britain to look after him and who shared his roof (wherever it was) for the rest of her life (A.206 - A.212), and with Anne Beloff whom he married in 1948 and who shared his work and interests (A. 189). Many of the letters throughout the 1950s testify to their happiness and joy in the birth of their three children. is interesting also to note their pleasure in the tranquil solitude of Western Ireland where they built a holiday home and where Chain died in 1979 (A.191). It Mention should be made of Chain's love of music and his skill as a pianist. indispensable appurtenance of his hotel accommo- His pianos are often mentioned, whether as an essential working tool to support his family in the harsh Berlin days, an dation on an overseas conference (J.166) or part of the household effects requiring an import licence to Ireland. | As a young man, Chain had, it seems, seriously contemplated a career in music, whether as soloist or as impressario, and it remained an active principle of calm and balance in his life. declined to accept consultancy fees from close Jewish friends (F.242). is of interest to note that he arranged for many of his lecturing and broadcasting Altogether more vital, however, was the Jewish faith which underpinned his References may be found passim but the whole of Section H is devoted existence. to Israel and Jewish organisations, notably the Weizmann Institute of Science, where Chain was a governor and had at one time considered taking up an appointment. It fees to be given to the London Synagogue or other Jewish charities, and that he E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Chain's scientific career is for many synonymous with the research and develop- This great achievement, so unhappily marred by various strained ment of penicillin for which he shared with Fleming and Florey the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1945. relationships and conflicts of view, and remaining still a matter of controversy, is documented in Section B although unfortunately no first-hand material survives in the way of laboratory notebooks, experimental observations and the like. stantial records relating to Chain's career at Rome (Section C) and at Imperial College, London (Section D) give a fuller account (mainly through research grant applications and progress reports) of his continuing contributions to several biochemical problems such as carbohydrate metabolism, ergot alkaloids, edible protein, aeration studies, etc. Also of interest inSection D are the records of the early negotiations for the creation - administrative, financial and architectural - of the Department of Biochemistry at Imperial College, and of its development after Chain's statutory retirement in 1973. The sub- A considerable amount of additional information about Chain's lifelong active research should be sought in Sections E and F, since much was done as collaborative work under consultancy agreements with industrial firms (see especially Astra, Beechams, Ranks Hovis MacDougall) or with funding from various government and charitable organisations (see especially the British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research Campaign, Medical Research Council). The writing, lecturing, travel and attendance at conferences concomitant with Chain's position as an acknowledged leading figure in the scientific world are docu- mented in Sections G (Lectures and Writings) and J (Visits and Conferences). The former (Section G) includes a very substantial number of unpublished talks, addresses and papers, and also drafts and versions of published papers additional to those listed in the Bibliography compiled at Chain's death (G.1 and pp.340-361). Although Chain did not regularly keep drafts of published papers once they'had appeared in print, the multiple manuscript and typescript versions which have by chance survived in some cases, testify to the care he took in the preparation even of relatively short informal speeches or writings - and indeed occasionally of 'spontaneous' or ‘unprepared! remarks. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Possibly as the son of an industrial chemist, Chain always argued strongly for the forging of strong links - and well-defined frontiers of interest - between govern- ment, universities and industry. This was indeed one of the principal causes of the painful disagreements within the Oxford team over the development of penicillin, and certainly Chain continued to write and lecture extensively on the theme through- out his life; see especially 'Social responsibility and the scientist in modern western society’ (1970), ‘Relationships between industrial and academic laboratories’ (1973), ‘The pharmaceutical sciences, government and the people' (1975). his argument was that government should provide the initial funding for research projects, universities should foster and guarantee absolute freedom of enquiry, and manufacturing industry should furnish the resources for the eventual exploitation of discovery. He practised what he preached, and in so doing earned a fearsome reputation for persistence whether in defence or opposition, both as a member of academic or official boards, grant-giving bodies or research councils (Section E) or as a consultant to industrial and pharmaceutical firms throughout the world. In broad terms Despite the wealth of material in the collection, lacunae remain, not sur- prisingly perhaps in view of Chain's many changes of workplace and the varying methods and efficiency of their secretariats. | Mention has already been made of the lack of first-hand research records especially up to and including the penicillin work. Equally unfortunate are the gaps in the correspondence files, which are most noticeable before 1945 but also occur sporadically after that date. | Some- times only Chain's carbons survive, e.g. for the period of the Second World War, and for 1948 when he was organising his move to Rome; some years are fully repre- sented in the remaining folders, e.g. 1958, 1959, 1963, some very sparsely, e.g. 1956, 1966-68, and some are almost completely missing, e.g. 1960. usually made in the relevant catalogue entries where gaps are found, but it notoriously more difficult to notice absence than presence, and some may have been missed. The index includes individuals, organisations, societies and firms. A note is is E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 FURTHER MATERIAL Lady Chain retains some personal correspondence. A biography of Chain has been commissioned and is to be written by R.W. Clark. Mr. Clark has kindly agreed to deposit with the present collection the material assembled in the course of his research. This will eventually be incorporated at the end of Section A. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our main debt is to Lady Chain and her family, for their initial work on the collection, for continuing encouragement and advice throughout the work, and for comments on the draft catalogue. We are also indebted to: Sir William Dunn School at Oxford Professor P.F. Ganz and Miss U. Horstmann, for dating and identifying material in German Russian Dr. C.M. MacRobert, for identifying and providing summaries of material in Dr. N.G. Heatley and Dr. T.1. Williams, for information about the work at the Mrs. M.M. Edwards, for careful and accurate typing. EB. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 SECTION A BIO GRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL A.1 - A. 234 A. b= AG GENERAL BIO GRAPHICAL INFORMATION BT oo ATS CAREER, HONOURS AND AWARDS A.175 - A.217 PERSONAL AND FAMILY MATERIAL A.218 - A.234 PHOTO GRAPHS AND PRESS-CUTTINGS GENERAL BIO GRAPHICAL INFORMATION Miscellaneous biographical notes prepared by Chain at various dates. Miscellaneous accounts of his research activities prepared by Chain at various dates. elsewhere in the collection but are assembled here for ease of reference. Some of these are duplicated Includes 3 pp. notes prepared for a Beecham Symposium, 1970, and 2 pp. reply to a request for information received from R. Robinson who was writing his auto- biography, 1973. College Directory. Includes 7 pp. typescript 'Sequence of events which led to my scientific activities in Italy at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita; 2 pp. summary of 'Research Activities'; 14 pp. account of 'Research carried out in the Fermentation Pilot Plant from 1966-1972'. List (incomplete) of honours, awards, medals received by Chain. Miscellaneous notes of honours sent for inclusion in Imperial E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Articles and biographical accounts, as published in New Scientist, March 1959, Ahead, December 1969. Drafts for articles and biographical sketches prepared by journalists and researchers and submitted to Chain for comment. Includes draft of article in Ahead (in A.4 above) not identical with published version, 1969, and 3 pp. 'Profile' of Chain by M. Weisman for publication in Menorah, 1976. A.6 Obituary notices and tributes, 1979-80. A list (incomplete) of Chain's publications, prepared at Imperial College, is reproduced on pp. 340-361. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal A.7-A. 174 CAREER, HONOURS AND AWARDS In chronological order. For similar material, see also: D.3] | F.7S-6.75. E84, £.157. E.186)-£. 198, 6.004 E218 G.50, G.105 H.6-H.8, H.94 30, 597, 3.37,1.42, J. 60, -5:8\=1.82 3 186 Jes. A791, 178 K.15] Birth Certificate, Berlin 1906. School reports, 1920, 1924. 'Fest-Zeitung', humorous journal for end of term, 1922. German naturalisation certificate, 1928. Miscellaneous passes and identity cards, for University, Charité hospital, etc., Berlin, 1931-33. German exit pass to London, stamped 19 May 1933. Chain's passport, issued Berlin 8 October 1929, bearing visas for Argentina (1929), France, Belgium, Russia, Poland (all 1930) and first 'leave to land' stamp in Britain dated 2 April 1933. continue to 1935 and an unconditional 'leave to land' stamp is dated 26 November 1936. N.B. activities, see also A.175. The Argentina visa relates to Chain's musical Miscellaneous 'leave to land! stamps E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal A.14 Chain's Doctorate in absentia from Friedrich-Wilhelms- Universitdt, Berlin, May 1933. A.15-A.24 Material relating to Chain's arrival and arrangements to work in Britain. ATS A.16 Card from A. Szent-Gyérgyi, recommending Chain, n.d. Letter from A. McKenzie, 22 August 1932, inviting Chain to work in Dundee, and another letter, 21 April 1933, recommending him to R. Robinson and to the Rockefeller Foundation. Letter from H. Lieb re proposed participation by Chain in lecture course at Graz, October 1933. References for Chain from P. Rona (Director, Pathology Institute, Charité Hospital), March 1933. Also includes letter re Chain's grant, May-September 1933. letters re research, Draft of similar letter in Russian (addressee losif Borisoviten) te possibility of finding work in America. n.d. but similar to above. Two draft letters by Chain, addressee(s) unknown, one dated '5.1V' and both written immediately after arrival in Britain, requesting help in finding a place to continue planned programme of research on lecithin fermentation by enzymes. members of the Department in Chain's time. Correspondence, 1933, re arrangements for Chain to work in the Sir William Dunn Institute, Cambridge. Includes copy of Chain's letter to F.G. Hopkins (8 April) and letter from N.W. Pirie outlining arrangements for Chain's work (? September). Letter from Rockefeller Institute advising Chain to apply to Rockefeller Foundation for a fellowship, 21 April 1933. Letter from R.N. Salaman advising application to Joint Foreign Committee for financial help, 29 April 1933. Also included here is later correspondence, 1963, re retirement presents for Fred Johnson and Alf Cowell, E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Correspondence, 1933-35, with Jewish Refugees Committee and with the Liberal Jewish Synagogue re financial help for Chain. Shorter personal and scientific correspondence re early days in Britain, 1933-35. 'Arische und nichtarische Mathematik’. unknown) of article in ‘Deutsche Zukunft' by Biederbach, with a ms. note by Chain 'G.V. 12.4.34', and with a letter of introduction from L.J. Harris for Chain 'who is anxious that some of this unbelievably virulent literature should be shown to those in authority’. Summary (author Included here are two letters in Russian from a friend or colleague in Berlin about conditions in Germany (one letter dated May 1934). McRobert, 1982, is attached. A summary of the contents by Dr. M. An early copy of Der Sturmer, on Jewish ritual murder, c.1933-34, is also included here. Includes letter from F.G. Hopkins arranging viva and adding 'You need not fear the ordeal; merciful:'. we shall be very Brief correspondence re award of Ph.D., Cambridge, June 1935. Correspondence with the Academic Assistance Council and the Home Office re permission for Chain to remain in Britain, and the cancellation of time limit on his passport, 1935-36. sending money to his family in Germany. Two letters, 1935, re Chain's work on snake venom. Personal correspondence, 1935. Includes letter re Chain's EB. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Correspondence, 1935, re Chain's move to Oxford. letter from H.W. Florey arranging a meeting with Chain at Oxford (dated 16 July, no year), letter of farewell from D.D. Woods (26 September). Includes Also included here is a letter from N.G. Heatley saying that he 'should be very pleased, and honoured, to work with you, provided one or two small matters can be put right'. letter is dated ‘January 13th 1935' but this would seem to be an error for 1936. The Correspondence re visas for France, 1937, 1938. 1938 states that visas cannot be granted in the future. Letter of Shorter correspondence re grants for Chain's research from British Empire Cancer Campaign, etc., 1938. Shorter correspondence re support for Chain's mother, 1938-39, Miscellaneous items of biographical interest, invitations, shorter personal correspondence, 1930s. Certificate of proficiency, British Red Cross Society, 1938. Letter from A.R.P. Department, Oxford, declining Chain's offer of service in First Aid Section on the grounds that he was not a British subject. Chain's British Aliens Registration card, showing his first arrival at Harwich, 2 April 1933, and his various addresses in Cambridge and Oxford until his naturalisation 193?. Edinburgh, 1945. F.S.S.U. Agreement on appointment as Departmental Demonstrator, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, 20 February 1940. Invitation to Membership of Senior Common Room, University College, Oxford, April 1942. Certificate of Naturalization, issued 18 April 1939, and preliminary correspondence. Brief correspondence, 1943 and 1945, re Chain's salary. Letter re conferment of M.A. by decree, Oxford, 1945. Letter re Honorary Membership, Royal Medical Society of E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal A.41-A.55 Visit to America, July-November 1945. The group of U.K. scientists was headed initially by Sir Robert Robinson and included Dr. H. King. Chain visited and/or lectured at various universities, institutions and laboratories. of the scientific purpose of the visit. See A.41 for his own account Towards the end of his stay, was announced and there is some reference to this in the later correspondence. the award of the Nobel Prize See B.26-B.29 for letters from colleagues at Oxford reporting on penicillin work in progress during Chain's absence. See A. 207 for letters from Chain's cousin Anna Sacharina during this period. Copies and drafts of letters from Chain to (Secretary, Medical Research Council), April 1944 and March 1945. Sir Edward Mellanby Correspondence with Medical Research Council, British Commonwealth Scientific Office, etc. re visit, salary, etc. Letters of introduction, laisser-passer. Letter of 1944 urges the importance of fuller exchange of information between British and American scientists on penicillin synthesis. Letter and drafts of 1945 are re publication of material on penicillin purification, and re Chain's wish to visit America 'to become acquainted with the latest developments in the deep fermentation technique, particularly as applied to the growth of actinomycetes'. p. ms. outline itinerary of visits. Exercise book containing a brief autobiographical summary (written in 3rd person, perhaps in connection with American lecture tour), and notes on visit to an unidentified penicillin plant on 25 July. Few pages only used. Also included here is 1 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal A.45-A.48 Correspondence, etc. re lectures and visits to laboratories. In alphabetical order. A.45 Abbot Laboratories Best, C. H. (telegram) Connecticut Pharmaceutical Association Chain spoke at the Twentieth Anniversary of the College, 11-12 October, on 'The introduction of penicillin as a drug into medicine’. continues to May 1946. Includes photographs of Chain. Correspondence Cornell University. Lilly Research Ladoratories Merck & Co. te possible supply of streptomycin for F.G. Hopkins. University of Minnesota (Mayo Foundation) The Rockefeller Foundation Mount Sinai Hospital (N.Y.) Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn U.S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria Saint Louis University School of Medicine. re equipment, grants, visits, congratulations on Nobel Prize. Ilse Correspondence with colleagues and personal friends. alphabetical order. Wyeth Institute of Applied Biochemistry Dakin, H. D. Estermann, R. Friedheim, E.: A. H. Hodgkin, D.C. Yale Medical Library In E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Kolinski, M. Lotte Malko, N. A. Ochoa, S. Samojlovna, R. Stem in, ...0. Tavernier, J.B. Wechsler, |. — S. re proposed medical school at Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Weissberger, A. Williams, T. Wrinch, D. Miscellaneous shorter correspondence re apparatus, specimens, etc. purchase of books, Draft interview with Chain for broadcast in 'Headline Edition’, 29 October 1945 fon penicillin). Correspondence re another interview on the subject, prepared forC.B.S. programme 'We The People', but not used because of disagreement over presentation of the script. Miscellaneous bills, receipts, personal notes, etc. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal The Nobel Prize The Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine for 1945 was awarded to Fleming, Florey and Chain ‘jointly for the dis- covery of penicillin and its curative action in various infectious diseases’. Chain was in America when the award was announced; some of the letters and telegrams of congratulation in A.60-A.73 were therefore addressed to his cousin Anna Sacharina who kept house for him in Oxford (see also A. 207). The publicity attendant on the award prompted several letters from former friends or family acquaintances describing their wartime vicissitudes and enquiring about the fate of others. These letters have been grouped together in A.72. A.74-A.77 contain later material relating to various cele- brations and meetings organised by the Nobel Foundation, 1950875. See B. 34-B. 38 for material relating to Chain's Nobel lecture on 'The Chemical Structure of the Penicillins’. Translations of Swedish press coverage of the Nobel Prize celebrations. Typescript programme of Nobel Prize celebrations. A copy of Chain's speech at the prize-giving ceremony is also included in the folder. Miscellaneous material arising from visit, travel arrangements, invitations, menus, requests for biographical information, export licence for Nobel Medal, etc. Telegrams and letters announcing award, including brief telegram from Florey, with copies of Chain's replies, October- November relating to the award. Press-cutting from The Times announcing the award is also included here. See A.226 for additional press-cuttings and printed material E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal A.60-A,73 Letters and telegrams of congratulation, many with reminiscences, and references to Chain's musical talents. A. 60 Official congratulations from Oxford University, University College, etc. Vice-Chancellor. Includes ms. draft of Chain's reply to the A. A, A. A. A. A. A. A. A-B M-N ad R A. S V-W Telegrams (not indexed) Unidentified or first-name signatures. In English, (Alphabetical order. Not Letters from relations, friends or family acquaintances, renewing contact after wartime events. French, Russian and German. indexed. ) pondence with colleagues. 50th Anniversary celebrations. D. Marotta. Correspondence, etc. re Nobel Foundation meetings, 1950-75. See also E. 130; 1950 Folder includes programme of events and corres- Chain attended, as did E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 1954 Invitation to Lindau meeting, programme of lectures, correspondence. 1955 Chain attended, as did Marotta. and Medicine was awarded that year to A.H.T. Theorell. The Prize for Physiology Brief correspondence only. 1975 75th Anniversary celebrations. schedule , programme of events, list of participants, invitations, etc. Chain attended. Travel Ms. draft letter (addressee unknown) re possibility of developing penicillin research at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Scientific Office letter-paper and presumably during visit to America, autumn 1945. Undated, but written on British Commonwealth A.79, A.80 Visit to Palestine Folder includes letter of 12 December Correspondence re lectures, requests for articles, advice on appointments, letters of thanks, etc. The visit took place in April 1946 and included discussions about the possibility of Chain's moving to work in the proposed new department of biochemistry in the Weizmann Research Center (later Institute). 1945 from E. Bergmann setting out terms of offer. Letter of notification only. Volume of papers to commemorate 70th Anniversary of Chaim Weizmann, one of 100 privately-printed copies, sent to Chain as a memento of his visit. Menu of dinner given in honour of the penicillin team at Magdalen College, Oxford, 13 March 1946 and signed by participants. Award of Hon. Doctorate, University of Bordeaux, 1947. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Nomination as Commandeur de la Légion d'Honneur, 1948. Press-cutting, oration by P. Vallery-Radot. Letter from H.W. Florey accepting Chain's resignation from the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, to work in Rome, 26 September 1949. For material relating to Chain's period in Rome, see Section C. A.85, A.86 Election to Fellowship of Royal Society, 1949. A.85 Telegram and certificate of election, arrangements for reception in Rome. A. 86 Letters and telegrams of congratulation (few survive). A.87 Nomination as Foreign Corresponding Member, Istituto Lombardo, 1959. Letter of notification. Correspondence, 1952-54. Accademia Nazionale dei XL, 1953. Booklet prepared on election. A.90-A .94 Paul Ehrlich Prize, 1954. Election as Foreign Corresponding Member, Académie Nationale de Médecine, Paris, 1952. Letters of thanks and correspondence arising from visit. The Prize was awarded to Chain in March 1954, the centenary of Ehrlich's birth, and gave him particular pleasure. He later became a member of the Council of the Paul Ehrlich Founda- tion (see E.137-E.145). on 'The Development of Bacterial Chemotherapy’ (Bibliog. 45). (See G.9.) Correspondence with Hoechst re travel arrangements. and Marotta were guests of the firm. Correspondence with Director of Paul-Ehrlich Institute and others re and publication, etc., 1953-55. prize, arrangements for visit and lecture, translation This was his first visit to Germany since 1933. Chain's Paul Ehrlich Lecture was Chain E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Letters and telegrams of congratulation, some with replies by Chain. cutting photograph of Ehrlich ceremony. Letter from A.!. Virtanen encloses press- Programmes, schedules, biographical notes prepared for ceremony, etc. Hon. Doctorate, Universita degli Studi di Torino, 1954. Correspondence and press-cutting. Letter from Comunita Israelitica di Roma re Chain's religious faith, 1955. Hon. Fellowship, National Institute of Sciences of India, 1955. Letters of notification. Hon. Membership, Central Committee of the Microbiological Society of Israel, 1955. Election as Corresponding Member, Accademia Medica di Roma, 1955. Letters of notification. Letter of notification. Correspondence re award and presentation of medal; includes telegram of congratulation from Marotta. Award of Gold Medal in Therapeutics of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London, 1957. Notice of ceremony. Letter of election. Conferment of Medal of the City of Paris, 1957. Consigliere, Sezione Laziale, Societa Italiana per lo Studio delle Malattie Infettive, 1957. See also A.147, G.16. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Hon. Membership, Société Frangaise de Microbiologie, 1959. Correspondence re election 1959, anda little later corres~ pondence, 1979. Hon. Doctorate, Université de Paris, 1959. Correspondence re award of degree, arrangements for cere- mony (Chain's carbons only). Hon. Membership, Finnish Biochemical Society, 1959. Letter of acceptance (to A.|. Virtanen) (Chain's carbon only). Election as Associé Etranger, Académie des Sciences, Institut de France, 1962. Correspondence, telegrams of congratulation. Election to Fellowship of Royal Society of Arts, 1963. Certificate only. Letter only. Correspondence re election. Election as Fellow Member, World Academy of Art and Scie nee: 1953; Membership of Medical Advisory Committee, Hektoen Institute for Medical Research, Chicago, 1963. Shorter correspondence with Imperial College, mainly 1965, re Chain's flat, but includes letter, 1967, reappointing Rirh to Chair of Bichon, to 30 September 1973, and brief correspondence on his retirement, 1973. Press release. For material relating to Chain's period at Imperial College, see Section D. A.111 Hon. Doctorate, University of Chicago, 1965. Press release. Election Hon. Life Member, New York Academy of Sciences, 1966. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Award of Carl Neuberg Medal and of Hon. Doctorate, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, 1967. Notification. (See J.81-J.83.) A.114-A.146 Knighthood, 1969. The knighthood was announced in the Birthday Honours and conferred on 8 July. Correspondence re conferment, arrangements for Investiture, coat of arms, etc. Ms. and typescript versions of Chain's letter to Prime Minister (H. Wilson) thanking him for recommendation for honour, and recalling the chief events of his scientific career. Ms. and typescript versions of Chain's speech of thanks at lunch given in his honour by Lord Rank, 11 July; speech includes autobiographical recollections and Chain's views on relations between academic, industrial and governmental sponsorship of research. A.117 by Chain. A.118 Lunch menu also included. A.118-A.146 Letters and telegrams of congratulation, a few with replies Correspondence with College of Arms, and with Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor, various dates, 1969-79. 4 pp. ms. list of names, perhaps of those who sent congratu- lations. A A.122 A.123 A.119 A.120 A.121 A.124 A.125 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Wi Y=Z Wo - Wy Unidentified and first-name signatures. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Election to Freedom by Redemption of Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London, 1969. Correspondence and notification of Election. Also enclosed here is later correspondence re Chain's election to the Livery of the Society, with a Certificate for use when applying to take up the Freedom of the City of London. See also A.100, A.174. Honorary Membership of Council, Societa Italiana di Scienze Farmaceutiche, 1969. Correspondence. Election as Associé Etranger, Académie Nationale de Médecine, Paris, 1969. Correspondence. The Mark Twain Society. A.152, A.153 The Athenaeum. Includes certificate of election. Correspondence re nominations and elections, 1974-79. A.151 Nomination to Board of Electors to Sir William Dunn Chair of Biochemistry, Cambridge, 1970. A.152 Correspondence re Chain's election under Rule II, 1972. Correspondence notifying Chain of various honorary elections made by the Society, 1969-78. See also J.136. Award of Grand Decoration of Honour in Gold of the Federal Republic of Austria, and Hon. Membership of Gesellschaft der Wiener Arzte, 1973. Letters of congratulation, letter te official permission to wear insignia, Award of Hanbury medal, May 1972. Letter of congratulation only. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Conferment of title 'Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry’, University of London, 1973. Letter only. A.157-A.168 = Chain's 70th birthday, 1976. A. 157 Chain's speech of thanks at the dinner given in the Middle Temple Hall in his honour by colleagues and friends, 15 June, with autobiographical recollections and personal information. The dinner was held during the International Symposium on ‘Biologically Active Substances - Exploration and Exploitation’. A.158 Ms. drafts of some of Chain's replies to birthday letters or telegrams. A.159-A.168 Letters and telegrams, a few with Chain's replies; the majority of the greetings are from Jewish friends and organisations, who attached a special significance to the attaining of this birthday. A. A-B C-E G-H T-V A. A. A. A. A - 164 A - 166 A 165 Hillel Foundation, See H.20 for another birthday celebration organised for Chain by the First-name or unidentified signatures. Wo y= 2 A . 168 A . 167 EVB: Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Place list for lunch at Windsor Castle on occasion of visit of President of Israel, E. Katzir, June 1976. Honorary Fellowship, Societa Italiana per il Progresso delle Scienze, 1977. Notification of election. Foreign Membership, USSR Academy of Sciences, 1977. Brief correspondence re ceremony. See also E.218, H.59. Correspondence re celebration of 50th Anniversary of the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, 1977. Correspondence re Fellowship of the Zoological Society of London, 1978. Corresponding Member , Academia de Ciencas Médicas, Argentina, 1978. Correspondence re nomination. Certificate. Freedom of City of London, April 1979. Miscellaneous other certificates and tessere are included here. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 A.175-A.217 PERSONAL AND FAMILY MATERIAL Biographical and personal A.175-A.186 Music He played In his early days he seems to have contemplated Chain's musical gifts were widely acknowledged. the piano to recital standard and also in chamber ensembles with friends. a career in music (see A.175). Towards the end of his life it gave him great pleasure to share performances with his son Benjamin. The folders below contain correspondence with musical friends, requests for sponsorship for individuals or institutions, invitations to give recitals, attend concerts, etc. There are many additional references to musical activities and interests in general correspondence passim. Programmes of concerts at which Chain played, 1920-22. Documents, 1928, 1929-30, issued by the Berlin branch of the USSR Volksarbeits kommissariat, authorising Chain to go to America to engage Russian artistes and musicians to give concerts in North and South America. in Chain's passport issued in October 1929 (see A. 12) suggests that he made this journey and indicates his serious considera- tion at that time of a musical career. The visa for Argentina 1961-67 1967-69 Miscellaneous material, 1930s, re concerts/recitals in Cambridge and Oxford. arthritis. Letters: of invitation, and of thanks, from the President refer to Chain's Honorary Membership of the Society and to the use of D-Penicillamine in the treatment of rheumatoid Correspondence with the Heberden Society te arrangements for the Annual Dinner, 23 November. Chain and R. Kohn gave a recital after the dinner. Includes support for Yehudi Menuhin School, London Bach Society, Royal College of Music. 1947, 1952-59 1970-73 1973 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal 1974-78 Correspondence with M. Kolinski, 1936-75. died in 1981 and an obituary published in Ethnomusicology is included here. Kolinski Correspondence (in Russian), photographs and publicity material from N. Malko, a Russian conductor and old friend of Chain, who worked in Copenhagen and Prague and later emigrated to U.S.A. 1934-48. Letter of 8 December 1935 congratulates Chain on his appoint- ment at Oxford, and insists that he cannot instruct Chain, who is a difficult pupil, in conducting. Other letters during 1930s include information and gossip about various composers and musicians. Correspondence with C.D.W. Stafford, 1965-70, mainly invitations to opera performances. Miscellaneous material re Chain's health. Wyo4-79. Miscellaneous notes by Chain on composers, records, etc. Miscellaneous correspondence on music, 1930s-1976. The correspondence is kindly provided by M. MacRobert. in Russian and bears notes on the content 1936, includes prescriptions, medical bills, Chain's own notes on his health and family medical history, 1933-36. children, 1968, 1976. Material relating to Chain's engagement and marriage to Anne Beloff. The marriage took place on 7 October 1948, at Hampstead Synagogue. Includes letter of good wishes signed by Florey and all colleagues in the School of Pathology, Oxford. Also included is brief correspondence re activities of Chain's E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge, 1966-78 The connection, made at such a Chain was accepted as a student at Fitzwilliam House (as it then was) in 1933, when he was working for his Ph.D. with F.G. Hopkins. time, meant much to him. william House received its Charter of Incorporation as Fitzwilliam College in 1966, the Governing Body unanimously elected Chain as an Honorary Fellow. at the Annual Dinner in 1967 and also gave the Inaugural Lecture of the 'College Centenary Lectures’ in 1969 (see G.88). He proposed the toast of the College When the non-collegiate Fitz- The correspondence is with successive Masters of the College, and with colleagues, re Annual Dinners held in January each year and which Chain attended whenever his health and other engagements allowed. The folder also includes menu, table- plan and Chain's 'Toast' at the 1967 Dinner, with reminiscences of his connection with Cambridge, and the College, in the 1930s. Correspondence and papers re Chain's house at Mulranny, Co. Mayo, mainly 1970-72, and one letter 1979. Folder includes material re the importing of Chain's Steinway grand piano, and a copy of Mayo News ('Connacht's Brightest Weekly'), August 1970, with an article 'Mulranny Captures Research V.1.P.' This was a holiday house, built by Chain after he and his family had enjoyed several holidays in rented property in the district. The family moved into the house in August 1971. Chain was greatly attached to the house and its surroundings, spent as much time there as possible during his later years, and died there in 1979. flight over Sinai desert' (3 pp., n.d. but probably 1967). See K.74, K.126 for correspondence about other property in Italy and Israel which Chain was considering purchasing at various dates. Two short travel notes by Chain, describing journey from Rome to London and Moscow (3 pp., n.d.), and 'Impressions of Miscellaneous correspondence re portraits of Chain, 1969, and request for him to write his memoirs, 1979. 1973, EsBe- Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Letters and telegrams of birthday greetings, sent to Chain, various dates, 1955-78. See A.157-A.168 for material relating to Chain's 70th birthday in 1976. A.195-A.197 Replies to letters or cables of congratulation sent by Chain to colleagues on awards of honours, Nobel prizes, etc. A.195 1950-59 A.196 1960-69 A.197 1970-79 A.198 A.199 Replies to letters of condolence written by Chain. Ms. drafts for Chain's last letters, 1979. Mainly to personal friends, several referring to the engage- ment of his elder son Benny, and to his own illness. A.200-A.217 Family correspondence. His mother and Chain's letters to Lola Sarsowsky. Very little first-hand material survives about Chain's own family and early days. His Russian-born father Michael, an industrial chemist, died in 1919 when Chain was thirteen, and the family knew hard times during the inflationary 1920s when his mother Margarete had to let rooms in her house. After Chain settled in Britain he sent money home as far as he was able (see A.29, A.33) but his family's circumstances remained poor. sister Hedwig did not survive the Second World War (see A. 205 for references to the last dates at which they were seen alive). Continued The last letter, from Britain, describes how Chain is able to send some money home, and still expresses a strongly left- wing reaction to 'bourgeois' England. The earlier letters, many enclosed in Michael Chain's business envelopes, are mainly personal and include references to family affairs following Michael Chain's death, school, musical and political activities. time. Chain was strongly left-wing at that letters, September 1921-December 1923, and one letter 11 c. October 1933. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 35 Biographical and personal A.200 (Cont'd.) Most of the envelopes have a date, number ond note of content The summaries of content attached by L. Sarsowsky (on verso). to the letters were provided by U. Horstmann in June 1982. Chain's letters to Vera Katz. 8 letters, October 1934-April 1935. These are photocopies, sent to Lady Chain with a covering letter from Mrs. Ambrose (née Katz) in November 1982 and made available by her. They are mainly concerned with conditions in Britain and Vera Katz's plans to emigrate. A.201-A.203 Folder of cards and letters from Chain's mother to Boris Haine, brother of Michael, with whom Chain stayed when he first arrived in London (A. 201), to Chain (A. 202), Sacharina, see below) and others (A. 203), mainly 1933-36, and one letter 1939 to 'Meine Lieben'. and the letters are signed 'Frauchen'; from Hedwig. The cards are not signed, some include post-scripts The last letter is dated 12 August 1939. to Nura (Anna The letters describe life in Berlin, family difficulties, loss of There property and furniture including Chain's grand piano. are many references to financial problems and Chain's support of the family. Summons and deposition re the Chain family's debts, 1936. in the name of Liselotte Summons is dated 26 August 1936, Goerk, minor, resulting from a previous case of 7 March 1927. Deposition is from the Chain family's lawyer (Manecke) applying for an annulment of the distraint of property on the grounds that the property is personal belongings required in the household and for their work (this being the taking-in of lodgers and Chain's musical activities as lecturer and critic for which a desk and piano are required) and that the family's inability to meet the demands was due to the early death of Michael Chain and consequent loss of prosperity. was ill. Letter from German prisoner-of-war, 1945, who had news up to beginning of 1943. Letter in German, 1951, writer saw Margarete 1942, when Hedwig 3 letters re Chain's mother. Letter in Russian, 1935, re financial difficulties. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal A.206-A.212 Material re Anna Sacharina (Nura). Anna Sacharina was a relation by marriage, her husband being a relative of Michael Chain; she was always deemed to be a cousin and referred to as such. After several shorter visits, she was allowed to settle in Britain (A.206) and kept house for Chain in Oxford. After his marriage and removal to Rome, she remained part of the household, returning later with the family to London. She died in 1978 at the age of 89. Correspondence, 1934-37, with Home Office, officials and colleagues re permission for Anna Sacharina (then resident in Paris) to come to Britain. Includes two postcards sent to Anna Sacharina, 1936. Letters from Anna Sacharina to Chain, various dates, 1945-48, 1954. The 1945 letters, many addressed to 'My dear Mops', cover the period of Chain's journey to America and the award of the Nobel Prize. Letters from Chain to Anna Sacharina, various dates, 1957, 1958, 1961,,- 1963. letters of Not allocated. Miscellaneous shorter correspondence re Anna Sacharina, her friends and relatives, visits, etc., 1958-72. Letters of 1958 describe the progress of negotations with Imperial College about Chain's proposed department there; May 1961 are from China describing conditions there (see also J.30-J.34); letter of June 1961 refers to cephalosporin patent case (see also K.22-K.25). 1978, Correspondence from Anna Sacharina, and with officials, 1965-66, re visa for Raissa Slepakova to visit her sister Anna. In his letter to the Home Office of 28 June 1965, Chain states that Anna Sacharina (then aged 76) was 'a naturalised British subject since 1942 and has been living with me and my family since 1923 when she left the Soviet Union’. Letters of condolence received on the death of Anna Sacharina, E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical and personal Letters and cards from W. Lederer, various dates 1933-37. Lederer was an uncle of Chain, then working at Nachod, Czechoslovakia. another uncle with whom Chain stayed on his first arrival in Britain. Letter of April 1933 is addressed to B. Haine, Letters from F. Eisner dates, c.1935-59. (a relative of Chain's mother), various f Miscellaneous letters from relatives and old acquaintances, 1948-78. Not indexed. Correspondence with M. Hain (relative of Chain's father) and her husband V. Staroselsky, 1963, 1976. In Russian, with summary of content provided by M. MacRobert. Shorter personal correspondence, in Russian. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 A.218-A. 234 PHOTO GRAPHS AND PRESS-CUTTINGS Biographical and personal A.218-A.225 PHOTOGRAPHS N.B. left in place. Osher photographs relating to specific occasions and visits have been A.218 7 photographs of Chain, taken in Jerusalem, possibly on his visit in 1946 (A.79, A.80). A.219 Photograph of Chain, probably in Rome laboratory. Photograph of equipment (Milan). Photograph of Chain, probably at Imperial College. Portrait photographs of Chain. 3 photographs of Chain and Anne Chain, n.d. Photograph of Chain and friends, 1973. Photographs of Chain at Honorary Degree (mounted, with citation). Signed photograph of André Gratia. Black album of photographs and press-cuttings of Chain's visit to South America (see J.42-J.45). The album was sent by M. Goldman, from whom a letter is included. Red album of photographs of the opening of the Department of Biochemistry, Wolfson Laboratories, by Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, 4 November 1965. Includes photographs of many distinguished guests. Brown album, ‘Reflections on Research and the Future of Medicine', compiled to commemorate the dedication of new research facilities of Merck Sharp and Dohme Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey, May 1966 (see also J.70-J.73). Includes photographs of Chain and his family, Linstead, Sherfield, Wolfson and members of the departmental staff. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Biographical PRESS-CUTTINGS and personal A. 226-A.234 A.226 Material relating to award of Nobel Prize, visit to Stockholm and press comment on penicillin, etc. Mainly c.1945. 1 Box. Folder of press-cuttings, mainly re lectures, conferences and visits, 1959-60. Folder of press-cuttings, mainly re affairs of Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Marotta case and other matters re science in Italy, c.1963-64., Folder of miscellaneous material, 1950s, 1960s. Envelope of press-cuttings re Chain's Trueman Wood Lecture, 1963. Envelope of miscellaneous press-cuttings, 1972-73. Folder of miscellaneous material, 1960s. Includes Blue album of press-cuttings, mainly 1962-65. material re work with Beechams. Large blue album of press-cuttings, mainly 1965-71. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 SECTION B RESEARCH AT CAMBRIDGE AND OXFORD _B.1 - B.112 6.1L. = Ba? B,G > 6.14 B.15 - B.33 B.34 - B.60 BG. Ocee RESEARCH NOTES AND DRAFTS, 1934 - 39 SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE, 1931 - 38 PENICILLIN: RESEARCH, REPORTS, CORRESPONDENCE PENICILLIN: LECTURES, DRAFTS, PUBLICATIONS HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS OF THE DISCOVERY OF PENICILLIN B.93= B.112 CORRESPONDENCE ON THE HISTORY OF PENICILLIN This Section documents Chain's early research at Cambridge and Oxford on lecithin and snake venom, and the work in Oxford on penicillin which led to the award of the Nobel Prize with Fleming and Florey in 1945. It will be obvious from the above list of contents that very little actual There are no notebooks, few B.15ff. contains a few documents research material has survived from this period. records of experiments (with the possible exception of B.1) and even the scientific correspondence is very sparse for the 1930s and consists of Chain's carbons only for the duration of the Second World War. relating to the early penicillin work, in particular the draft for the grant applica- tion to the Rockefeller Foundation submitted by Florey in 1939 (see also B.107), but most of the information about this period is to be found in the historical accounts and correspondence at B.61 - B.112. references to penicillin. See C.4 - C.9 for carbon copies of 1948 correspondence including some E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford RESEARCH NOTES AND DRAFTS, 1934-39 Bundles of ms. notes and drafts in German, mainly relating to work on enzymes, including lecithin. in no particular order and are undated, with one exception (14.8.34.). The papers appear to be The notes almost certainly relate to work with H. Fischgold with whom Chain published 2 papers in 1934-35. Fischgold, 19 February 1934, which was found among them, has now been transferred to B.9 A draft letter to 'The determination of the isoelectric point of lecithin and spingomyelin', by E. Chain, H. Fischgold and J. Kemp. 6 pp. typescript draft of paper published in a slightly different form, and without Fischgold's name, in Biochem. J., 1934 (Bibliog. 3). For correspondence with Fischgold see B.9 Ms. and typescript drafts for talk on enzyme reactions, n.d., ¢.1934, Folder also includes 1] p. ms. note on lecithin in an unidentified hand. "Some chemical and biochemical investigations on phospholipins' For brief related corres- For correspondence from Bezn&k see B.13 "Studies on Phosphorylcholine’, by A.B.L. Beznék and E. Chain. 3 typescript drafts (one incomplete) and originals of figures | for paper published in Quart. J. Exp. Physiol., 1937 (Bibliog. 9). - VI Chain's Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 1935. pondence see A. 27. in connection with the work on snake venom, n.d. Ms. and typescript research notes and drafts in English and German, in no apparent order, n.d., c.1936 onwards. Ms. and typescript notes and drafts, ¢.1937-39. Includes draft letter of application for a grant to visit Stockholm Chain E.B CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE, 1931-38 See also A.28, K.209. 1931 1933 Brihi to J. re specimens of Norwegian whale liver and pancreas. Walton, A. Letter to Florey re sample of boar mucin. 1934 (and n.d.) Fischgold, H. February-November Correspondence re publication of collaborative research papers (see B.1, B.2). letter from an unidentified correspondent, 30 January 1934, and referees' reports on paper by Fischgold and Chain submitted for publication in Proc. R. Soc. Lon. Sequence includes 1935 December re lecithinase. Malic bi Ws Gulland, J. M. Hopkins, FG, te Warburg flasks (p.2 of another letter re Warburg flasks is also included here). October Yudkin, J. (and Yudkin, M.) re sample of antivenin. Monen, Jo °C: Wrinch, D. M. April November Kreps, Ml. A, Reichel, J. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford 1936 Butantan Institute, Brazil (Chain's carbon only). Fildes, P. (Chain's carbon only) Heatley, N. G. K&hler, F. Sending catalogue of apparatus. (signature illegible) te samples required for Chain's research. 1937 Bemnan. “A. Bic Ak, November December January-February December re reprints of joint paper with Chain (Bibliog. 9). (signature illegible) January 1938 October November Menkin, V. te leukotaxine. Myrbdck, K. re possible collaboration with Chain. re supply of yeast for preparation of apozymase. July Comments on paper published by Chain in Biochem. J. (Bibliog. 11). Valentine, A. H. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford B.15-B.33 PENICILLIN: RESEARCH, REPORTS, CORRESPONDENCE 8.19 ‘Preparation from certain bacteria and fungi of strongly bactericidal enzymes, effective against staphylococci, pneumococci and streptococci 3 pp. ms. draft outlining proposed investigation of the bactericidal and actinomyces. application. principle’ in certain strains of penicillium n.d., perhaps intended for grant Typescript drafts for grant application to the Rockefeller Foundation, submitted by Florey in November 1939. See also B.107. ‘Report on biochemical research carried out during the year 1941' 3 pp. typescript with ms. date 28 August 1941. Undated ms. notes and diagrams, mainly re penicillin. 4 pp. typescript draft. B.21-B .25 2 photographs of apparatus with a ms. note by N.G. Heatley (1980) 'Part of the war-time plant for extraction of penicillin designed and built by A.G. Sanders and J. Kent (with help from G. Maskell) at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, 1942-43'. ‘Report on teaching activities and research during the tenure of an University Demonstratorship in Chemical Pathology in the years 1941-1945! additional aid to researchers. Carbon copies of Chain's outgoing correspondence, October 1940- July 1945. sequence which has now been split into several folders for ease of reference. incoming letter and these have been left in place and indexed. Although Chain's carbons would not normally be indexed, some of the correspondents are cross-referenced in the index as an These were filed ina single chronological Very occasionally the sequence included an E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford October-December 1940 Mainly letters to various colleagues to accompany reprints of Lancet paper (Bibliog. 19) and/or samples of penicillin culture. 19 November, re preparation of collaborative paper (Bibliog. 23) for publica- tion,and Epstein's ms. reply. Includes letter to L.A. Epstein, March 1941, February-November 1942 Includes letter to the Editor of Nature, 17 February 1942, withdrawing note by Chain and Abraham on the purification of penicillin after a government request to stop all publications on penicillin, and request to |.C.1. for a sample of crude penicillin, 24 June 1942. April-December 1943 Includes letter to Sir Robert Robinson, 24 May, re penicillin supply. January-December 1944 January-July 1945 Letters from colleagues at the Sir William Dunn School, July- October 1945, reporting on penicillin work in progress during Chain's absence in U.S.A. See A.41-A.55 for additional material relating to Chain's visit Includes letter to M. Howarth re proposed article on penicillin for Strand magazine, to editors of various journals re proofs, etc. of papers (e.g. Bibliog. 31, 32) and toB.C. Wright re film about penicillin. Includes draft letter to F.G. Young, 25 February, commenting on recently published paper by Glaxo workers on preparation of purified penicillin, letter to Mellanby, 10 March, re restrictions on publication of penicillin work, and 2 letters to Sir Henry Tizard, 3and 17 July, re the public view of the role of the Oxford workers in the penicillin story. to U.S.A. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford Burtt, J. Letters are numbered 2-16. the sequence). (nos. 6-8 are missing from Callow, D. Duinis, £..: 5S. Fiorey,; H.W: Phitpot, Fi” Jo lope) Miscellaneous correspondence, September-November 1945 Includes copy of letter from Chain to the Rockefeller Foundation te grant for purchase of molecular distillation equipment, and letter from A.W.M. Ellis inviting Chain to meet representatives of the Rockefeller Foundation in Oxford. Ms. flow diagram for a fermentation plant with separate sketch of pipe layout for antifoam tank, signed 'Oxford 2/9-46. IB‘. Ms. notes on the published literature relating to penicillin, 1943-48, arranged under subject headings. Subjects include "Lysis by penicillin', 'Penicillinase', 'Production', 'Acquired resistance’ and 'Mode of action’. Very few of them are dated, but Ms. notes similar to above, but on reports from American laboratories sent to the Committee for Penicillin Synthesis of the Medical Research Council under their agreement with the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development. The reports are numbered (e.g.) CPS 13 Merck, CPS 96 Squibb, CPS 221 Cornell, etc. according to Chain in his Nobel lecture (Bibliog. 35) the first reports were received in England in April 1944 and the arrange- ment continued until October 1945. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford PENICILLIN: LECTURES, DRAFTS, PUBLICATIONS, 1944-49 See also G.2, G.3. Copy of British Medical Bulletin, 2, "Penicillin 1929-43', including articles contributed by Chain, Fleming and Florey. 1944, devoted to 1, B.35 Russian translation of article on Penicillin published in Endeavour, 3, 9, 1944 (Bibliog. 32). B.36-B. 38 'The Chemical Structure of the Penicillins' Nobel Lecture, delivered 20 March 1946 (Bibliog. 35). See also A.56-A.77 for material relating to the award of the Nobel Prize. Complete typescript with ms. corrections. Incomplete ms. and typescript drafts. Miscellaneous requests to lecture, 1946. 'What is penicillin?' 6 pp. ms. for talk on penicillin, n.d. For correspondence re Chain's visit to Palestine see A.79, A.80. 2 envelopes labelled 'Synthesis' and 'Degradation' containing photographs of figures and diagrams. These were found with B.36 and some of them correspond with the figures in the pub- lished version of the lecture. Fragmentary ms. drafts (mainly opening paragraphs) for lectures on penicillin in Holland, Denmark, Scotland, Finland, Palestine and Newcastle, n.d., but probably all 1946. See also K.180. Patent specification for 'Improvements in or relating to the preparation of stable penicillin-containing solutions’, by Chain and F.J. Philpot, 24 December 1947. Includes a letter from the Patent Agents, 8 November 1948. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford ‘The catalytic effect of metal ions on the alcoholysis of the penicillins’, by E. Chain and F.J. Philpot. 14 pp. typescript +1 additional page, n.d. Presumably not publistied. Not in Bibliog. "Structural and synthetic studies on Penicillin’. Ms. and typescript drafts for talk in Paris, n.d., ¢.1948. ‘The Industrial Production of Penicillin’ 95 pp. typescript memorandum with Supplements prepared by Chain for the U.S.S.R. in 1948 (see correspondence below). Ms. draft for pp.13-17 is also included in the folder. Carbon copies of Chain's letters to members of the U.S.S.R. Trade Delegation, April~September 1948, anda ms. draft in reply toa letter from one of the members of the delegation (N. Borodin) written on 23 January [1948]. Most of the letters refer to the preparation of the memorandum now at B.45 which was submitted to the Trade Delegation with a covering letter on 23 September. See also K.14, K.286. B.48-B.53 B.48 B.49 B.50 10 pp. typescript memorandum, n.d., but c.1948. 'The case for a state-owned penicillin factory in this country’ Material relating to collaborative book with Florey et al. (‘Antibiotics'), published by Oxford University Press, 1949. Typescript draft of chapter on 'Acquired resistance to penicillin in vitro’, with a few ms. corrections by J. Burtt. ‘alternative B', and list of references. Typescript draft of chapter on 'Penicillinase' with similar ms. corrections. YP Typescript draft of chapter on 'The nature of the action of penicillin' with similar ms. corrections. P Pp Drafts of 'Table of Contents! for Volume I! marked ‘alternative A', E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford Correspondence with Florey and Abraham re the book, 1948-49. Correspondence with the Medical Editor, Oxford University Press, re royalties, etc., 1950. Reports, photographs and other material Chain for information. re penicillin sent to "Penicillin'. Inc., June 1944. 23/5/45 Sir Howard Florey’. 127 pp. monograph produced by Merck & Co. front cover reads 'Recd. Ms. note on the ‘Biosynthesis of Penicillins'. issued under the auspices of the Committee on Medical Research (O.S.R.D., Washington) and the Medical Research Council, n.d., ¢.1946, as preliminary to a joint monograph on penicillin. 7 pp. duplicated typescript Memorandum to 'Authors of contributions for the penicillin monograph’. 4 pp. duplicated typescript, n.d. Includes a letter from 14 February 1947, re photographs for book on ‘Summarised Description of the Speke Process for the Manufacture of B.P. Standard Amorphous Penicillin as at 4 pp. typescript. Ist August 1947’. Photographs re penicillin issued by the Ministry of Information. Photographs sent to Chain by Chas. Pfizer & Co., 18 January 1946. Miscellaneous other photographs. Distillers Co. Ltd., penicillin. Duplicated typescript extracts from the Federal Register relating to penicillin, July 1947-March 1948. Miscellaneous diagrams. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford B.61-B.92 HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS OF THE DISCOVERY OF PENICILLIN The following papers consist mainly of drafts for publications, lectures, contributions to symposia, etc. and a little corres- pondence. The main sequence of correspondence is at B.93ff. See also F.76, F.177, F.236, G.88, J.108, J.184, J.186- #167. 4 pp. ms. draft, describing the early work on penicillin at Oxford, n.d. "Short account of the events which led to the re-investigation of the chemical and biological properties of penicillin in the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology’. 4 pp. typescript, n.d., ¢.1944. Copies of two letters to 'Professor Burn', 6 and 31 January 1945, re statement on the origin of the penicillin work in Oxford. A 6 pp. typescript is appended to the second letter. 4 pp. ms. in German re the discovery of penicillin, n.d. 13 pp. typescript draft of letter to the Evening Standard, September 1952, containing an account of the discovery of penicillin. The letter was not published, but Chain sent copies of it to various newspapers and journals; correspondence with editors of the Lancet, Sunday Times and Discovery is included in the folder. of the early penicillin research, n.d., ¢.1956. 18 pp. typescript, autobiographical account including description ‘Alexander Fleming and the history of the penicillin discovery' 22 pp. typescript, English version of article published in Nuova Antologia, 1955 (Bibliog. 48). Brief correspondence arising from the Italian version is also included in the folder. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford ‘Extract from a lecture on Antibiotics to be given in London in November 1964' ? pp. typescript account of early penicillin work. Oliver-Sharpey lecture (see G.51). Part of the B.68-B.72 Material arising from the death of Lord Florey in February 1968. B.68 B.69 B.70 B.71, B.72 Ms. and typescript drafts for appreciations of Florey written for various newspapers and journals. Correspondence with the Editor of the British Medical Journal arising from their leader on Florey on 1 March 1968. Letters to the Editor of The Listener re article on Florey, June 1969. Aveprint of the article is included in the folder. Correspondence with the President (P.M.S. Blackett) and the Biological Secretary (B. Katz) of the Royal Society re the Florey Memorial Appeal. letters from Chain commenting on the text of the appeal pamphlet. Includes ms. drafts of several long Correspondence with Katz, February-May 1969. Correspondence with Blackett, February-March 1969. Includes 2 pp. transcript of part of a talk recorded by Florey in Australia, c.1965, with a letter from the producer of the B.B.C. radio programme 'Portrait of Lord Florey', referred to in B.70. Discussion meeting on ‘Penicillin and related antibiotics - past, present and future’, held jointly by the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians to commemorate the thirtieth anniversary of the introduction of penicillin into medicine, 20-21 May 1971. E.J. Stokes and Chain delivered the opening address on ‘Thirty Years of Penicillin Therapy! (Bibliog. 149). a joint meeting with the Royal Society. The meeting was organised by Chain and Correspondence with the Royal Society, July-September 1969, including letter from the Executive Secretary, 3 July, inviting Chain to organise a discussion meeting on the subject of anti- biotics. Correspondence with the President of the Royal College of Physicians, July-September 1969, re arrangements for holding E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford B.75, B.75 Correspondence with the Royal Society and others re programme, financial arrangements, invitations to participants, etc., 1970-71. July-December 1970 January-May 197] Correspondence with colleagues invited to attend the meeting. In alphabetical order. B-'N Fragmentary ms. drafts and complete typescript of Chain's paper on 'Thirty Years of Penicillin Therapy' B-H R-T Correspondence re arrangements for publication of contributions to the meeting in Notes and Records of the Royal Society and the Journal of the Royal College of Physicians. Correspondence with recipients of complimentary copies of Chain's paper on 'Thirty Years of Penicillin Therapy’. Typescript draft describing the early work on penicillin, sent to Chain by the Earl of Halsbury, 1971. The typescript has corrections in Chain's hand. Continued "Penicillin 1928-78' held at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, London, 10 November 1978. the talk was published in the inaugural issue of Trends in Pharmacological Sciences (TIPS), 1979 (Bibliog. 181). B.86-B.88 'The Early Years of the Penicillin Discovery' This was a talk given by Chain at a symposium on An edited version of a E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford B.86-B.88 (Cont'd.) Chain used the paper as the basis for a more ex- tended version which he gave at the Symposium on the History of Antibiotics, Honolulu, April 1979 (see J.186-J.189). B.86 Correspondence with the organiser of the St. Mary's Symposium (A.A. Glynn), April-November 1978. and text of Chain's opening remarks. Includes programme See also E.86. Typescript of Chain's talk. Correspondence with the Editor of TIPS, November 1978- February 1979. 'The Discovery of Penicillin and its Curative Properties’ Ms. and typescript drafts, n.d. Royal Society discussion meeting on ‘Penicillin After Fleming', 1-3 May 1979. session. Chain was asked to chair a 50 Years 'The Early Years of the Penicillin Discovery 1929-1941! Correspondence with the organisers and with the Royal Society. Ms. and typescript of article published in abbreviated form in Trends in Biochemical Sciences (TIBS), 1979, under the title ‘Fleming's Contributions to the Penicillin Discovery’. The alterations were made beccuse Chain published a similar article in TIPS at the same time (Bibliog. 181). Folder includes correspondence with O. Hoffmann-Ostenhof and the Editor of TIBS. Fragmentary ms. notes re penicillin, n.d. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford B.93B8,112 CORRESPONDENCE ON THE HISTORY OF PENICILLIN Much of the following correspondence consists of comments by Chain on drafts or publications by others. correspondents are arranged in alphabetical order. The See also K.202. Abraham, E. P. April-May 1969 re Abraham's Royal Society Memoir of Florey and the grant application submitted to the Rockefeller Foundation by Florey in 1939. See also B.107 Anson, M. — L. February 1958 re autobiography of S.A. Waksman. Auffarth, F. December 1954 Bey Po June 1977 British Broadcasting Corporation May 1970 Calder, R. (later Baron Ritchie-Calder) October-November 1952 Comments on Baldry's book 'The Battle against Bacteria’. te script of broadcast for children 'Fleming Discovers Penicillin'. Includes 2 versions of the script. Mainly re review by Calder of biography of Fleming by Ludovici. penicillin story. Comments on the treatment of the penicillin discovery in the John Player Foundation British Genius Exhibition. Includes correspondence with the Exhibition Director and letter to the Editor of The Times. Chain's carbon only, commenting on script for film of Central Office of Information October 1962 Catherwood, F. (and others) January-July 1977 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford Clarke, E. July 1971-January 1972 re medal commemorating the introduction of penicillin into therapy and text of prososed accompanying brochure. Includes copy of draft for the brochure and letter from Chain with comments and corrections. Eagle, H. Enebdck, C. June 1959 April-May 1975 Includes Chain's brief comments on article by Enebdck on the penicillin discovery. Fora D, . 2. July-August 1974 Comments on reply by Ford toa letter by Chain published in Nature. Geissler, E. Howard-Jones, N. February 1957 July 1974 June-July 1976 January-May 1978 December 1978- January 1979 The Making of a Great B.102-B.105 Macfarlane, R. G. 1976-79 Comments on article by Howard-Jones published in World Health. Correspondence re Macfarlane's biography of Lord Florey (‘Howard Florey. Scientist', Oxford University Press, 1979). Macfarlane's book. Includes 6 pp. letter from Chain, 3 January, commenting on draft chapters of the book. Correspondence with the Book Review Editor of Nature, April-May 1979 arising from request to Chain to review E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford Marti-Ibanez, F. November 1958 Chain's carbon only, commenting on article in MD Medical News Magazine. Olby, R. October-November 1972 re grant applications by Chain and Florey associated with the penicillin work. Ratcliff, n.d. Chain's ms. draft only, commenting on booklet 'The Story of Penicillin’. Rockefeller Foundation April-May 1969 Request by Chain for a copy of Florey's original grant application relating to the penicillin work. included in the folder. This is now See also B.16. Trueta, J. June 1973, June 1976 Smithsonian Institution June-August 1974 Van Heyningen, W._ E. April 1959 re penicillin exhibit at The National Museum of History and Technology. Includes copy of letter from M. Sela. re various aspects of the early penicillin history including the circumstances of the first toxicity test on penicillin. in Perspective’. Correspondence arising from a letter from Van Heyningen to The Sunday Times about the part played by other members of the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology in the early penicillin work. Wilson, A.D. June-July 1971, September Williams, H. May 1963 Chain's carbon only. Includes comments on Wilson's book 'Penicillin 1976 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Research at Cambridge and Oxford Wunderlich, G. Wyatt, t1,.. Vv. March 1969 April-May 1975 Comments on article by Wyatt. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 SECTION C ISTITUTO SUPERIORE DI SANITA, ROME C.1 - C.101 CHAIN'S CAREER AT ISTITUTO, 1947 - 65 C18 C77 THE 'MAROTTA CASE', 1965 - 66 With an introductory note CGC. 65 ADMINISTRATIVE CORRESPONDENCE, 1948 - 65 C.28-C.41 Equipment, supplies C.42-C.45 Requests for reprints and information C.46 - €.53 Sta ff C.66 - C.78 C.F = C, 101 C.54-C.65 Requests to visit/work in Chain's laboratory RESEARCH PRO JECTS LECTURES AND CONFERENCES With an introductory note E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome CHAIN'S CAREER AT ISTITUTO, 1947-65 Letter from Madame Bovet, 10 May 1947, on research plans and hopes for collaboration with Chain at Istituto in Rome. Draft letter of appointment to direct Laboratory of Biological Chemistry and conduct a course of lectures at Istituto for one year | October 1948-September 1949. Miscellaneous plans for equipment at Istituto. Includes 5 pp. ms. ‘Suggestions for the equipment of a laboratory for studies on penicillin fermentation’, by Chain. 3 pp. ‘List of items shipped ...' List of Chain's journals. Correspondence, January-October 1948 This is a sequence of carbon copies only of Chain's correspondence on all topics for this period. January (1 letter only), March 1 (1 letter only), April There is also general scientific correspondence on theses, lectures, visits to several countries to advise on penicillin production, consultancies, patent rights, publications. The main theme is Chain's forthcoming appointment to the Istituto from 1 October, with arrangements for terms of contract, building, equipment and supplies, books and journals for the laboratory, and removal arrangements for Chain, his cousin Mrs. Sacharina, and his technician D. Callow who accompanied him on secondment. September-October July — Includes letter, bacteria to penicillin. May June August 5 July, on acquired resistance of E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome Correspondence with editors, articles or information on Istituto and on Chain's research journalists and authors re centre. 1951-53 1955-59 2 typescript drafts on Istituto, its work and personnel, n.d. In original folder inscribed 'Manoscritto del Film sull' Istituto’ and perhaps intended as commentary to film. 'My activities at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita - survey’ a brief Typescript prepared oy Chain for R.P. Linstead (Rector, Imperial College), May 1958, 11 pp. There is another copy at D.8. Correspondence and informal writings by Chain describing work at Istituto. Includes ms. drafts for letters written from Rome to Weizmann (1948), McKenzie, Williams (1949) describing life and work. 8 pp. ms. speech (in Italian) welcoming guests at a party at home and describing work, n.d., but on first birthday of son. 3 pp. typescript speech welcoming guests at a dinner given at Chain's home for retirement of Marotta and appointment of Giacomello as his successor, n.d., c.1962. consultant to Beechams from 1956. Correspondence, October 1963-June 1964, re an article published 11 August 1963 in L'Espresso alleging financing and patenting of Chain's research. is with solicitors in London and Rome and includes drafts of with- drawal statement to be published in journal. 1964 gives details of Chain's appointments and research as _ 1 p. undated note on reorganisation required. irregularities in the Correspondence Letter of 1 April E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanité, Rome Correspondence re Chain's move to Imperial College, London, 1960-65. Includes copy of Chain's letter to Marotta, February 1960, explaining his move to Imperial College (scheduled for 1] October 1961), letters exchanged on resignation from contract with Istituto, January 1965, and shorter corres- pondence re termination of residence in Italy. See D.41 for arrangements for Chain's removal to London. Personal letters from former Italian colleagues and friends, 1964-79. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome Cipro THE 'MAROTTA CASE', 1965-66 In 1964 Domenico Marotta, founder of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita and its head until his retirement in 1963 (see C.14), was prosecuted on various charges of malfeasance and misappropriation of funds. The trial lasted over eight months and in July 1965 Marotta, then almost eighty, was found guilty and sentenced to six years and eight months in prison. Among others charged with similar offences were Giordano Giacomello, Marotta's successor as head of the Istituto, who received a sentence of three years, five months, and Italo Domenicucci, sentenced to six years, five months. When the case was heard, Chain was at Imperial College, London. He offered to give evidence but was not called; an expression of sympathy ina letter to Domenicucci's wife, however, was quoted by the public prosecutor, Renato Ricciardi, who went on to accuse Chain of contempt of the judiciary. A prosecution was set in train, and counsel engaged, but the charges were dropped under an amnesty declared in May 1966 as part of the celebrations of the twentieth anniversary of the Italian Republic. Chain's anger and distress at the proceedings against both Marotta and press~cuttings, and legal depositions. It runs in a roughly chronological sequence The material includes correspondence with lawyers, friends and colleagues, Giacomello arose not only from his personal regard for them but because part of the funds allegedly misappropriated by them were his own research grants from American sources which were administered as a matter of form by the Director in place. from February 1965 to May 1966. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome Correspondence, February-May 1965, with Domenicucci. of 6 April includes official statement of charges against all the accused. Letter Correspondence and papers, June, including Chain's telegram of protest sent to Prosecuting Counsel and others, corres- pondence with lawyers and colleagues, press-cuttings on the subject, copy of Prosecuting Counsel's statement on defamatory nature of telegram. Papers, July, including copy of part of concluding speech by Prosecuting Counsel with accusations against Chain, press- cuttings and articles. Copies of defence submissions by A. Sorrentino (for Marotta) and L. Salerni (for Domenicucci). July. Correspondence re Chain's prosecution for 'oltraggio', July- August. draft letter by Chain to Editor, Corriere della Sera, re article published on 30 July. Includes press-cuttings and ms. es Correspondence and papers, November, re articles and press comment on the case, and re engagement of counsel for Chain. Correspondence and papers, August-October, re a letter sudmitted for publication on the case in The Times, but not accepted. Includes various ms. and typescript drafts. Correspondence and papers, September, with E. Trabucchi, re articles on the case and enclosing ms. and typescript drafts of Chain's 'Sequence of events which led to my scientific activities in ltaly at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita’. as a result of which charges were cancelled. Continuing correspondence, December 1965-February 1966, re legal representation, and draft letter from Chain to Giacomello. Correspondence, May 1966, including material re amnesty, E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome C,28-C.65 ADMINISTRATIVE CORRESPONDENCE, 1948-65 C.28 - C.41 Equipment, supplies, books and journals, specimens, apparatus C.42 -C.45 Requests for reprints and information ©,46 = C.53 Staff C.54- C.65 Requests to visit/work in Chain's laboratory, letters of thanks Each sub-section follows a roughly chronological sequence including corres- pondence (not always complete), invoices, drawings, etc. C.28-C.41 EQUIPMENT, SUPPLIES, ETC., 1948-63 C.28 Ci22 1948 1949 1950 1953 1951, 1952 (mainly Chain's carbons) Also included are two drawings of perfusion pumps, National Institutes of Health, 1950. Drawings of fermenters of various capacities, executed at Milan 1948-49, perhaps for Istituto. 1956-59, with Walter J. Johnson Inc., re books and journals. 1951-53, with Walter J. Johnson Inc., re books and journals. 1954, with Shandon Scientific Co. 1954, 1955 (one letter only) E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome 1957-58 Includes correspondence with Packard Instrument Co. 1959. re possible manufacture of electronic scanner developed in Istituto. There is no surviving material for 1960. C.40 C.4] 1961-62 1963 and undated C.42-C.45 REQUESTS FOR REPRINTS AND INFORMATION, 1949-63 C.42 C.43 C.44 1949-54 Toye 1959-61 1962-63 STAFF, 1949-65 1953 1954 May include references, scientific N.B. Much of the correspondence is Chain's carbons only. Correspondence te research students, visiting scientists, sponsored research fellows accepted or recommended for work with Chain at Istituto. exchanges, later career, reports on work, etc. Various dates, 1951-65. Miscellaneous general correspondence about staff, promotions, publications, payment of grants, etc. (many Chain's carbons only). 1949-52 1955-59 1960-61 1963 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome Miscellaneous information, press releases, etc. re award of Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine to D. Bovet, 1257. C.54-C.65 REQUESTS TO VISITAVORK IN CHAIN'S LABORATORY, 1949-65 Successful applicants, or those sponsored by specific The facilities of Chain's department at the Istituto, and the research projects under way there, attracted a continuous stream of visitors and of applicants to work there. research grants, are included under 'Staff! in C.46 - C.53 above, but the full extent of the demand to participate in Chain's research can be better gauged from the folders below. In addition to prospective students, the correspondence also emanates from firms, government and university laboratories, organisations, publishers and journalists, and from established scientists many of whom were or became friends who made several visits to the Istituto over the years, Attention is drawn to similar material in D. 112 - D.123 where Chain's The General Correspondence in Section K also includes many references Department of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, also rapidly developed into an international centre of attraction for research. The material ranges from single letters of application to more substantial exchanges including travel arrangements, publication of results and letters of thanks for hospitality both in the laboratory and at home. There are several examples of Chain's wish to accept students from Eastern Europe and from developing countries. July-December 1954 January-June 1954 54 a 56 , oF 36 to visits to Rome. 1949-50 1951-52 1953 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome F955 1957 (Four only remain) March- June 1958 July-November 1958 1959 C.61 C.62 No material survives for 1960 C.63 C.64 1961 1962 65 1963-65 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome RESEARCH PROJECTS This is the surviving material among Chain's papers. Many other lines of research were pursued under his direction but no documentation remains other than published papers. Hard-cover notebook inscribed on front cover 'John H. Daymond. Chimica Biologica. 1956' The front two-thirds of the notebook contains records Daymond was Chain's technician during part of his time in Rome. of a series of 104 aeration experiments, January-October 1956, while the remainder is mostly taken up with analyses of various substances, September 1956-January 1957. a few loose pages of notes (some in Chain's hand) and printed matter tucked inside the notebook at various points. There are also Correspondence and papers re application for grants from United States Army Research and Development Liaison Group, l¥ar. Includes various drafts of submission of plans of research, budgets, etc. (Chain's carbon only. No other documentation remains.) Correspondence and papers re application for grant from National Institutes of Health, U.S.A., 1962-64. The projects were: 'To study the intermediate metabolism in higher animals to elucidate the mode of action of regulatory substances'; and 'To study the intermediate metabolism of microorganisms’. Letter re application to Division of Virology and Epidemiology, National Foundation, New York, re grant application, January wo? See also K.35-K. 38 The project was on 'Carbohydrate and amino acid interrelations in brain’, in collaboration with M. Cohen of Minneapolis. Includes grant application, reports on research, financial and travel arrangements. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Cov 2e 76 Ca Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome Correspondence and papers re application for grant from United States Department of Agriculture, European Regional Research Office, 1963. The project was on ‘Investigation of aerobic fermentation processes by measurement of the effect of differences in vessel size and mechanical agitation on the concentration of dissolved oxygen'. Includes budget, final report. "Aeration Studies IV: Aeration conditions in submerged fermentations with different microorganisms in 3000 litre fermenters'. Collaborative paper with G. Gualandi and G. Morisi, published with slightly different title in Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 8, 1966 (Bibliog. 119). Draft of paper, earlier version probably given as conference paper, editorial correspondence 1965-66. Miscellaneous reports and notes on research. or signed and perhaps not all by Chain. ) (Few dated 'Un isolatore per singole spore’. Cle C75 C.74 C75 Ce Research note on use of fibreglass as filter, and possible patent. 'Notes' by Chain for a discussion group on penicillin resistant staphylococci. ‘Chemical questions’ and 'biological questions’ to be answered on penicillin, with bibliography (latest date 1947). notes on the literature, etc. Miscellaneous shorter unidentified ms. notes, almost all on Istituto headed jotter pads, some in numbered sequences, on various topics of research, equipment, conference notes, Report on fermentation research, November 1961-February 1962, and programme of work for March-June 1962. 13 pp. typescript in Italian describing experiments with fermentation processes, n.d. probably a conference paper. Includes 'Discussione' and was E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome C.79-C.101 LECTURES AND CONFERENCES These were an important aspect of Chain's work in Rome. They had a dual purpose: on the one hand to attract scientists of international reputation to visit the Istituto for ‘in-house’ lectures and thereby keep its members in touch with the latest research ideas; and on the other, by these personal contacts and by the organising (in collaboration with the Director, D. Marotta) of major international conferences and symposia, to make more widely known the resources available in Rome for fermentation studies, the successful research projects undertaken and the results obtained. The inauguration of the fermentation pilot plant in 1951 was marked by a major symposium on fermentation biochemistry held under the auspices of the Istituto and the World Health Organisation (C.93), and throughout the 1950s there was a succession of such events in addition to invitation lectures on a smaller scale. The material is presented as follows: C.79 = C82 LECTURES Some account of this effort to strengthen the international contacts of the Istituto is given in Chain's paper at C. 23, ‘Sequence of events which led to my scientific activities at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita’. Many of the letters of thanks, like the requests to visit or work at the Istituto at C.54 - C.65 above, testify to its success. An alphabetical sequence with scientific colleagues invited by Chain to lecture at the Istituto, and which may include travel arrangements, personal and scientific correspondence, texts or translations of lectures, etc. to above but involving a wider range of international activity. A chronological sequence on major conferences and symposia, similar C.93 - C710) CONFERENCES E.B. Chain OEING 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome C.79-C.92 LECTURES See also E.96, K.187, K.251. Anfinsen, C. BB. Chain's introductory remarks, n.d. Berenblum, I. ‘Biological and metabolic aspects of skin carcinogenesis’ June 1958. P 1 Telegram, 15 pp. typescript of lecture. Calvin, M. 'Il ciclo fotosintetico', December 1955. Correspondence, 42 pp. typescript. lecture and 1 p. introductory remarks. Italian translation of Dickens, F. Correspondence only, 1957. Og ht Correspondence, 1954-55. a new Italian translation with many ms. corrections by 'Specificita nel campo di azione degli ormone', April 1955. Also included is material relating to 'Hormone analogues - Phase', lecture delivered by Dodds at Bologna, May 1958; English text, Chain, revised version of translation. Correspondence, 17 pp. typescript English text. ‘The control of metabolic processes', October 1956. Correspondence, Chain's introductory remarks, 16 pp. typescript English text, Correspondence 1954-55 re lecture on cytochemical microtechniques. 'Gas-liquid chromatography’, February 1955. 12 pp. Italian translation. Holter, H. piens, . A, Miartingcme, Jota: 2, E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome Neuberger, A. 'Biosintesi della porfirina', June 1959. Correspondence, 13 pp. Italian translation. Ridcol bok 'Moonlayers and some biological implications', April 1958. Correspondence only. Thompson, H. W. ‘Some recent applications of infra-red spectroscopy to chemical problems', March 1956. Correspondence, outline of lecture. Tiselius, A. 'Alcuni recenti progressi nella cromatografia e l'elettroforesi delle proteine e dei polipeptidi', April 1955. Brief correspondence, notice of lecture only. Warburg, O. Windeyer, B. W. 25 pp. typescript English version, correspondence. °G. Young, Ff... ‘Alcuni aspetti della biochimica dell' insulina', February 1958. Correspondence, notice of lecture only. See also K. 283. ‘Medical aspects of the nuclear age’, May 1959. Correspondence re lecture scheduled for May 1955, but pernaps not delivered. 3 pp. later note by Chain on the Centre. ‘Bacterial Growth and its Inhibition', inaugural Symposium of International Research Centre of Chemical Microbiology (at Istituto), June 1951. Includes 4 pp. ms. preliminary notes by Chain on organisation, funding, invitations, etc., and miscellaneous other notes. Chain's introductory address 'Aims and functions of the Inter- national Research Centre of Chemical Microbiology’. C.93-C.101 CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA c.%o E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome Minutes of Departmental Meeting, February 1952, with a of personnel and account of research in hand. list Sixth International Congress of Microbiology, Rome, June 1953. Correspondence with colleagues re organisation and invitations, 1952. Chain's introductory remarks welcoming members to Third Symposium (on Microbial Metabolism). Press-cutting on published reports (1954). Shorter correspondence re publication. Correspondence arising from Congress, with R. Cruickshank re possible discussion group on ‘air hygiene’, with P. Hauduroy re meeting of Sub-Committee of International Society of Microbiology held during Rome Congress, and with S. Ajl te Seventh Congress held in Moscow 1956. Commemoration of centenary of death of Amadeo Avogadro, June 1956. Chain wrote to several colleagues in Letters to colleagues re celebrations, publicity arrangements. Correspondence with C.N. Hinshelwood, English and Italian texts of his address. The celebrations were organised by the Accademia dei XL; L. Pauling and C.N. Hinshelwood gave addresses and were awarded Avogadro Medals, the first recipients of this newly- instituted honour. Britain, U.S.A. and France requesting their participation and also arranging visits or lectures at the Istituto. Printed programme, and account of Symposium. First International Symposium on Fermentation, May 1960, held at Istituto and sponsored jointly by Istituto, American Chemical Society and Societa Chimica Italiana. Correspondence with L. Pauling, English and Italian texts of his address, lecture notice and summary only of Pauling's lecture at the Istituto during his visit, rapporto alle malattie' on 'Emoglobine anormali in Correspondence with colleagues inviting them to attend or read papers at Conference (almost entirely Chain's carbons only), 1959. Chain's speech of welcome, 16 pp. typescript. C.100,C.101 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 SECTION D IMPERIAL COLLEGE, LONDON _ D.1 - D.168 0.1. = a2 APPOINTMENT TO THE CHAIR OF BIOCHEMISTRY AT IMPERIAL COLLEGE Correspondence and papers, 1953-64 RETIREMENT AND THE FUTURE OF THE DEPARTMENT Correspondence and papers, 1972-79 With an introductory note O.75.% D123 DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY, ADMINISTRATIVE CORRESPONDENCE, 1961-78 evo oe Building and equipment D.88 -D.9 Funding D.100.- OF 111 Start D.112-D.123 Requests to visit/work in Chain's laboratory D.124 - D.153 COLLEGE AFFAIRS D.154 - D.168 GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE ON DEPARTMENTAL AND DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY, RESEARCH AND TEACHING, 1962-79 see F.182, F.282ff., F.312, F.313, F.343, F.344. For research projects undertaken by the Department of Biochemistry on behalf E25; EO: E148, £.57; -£. 6) ="bv63, 6.96 = Sells, £.1e0, beter tee, Sections E and F contain considerable additional material relating to research grants awarded to the Department of Biochemistry during this period. See especially E.190, E.195, F.121-F.168 passim, F.260, F.314ff., F.330 of various industrial firms, E.B. Chain CS AC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London APPOINTMENT TO THE CHAIR OF BIOCHEMISTRY AT IMPERIAL COLLEGE Correspondence and papers, 1953-64. Preliminary negotiations, 1953-56 re arrangements for Chain to visit Correspondence with P.M.S. Blackett, 1953-54. correspondence is Imperial College with a view to having a general discussion with the Rector (R.P. Linstead) and others re the need for developing the study of applied microbiology in England, with particular reference to Imperial College. 1953 Correspondence with D.M. Newitt, October-November 1953, re arrangements for a visit to Chain's laboratory in Rome. Letters from |. Heilbron and E.C. Dodds, 1955, reporting on conversations with Blackett and Linstead re future developments at Imperial College. "Memorandum on a project of an Institute for General and Applied Biochemistry at Imperial College! Correspondence leading to official appointment, 1957-59 Correspondence with Blackett and Linstead re Chain's memorandum, January-May 1956. 2 typescript drafts and 6 pp. ms. notes for detailed pros- pectus setting out requirements of space, staffing and equipment, sent to Blackett and Linstead in January 1956 (see D.5). There is another copy at C.13, Correspondence with Linstead, April-June 1958. to Chain to be considered as a candidate for the Chair of Biochemistry and further correspondence re requirements of space, staffing, equipment, etc. Correspondence with Linstead, 1957. from Chain, 3 October, with detailed comments on his 1956 memorandum. 11 pp. typescript 'My activities at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita' and 1 with Chain's candidacy for the Chair of Biochemistry. p. curriculum vitae prepared in connection Includes 6 pp. letter Invitation E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London Includes letter from H.A. Krebs urging Chain Letter from Linstead, 11 July 1958, conveying offer of the Biochemistry Chair and Chain's provisional letter of acceptance. to consider the proposition very seriously, telegram re arrangements for meeting with Linstead for further dis- cussions, and ms. notes +photograph re plans for new Department of Biochemistry at Imperial College. 2 letters from M. Beloff, July and October 1958, re possible sources of financial support for the Imperial College project. See also K.49ff. Correspondence with Linstead, September-December 1958, re detailed administrative arrangements for the proposed new Department of Biochemistry at Imperial College. Includes drafts of grant application to the Wolfson Foundation and discussion of other possible sources of finance. Letters to Lord Nathan and L. Wolfson, October 1958- January 1959, re grant application to the Wolfson Foundation. Correspondence with Linstead, January-June 1959, mainly te progress of grant applications. Correspondence with Blackett re draft of grant application to the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (BSR); Apt 1959: 3 pp. typescript note by H. Redman of a meeting with Nathan, J.D. Cockcroft and Linstead, proposed Wolfson Foundation grant to Imperial College. 18 June 1959, to discuss the Correspondence with Lord Falmouth (Chairman of the Board of Governors of Imperial College), February-March 1959, re arrangements for a visit to Chain's laboratory in Rome. appointment to the Biochemistry Chair at Imperial College. Correspondence with Linstead, August-December 1959. Includes typescript drafts on 'Recent Developments in the Penicillin Field' (re isolation of the nucleus of the penicillin molecule) and a biographical outline, both prepared as source material for press releases announcing Chain's official Copy of letter to Redman from the Secretary, Imperial College, 2 July 1959, outlining draft heads of agreement with the Wolfson Foundation. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London Correspondence with Lord Nathan, August-December 1959, mainly re final negotiations with the Wolfson Foundation and Imperial College. announcing Chain's official appointment. Includes draft of Press Release Correspondence with the Secretary, Imperial College, October-December 1959, re formalities leading to Chain's official appointment, arrangements for the press release, etc. D.20-D.42 Official appointment and related correspondence, 1960-66 D.20 Official letter of appointment to the Chair of Biochemistry, 25 January 1960, and Chain's letter of acceptance. Folder also includes miscellaneous related press-cuttings and printed matter. See also A.110. D.21°D.26 Letters of congratulation on Chain's appointment. D.21 B-F D.22 an 1960 G-K L-P R-W D.23 D.24 D.25 D.26 Publishers, firms, organisations (not indexed) Friends and first name signatures (not indexed) 1. Wolfson, 30 January 1960, Copy of letter from Chain to expressing thanks for the Wolfson Foundation's contribution to the Imperial College project. 1963 (Chain's carbons only) Correspondence with Linstead, 1960-66, re a wide range of administrative matters connected with the building and setting up of the new Biochemistry Department. 1961-62 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London 1964-66 Includes brief correspondence re conferment of Associateship of the Royal College of Science, honoris causa, 1966. 2 letters from the Secretary, Imperial College, September- December 1960, re implications of decision to abandon plans for adapting the existing Royal College of Science Building to provide accommodation for the Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry in favour of erecting a com- pletely new building on the site of the old one. Draft press release re building plans, 18 January 1961, is also included in the folder. Correspondence with Lord Nathan, 1961-63, te building arrangements, funding, etc. Correspondence with Chain's Secretary at Imperial College, December 1961-March 1964. 1961-62 1963 1964 Another sequence, mainly duplicates, much less complete. Correspondence with the Office of the Minister for Science, 1961, in reply to a request for an outline of Chain's proposed research programme and his views on the current position of British research in microbiology and biochemical engineering. fermentation pilot plant. Copy of Press Release announcing approval by the University Grants Committee of space and cost estimates for the new biochemistry building at Imperial College to incorporate the Wolfson Laboratories and a fermentation pilot plant, 26 June 1962. Included here are 2 pp. undated typescript notes re the E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London Several drafts of Press Release announcing the award of the D.S.1.R. grant for the running expenses of the Department of Biochemistry, June 1963. Correspondence with Imperial College and various removal firms re estimates of cost for removal of Chain's household goods from Rome to London, 1964. Ms. draft outlining the history of the Biochemistry Depart- ment at Imperial College with a description of the facilities offered by the new Biochemistry building, n.d., ¢.1965-66. The draft is written on pages torn from a notebook (numbered 1-11) and is prefaced by 2 pp. unrelated notes. See A.224 for an album of photographs commemorating the opening of the Department. EsBe Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London D.43-D.74 RETIREMENT AND THE FUTURE OF THE BIOCHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT Correspondence and papers 1972-79. Chain's last years at Imperial College were marred by a violent controversy over the future of the Biochemistry Department which involved two successive Rectors of the College, two Chairmen and other members of the Board of Governors, two Vice-Chancellors of the University and various legal advisers and scientific colleagues. Part of the controversy centered around the circumstances of a gift of £50, 000 originally made by Lord Rank in 1967 (see F.316) for the establishment of a second Chair of Biochemistry in Chain's department. At the time, the College was unable to find the additional money needed for the financing of a Chair so, with Lord Rank's agreement, it was arranged that the money would be made available to Chain through the College for research Fellowships. Chain used only the interest for this purpose, leaving the principal intact, and at the beginning of 1973 he approached needed for the endowment of a second Chair. successor (and Head of Department) in January 1974 and the Rank Chair was filled a year later by E.A. Barnard. It was Chain's wish that the Rank Chair should be in the field of physiological biochemistry while his own successor as Professor and Head of the Biochemistry Department should be a chemical microbiologist, thus ensuring the continuation of and others about suitable candidates for the two Chairs the posts were advertised in September 1973. B. Hartley (a molecular biologist) was appointed as Chain's his own main areas of research. After considerable correspondence with the Rector the Rank Trustees for a further donation of £50,000 in order to make up the amount finally resolved through the intervention of a legal adviser. also considered them to be a misuse of the funds which he had obtained for the en- contrary to the interests of the Biochemistry Department, since they would almost dowment of the Rank Chair. The controversy continued until 1978 and was only inevitably foreshadow the running down of the fermentation pilot plant, and he Chain bitterly contested both these appointments which he thought were E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London Correspondence with Lord Penney (Rector of Imperial College 1967-73 in succession to R.P. Linstead) and others, January-March 1972, te arrangements for the future of the Biochemistry Department. 9 pp. typescript on 'Future Contributions from Biochemistry to the Advancement of Medical Research', March 1972. Correspondence with Lord Penney and others, June- December 1972. ‘The case for the endowment of a second Chair of Biochemistry, for the subject of Physiological Biochemistry at Imperial College’ 9 pp. typescript, n.d., but folder also contains letters to A. Spicer and R.S. Edwards forwarding copies of the memorandum, 9 January 1973. Correspondence with A. Spicer and J.D. Hutchison, January- April, 1973, re Chain's application to the Rank Trustees for funds to make up the amount needed in addition to the original Rank benefaction for the endowment of a second Chair. May July D.48-D.50 Correspondence with Lord Penney, January-July 1973. D.48 January-April Includes comments on the progress of negotiations for the endowment of a second Chair. Includes further correspondence re negotiations with the Rank Trustees. chemistry, 1 October 1973. Includes draft letter from Penney to the Principal, University of London, requesting approval for the establishment of the Rank Chair. Correspondence and drafts re advertisements for both Chairs, August-September 1973. Correspondence re arrangements for public announcement of the institution of the Rank Chair of Physiological Bio- E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 D.55-D.69 Imperial College, London Correspondence re use of monies remaining from research grants made to Chain by various firms and organisations, and letter from Penney, 27 September 1973, offering Chain a Senior Research Fellowship tenable for 3 years from 1 October 1973 on his retirement as Head of the Biochemistry Department. Correspondence with colleagues re the appointment of Chain's successor, November-December 1973 (mainly Chain's carbons only). Extensive correspondence with Sir Brian (later Lord) Flowers, (Penney's successor as Rector of Imperial College from October 1973), the Chairman and members of the Board of Governors and others, following the appointment of B. Hartley as Chain's successor in January 1974. The sequence includes several drafts of a detailed memorandum sent to Lord Goodman in October 1974 (see D.61-D. 64) putting forward Chain's view of the controversy. The correspondence continues to 1976 (but see also D.70-D.72). 1974 January February-March April May June-July October-December Includes minutes of a Special Biochemistry Depart- mental Committee Meeting, 9 January. 28 pp. typescript with ms. and typescript additions. Drafts for paper prepared by Chain giving his views of the matter, the final version of which was sent to Lord Goodman on 28 October 1974 (see letter in D.60). Ms. and typescript draft with additional ms. fragments. ‘Biochemistry at Imperial College. History and Outlook’ Imperial College, London Another copy of D.62 incorporating the additional material with some further corrections. 35 pp. typescript, final version, dated 27 October 1974. 1975 January-March April-May June-November 1976 January-March April-July Correspondence with S. Berwin of Berwin Leighton (solicitors), April 1976-August 1977. a long letter from Chain listing several letters and memoranda most of which are now among the papers in D.43-D.69 (but see also F.316-F.318). The correspondence opens with Seealso D.73. April-July 1976 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 D.68 D.69 D.70-D.72 April-August 1977 September 1976- January 1977 Mainly copies of correspondence between Berwin and Flowers. included. Two letters from D.H.R. Barton are also year 1978-79 is also included here. Correspondence with Flowers and others, November 1975- October 1976, arising from Chain's request for the renewal of his Senior Research Fellowship after its expiry in September 1976. Includes further copies of correspondence with Flowers and several drafts of arrangement between Chain and Imperial College, the final version of which was accepted by him in July 1977. Correspondence re award of Honorary Fellowship to Chain, December 1977. on 26 October 1978. tion of secretarial arrangements The official award was made Brief correspondence re continua- after the academic E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London D.75-D.123 DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY, ADMINISTRATIVE CORRESPONDENCE, 1961-78 D.75 -D.87 Building and equipment D.88 -D.99 Funding D.100-D.111 Staff D.112-D.123 Requests to visit/work in Chain's laboratory See also D.28-D.37 D.75-D.87 BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT 0.75 ‘List of Rooms in Biochemical Department of Pilot Plant' Schedule of space requirements, in English and Italian, n.d., but possibly connected with early plans for Biochemistry Department at Imperial College. D.7/7 D.78 v.77 D.80-D.83 February-December 1960 March-October 196] Correspondence with Imperial College Planning Office, February 1960-May 1963, re details of building plans and equipment. Set of plans for expansion of Biochemistry Department at Imperial College dated 14 January 1959, and brief corres- pondence with the Planning Office, December 1958, re space needed for fermenters. here. Brief correspondence with A.W. Cox re arrangements for visit to Rome. chemistry Building, November 1960, is also included Schedule of rooms in the Bio- Correspondence with Architects' Co-Partnership, June 1960- April 1963. May 1962-May 1963 (Chain's carbons only) D.80 June 1960 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London March-December 196] January 1962-April 1963 (mainly Chain's carbons only) D.83 Architects' drawings for the internal layout of the Biochemistry Building. D.84 Correspondence with engineers and contractors, 1961-63. D.85-D.87 Equipment, library books, etc., correspondence and schedules, 1960-64. D.85 D.86 D.87 1960 1961-62 1963-64 D.88-D.99 FUNDING The following papers relate mainly to two major initial Pre-1960 cor- of scientific research. respondence re grant applications, including the grant awarded by the Wolfson Foundation in 1959, is to be found passim in D.1 - D.42., Correspondence re subsequent grants for research in the Department of Bio- list of references to grants in other parts chemistry is at D.124ff. There is a Also included here is correspondence re a further application to the U.G.C, in 1966 and drafts of a letter to The Times on the general problem of the funding grants towards the setting up of the Biochemistry Department, from the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and the University Grants Committee. D.S.1.R. application. Correspondence with Imperial College re grant application to D.S.1.R., 1960. Includes copy of application, February 1960, and of Addendum submitted in April. Drafts and background material for the Addendum to the of the collection at the beginning of Section D. D.88 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London Further correspondence re D.S.I.R. grant, 1962-63 (Chain's carbons only), including 7 pp. letter, detailed replies to points raised by D.S.I.R. 18 May 1962, with Correspondence with E. Lester Smith (Assessor) re grant application to the University Grants Committee (U.G.C.), March-April 1963. Registrar, Imperial College. Includes an earlier letter from the Ms. drafts and typescript lists of requirements for equipment and staff, prepared for U.G.C., May 1963. Draft equipment schedule prepared by Imperial College for submission to U.G.C., June 1963. Correspondence with the Secretary and the Financial Secretary, Imperial College, 1963-64 (mainly Chain's carbons only). Includes arrangements for press releases re grants from D.S.1.R., M.R.C., Fleming Memorial Fund and U.G.C, Copy of assessors' report, July 1966, on application by Chain to U.G.C, for a further grant for capital equipment, and brief correspondence arising. The report recommended an award of less than one third of the total amount requested. Further correspondence with Saunders, February~August 1967, mainly re the financial implications of U.G.C's decision. 3 letters to P.M.S. Blackett, 10 May 1967, re the possibility of obtaining a special grant from the Ministry of Technology, with a brief reply from Blackett, 23 May. Correspondence with O.A. Saunders (Acting Rector, Imperial College 1966-67) te Chain's U.G.C. application, October 1966- January 1967, including copies of letters exchanged between Saunders and the Chairman of U.G.C. Telegraph, and correspondence arising, July-August 1967. Drafts for letter to The Times signed by Chain and six other members of Imperial College, July 1967, re government limitations on university equipment grants, related press- cuttings from other newspapers, drafts for letter to the Daily E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 D.100-D.111 STAFF Imperial College, London The majority of the following papers relate to Chain's initial search for staff during the setting up of the Biochemistry Department and includes some unsolicited letters of invitation as well as routine job applications and letters of recommendation from colleagues. especially 1963 correspondence which is mostly Chain's carbons only), but it is nevertheless interesting. The picture is far from complete (see The remainder of the section contains some rather scanty correspondence with and re research students, visiting scientists, etc. accepted or recommended for work at Imperial College, 1963-76. D.100 D.101 D.102 February-March 1960 April-November 1960 1961 1962 D.103 . 104 <1uo at Imperial College, 1963-76. For material on W.H.O. Fellows, see E.235. 1963 (Chain's carbons only, with 2 exceptions) -106-D.108 Research students, etc. accepted or recommended for work Copies of letters answering advertisements for posts in Nature and other journals, April 1963. See also D.126, D.127, D.128. Shorter correspondence re staff sa laries, promotions, etc., 1964-74, 1963-67 1968-71 1969-76 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London Drafts and brief correspondence re advertisements for staff in the Department of Biochemistry, 1967-72. Information or requests for advice re posts in other uni- versities or laboratories, 1963-74. D.112-D.123 REQUESTS TO VISIT/WORK IN CHAIN'S LABORATORY As in Rome, the research and facilities, in particular the fermentation pilot plant, attracted a large number of visitors and requests to work there. Unfortunately the surviving correspondence is rather patchy, the years 1964-67 being particularly badly documented in this collection. For similar material re Chain's laboratory Ss in the Istituto Superiore di p Me Sanita see C.54-C.65, “ate 113 1964 1965-67 1968 18 lat 1970 1971 re 1973 -114 bp 440 one? Tre - 120 February-June 1969 July-December 1969 1976, 1978, 1979 eee ted 1974 179 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 D.124-D.153 DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY, RESEARCH AND TEACHING, 1961-78 Imperial College, London D.124-D.138 RESEARCH The following papers document two of the many research grants awarded to Chain for work at Imperial College and contain some correspondence and research reports relating to the fermentation pilot plant as well as a few more general reports on research in the Department of Biochemistry. D.133 contains correspondence with various organisations interested in collaborating on the development of an automatic amino acid analyser designed by A.J. Thomas in Chain's department. See also D.88-D.99 (and introductory note) and the list of references at the beginning of Section D. D.124-D.126 Fleming Memorial Fund Grant Correspondence with Imperial College and the Secretary of the Fleming Memorial Fund, 1963-66, re arrangements for acceptance and administration of the grant. Correspondence re expenditure on staff salaries, equipment and books from the Fleming Memorial Fund grant, 1973-79. Correspondence 1977-79 is with E.A. Barnard. D.124 Correspondence with E.C, Dodds, 1962, arising from a suggestion by Dodds that Chain should apply for a grant from the Fleming Memorial Fund. Two letters from Chain to the Secretary of the Fleming Memorial Fund, March and April 1962, are also included. See also D.72, D.94, E.61-E.63. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 D.127-D.130 Beecham Research Grants Imperial College, London The Beecham Group sponsored two research projects and two studentships in the Department of Biochemistry between 1967 and 1972, and a further grant was made in 1974 for work on ds-RNA. Most of the correspondence re the progress of these research projects is with the rest of the Beecham material in Section F, but administrative corres- pondence with Imperial College and a few research reports have been included here. Di Ler pede Correspondence with Imperial College, 1968-72, re administration of research grants for work on 'Microbial metabolites’ and 'Mode of action of penicillins’. 1968-70 1971-72 "2nd Annual Progress Report on Mode of Action of Penicillin carried out by Dr. Work's Group at Imperial College’. 21 pp. typescript with figures, January 1971. Inteferon'. General correspondence re the fermentation pilot plant, 1966-73. Letter from G.T. Banks, 15 February 1971, contains a list of research contracts involving the pilot plant, 1970-71. Copy of letter from J. Edwardson to Beecham Research Laboratories, January 1974, outlining proposals for work at Imperial College on ds-RNA, and research report on ‘Studies on the Mechanisms Involved in the Toxicity of BRL 5907', June 1974. The front page of the report is annotated 'Beecham. Continued Schedule of 'Proposed Additional Equipment for Use in the Pilot Plant and Workshop', 2 December 1969. ‘Instrumentation of Imperial College Fermentation Pilot Plant.’ 3 pp. typescript, n.d. Memoranda, schedules, data, etc. connected with the pilot plant, 1967-70, and nd. Includes: ‘Pilot Plant Fermentation Charges', 2 pp. typescript, 3 October 1967, re contract work for outside bodies. ‘Technical Staff requirements for Pilot Plant', 13 May 1970. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London .132(Cont'd.) ‘Fusicoccin. College’. Summary of work carried out at Imperial 4 pp. typescript by G.T. Banks, n.d. 133 ‘Report of work carried out in the Biochemistry Department, Imperial College (October 1969-March 1971). typescript. 13 pp. ‘The Ergotamine Fermentation. and Fermentation Studies'. diagrams and photographs by G.T. Banks, October 1971. 14 pp. typescript with Report on Microbiological Ms. and corrected typescript drafts by Chain of report on ‘Research carried out in the fermentation pilot plant from 1966-1972', Report on 'Annual Estimated Cost of Fermentation Pilot Plant'. 7 pp. typescript, 1973. Miscellaneous reports on research at Imperial College, 1966, 1976 and n.d. 2439-D:,153 TEACHING Working Party on Biological Studies. The following papers mainly relate to various Working Parties set up in Imperial College of which Chain was a member. Correspondence 1970-71 with various firms and organisations interested in collaborating on the development of an automatic amino acid analyser designed by A.J. Thomas in the Department of Biochemistry. The instrument was eventually produced by Rank Precision Industries Ltd. and marketed under the name of 'Chromaspek' (see F.312, F.313). the Biological Sciences at Imperial College’, February 1964. Invitation to serve; minutes of meeting, 9 May 1967, and brief correspondence; copy of report, June 1967. Folder also includes report of "1974 Committee" on ‘Expansion of E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 D.140-D.146 Biology Working Party. Imperial College, London See also 'Working Party on Biological Studies’. Correspondence, 1968-69, re arrangements for reappraisal of proposals submitted by the Working Party on Biological Studies for common first-year undergraduate course in biological subjects in June 1967. Invitation to serve on the newly-constituted Biology Working Party, December 1968, with outline of its terms of reference and constitution. Correspondence and drafts leading to interim report, March 1969-January 1970. Correspondence with T.R.E. Southwood, December 1969- May 1970, mainly re Imperial College Field Station at Silwood Park. Working Party Report. Includes draft revision of part of the Biology Memoranda and correspondence re visit of U.G.C. Biological Sciences Sub-Committee to Imperial College, 12 November 1970. Further correspondence, minutes of meetings, etc., .147-D.149 Working Party on Physiological Flow. Correspondence and papers, 1967-69. D.146 Brief correspondence, January-March 1971. Minutes of last 2 meetings of the Biology Working Party, September 1970 and February 1971, with copies of Interim, Revised and Final Reports. January 1968-December 1969. Invitation to attend the first meeting, January 1967; minutes and correspondence re further meetings to October 1967. Progress reports on the Physiological Flow Studies Unit, by C. Caro (Director), February 1968. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London Working Party on Bio-Engineering Invitation to attend the first meeting, June 1968, with terms of reference of the working party; brief corres- pondence, July-December 1968; 4 pp. typescript on ‘Bioengineering in Biochemistry’, prepared for the report of the Working Party. Memorandum by G.T. Banks on Courses in Fermentation Science and Technology, April 1978. 3 pp. ms. notes by Chain on the same subject, n.d. Shorter correspondence re academic affairs of Department of Biochemistry, courses proposed, examinations, etc., 1967-74. Miscellaneous arrangements for meetings, seminars, inter- departmental colloquia, etc., 1966-73. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London D.154-D.168 GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE ON DEPARTMENTAL AND COLLEGE AFFAIRS D.154-D.163 Correspondence with colleagues at Imperial College, 1961-79. Includes personal and scientific exchanges. D. 154 potrer, Ro om. 1962, 767 1962 letter Chain's carbon only. Barton, D. Fie ORs 1961, 1967, 1968 1961 letter Chain's carbon only. Brown, J. butlers, tp Coro, GG, Includes copy of grant application to the British Heart Foundation. Ford, H. 1966-68, 1973 N. 1966-70 Gabor, D. Jones, H. Richards, O. 1966 1966 Jackson, Lord James, W. -O: Hinshelwood, C. 1968 correspondence is mainly re E.M.B.O. 1971 Chain's carbon only. Southwood, T. Roberfs, E. oR; 1961 1971 1966 A; R. ; Rogers, D. re fusicoccin Sounders. ©; 1965-67 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Imperial College, London Spaiding, .D.:. B. re plans for collaboration with G.T. Banks. TOO CE i ite. Si Ubbelohde, A. : Whittingham, C. @ 1979 1968 1967-70 1969-70 Includes 2 pp. ms. draft re choice of suc- cessor to Whittingham, n.d., c.1971. Melehck. 94 = 1961 Shorter correspondence recollege and departmental affairs, 1961-76. Shorter social correspondence, 1968-74 Ms. for speech at Heads of Department Dinner, n.d. Miscellaneous requests for information te courses, etc. Miscellaneous incomplete drafts for correspondence, speeches, grant applications, etc., 1 p. dated 1974. at Imperial College, 1969-77. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 SECTION E SOCIETIES AND ORGANISATIONS _E.1 - E.238 INTRODUCTION AND LIST OF CONTENTS The material is presented in an alphabetical sequence and covers bot British and overseas organisations. While some entries are relatively trivial and deal with membership, invitations to meetings and the like, others are substantial folders covering a lengthy time-span and matters of consequence such as research policy, grant applications for Chain's own research projects or those referred to him for com- ment. Examples of these are the British Heart Foundation, the Medical and Science Research Councils, and the World Health Organization. ACCADEMIA FLAMINIA ACCADEMIA NAZIONALE DEI LINCEI ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGISTS ARTS COUNCIL TECHNIQUE ACCADEMIA NAZIONALE DEI XL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL AIMS FOR FREEDOM AND ENTERPRISE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY ASSOCIATION NATIONALE DE LA RECHERCHE ASSOCIATION OF THE BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL THE BRITISH NUTRITION FOUNDATION THE BRITISH INDUSTRIAL BIOLO GICAL RESEARCH BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR CANCER RESEARCH THE BRITISH COUNCIL THE BRITISH DIABETIC ASSOCIATION BRITISH HEART FOUNDATION INDUSTRY THE BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY ASSOCIATION E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations CANCER RESEARCH CAMPAIGN THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY THE CIBA FOUNDATION THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC POLICY COUNCIL CF ENGINEERING INSTITUTIONS DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH EUROPEAN SOCIETY FOR BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY EVOLUTION PROTEST MOVEMENT FEDERATION OF EUROPEAN BIOLOGICAL SOCIETIES THE FLEMING MEMORIAL FUND FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION FUNDACION GENERAL MEDITERRANEA (MIGUEL SERVET FUND)"E eo E.44 oath Od 203 54 ao i) cor. .98 559 -60 64 65 SOCIETIES AND BIOENGINEERING THE INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC AFFAIRS THE INDEPENDENT UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGY THE INSTITUTION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL FOUNDATION INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY THE LISTER INSTITUTE OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC ACADEMY FOR THE PROTECTION OF LIFE, FOR ENVIRONMENT AND BIOPOLITICS INTERNATIONAL UNION OF BIOCHEMISTRY THE IRAN SOCIETY E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations MEDICAL RESEARCH CLUB MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FOOD MINISTRY OF HEALTH MINISTRY OF TECHNOLO GY NATIONAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION NOBEL COMMITTEE THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION THE NUTRITION SOCIETY OFFICE OF HEALTH ECONOMICS PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION THE PARLIAME NTARY AND SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE PAUL ERHLICH FOUNDATION .86 sree iti? a 113-E,718 che .120 ~bL2tT-E,429 « LO orate be lS2 133 .134 ae .136 ~ 13%7-E.145 PAUL ERHLICH INSTITUTE AFFAIRS - 148 » 49°68, 155 -146 147 toe e e «D7. T r THE RANK PRIZE FUNDS THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN PUGWASH CONFERENCES ON SCIENCE AND WORLD ROYAL POSTGRADUATE MEDICAL SCHOOL THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF HEALTH THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS THE ROYAL INSTITUTION THE ROYAL SOCIETY . 158 . oF w m . m M m M . 162-E. 183 M M . 184 m m +18 a m - 186 m M - 160 16] M O M EB. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations ST. MICHAEL'S FOUNDATION LIMITED ST. VINCENT INTERNATIONAL PRIZE SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL SLOAN-KETTERING INSTITUTE FOR CANCER RESEARCH SOCIETA CHIMICA ITALIANA SOCIETA ITALIANA DELLE SCIENZE VETERINARIE SOCIETA ITALIANA DI CHEMIOTERAPIA SOCIETA ITALIANA DI MICROBIOLOGIA SOCIETA ITALIANA DI SCIENZE FARMACEUTICHE SOCIETY FOR ANGLO-CHINESE UNDERSTANDING SOCIETY FOR ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY SOCIETY FOR DRUG RESEARCH SOCIETY FOR GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY UNESCO . 187 . 188 © 189-E.196 sa Pe .198 aa? - 200 . 201 -202 .203 204 ae - 206 jaar eels m r o m r o n e r . m r o m M . m e T T U ” T E t e c e e e e e e pale aie 5219 220 eel eee THE WELLCOME TRUST LIFE WYNDHAM PLACE TRUST USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION THE WELLCOME FOUNDATION LIMITED THE WELLCOME RESEARCH LABORATORIES WORLD FEDERATION OF DOCTORS WHO RESPECT HUMAN . 238 meatt.23/ E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations ACCADEMIA FLAMINIA (Bologna) 1972; A979 1972 correspondence is re Chain's election as an Honorary Academician, in the founding year of the Accademia. 1979 correspondence is with the President (G. Baldoni) re the activities of the Accademia Flaminia. ACCADEMIA NAZIONALE DEI LINCE!I 1949, 1959 1959 correspondence is re Chain's nomination to serve on committee for Feltrinelli Prize. ACCADEMIA NAZIONALE DEI XL 1956-79 Miscellaneous correspondence from successive Presidents and Secretaries (including D. Marotta). AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (ARC) 197] AIMS FOR FREEDOM AND ENTERPRISE Brief correspondence only. AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY (Division of Medicinal Chemistry) Correspondence and papers on the rdle and policy of ARC, mainly prepared by N. Goldenberg for submission to Sir Alan Cottrell. Invitation to serve on Comité d'honneur. Brief correspondence re Chain's suggestion of an exhibition of Russian painting. ASSOCIATION NATIONALE DE LA RECHERCHE TECHNIQUE Brief correspondence re Trueman Wood lecture (Bibliog. 99). ARTS COUNCIL Wie E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGISTS 1963-70 Correspondence re organisation of meetings, sponsored by Chain at Imperial College. Various dates 1963-70. ASSOCIATION OF THE BRITISH PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY 1964-71 General correspondence re meetings and activities. Pixteh ty THE BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY 1964-74 Correspondence with colleagues and with officers of the Society, mainly re meetings and Symposia sponsored by Chain at Imperial College or with contributions by him. Ms. draft for Chain's speech of welcome at first meeting of Society at Imperial College, n.d. [1964]. Brief correspondence re 1965 meeting. Correspondence 1966 re colloquium on 'Comparative Biochemistry of Resistance to Drug Action’ (November 1966). Chain gave Chairman's introductory speech, and opened the final discussion. Includes ms. and typescript versions of introductory speech. Correspondence 1967 re possible Science Travel Service. Correspondence and papers 1969 re colloquium on 'Naturally Occurring Substances of Potential Use for Control of Plants and Animals' (May 1969). Chain's collaborative paper with K.D. Barrow, 'The wilting toxins of Fusicoccum amygdali Del.' able to undertake. Correspondence 1969-70 re 500th Meeting of Society, on ‘Biochemistry Past and Present', and proposed contribution by Chain on history of anti-biotics, which he did not feel Includes typescript of part of E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations Correspondence 1969-71 re Joint Meeting with Society for General Microbiology, held at Imperial College in December 1972, on 'Fungal Biochemistry’. Includes programmes, ms. opening remarks by Chain, and typescript of collaborative contributions to colloquium, on 'Claviceps purpurea', and on 'Viruses of Penicillia and Aspergilli’. Shorter correspondence 1973-74, including Chain's transfer to Emeritus Membership (1973) and Joint Symposium with British Association (1974). BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR CANCER RESEARCH 1979 Brief correspondence re presentation to |. Berenblum. THE BRITISH COUNCIL 1958, 1970-72 1958 correspondence is re Marotta. Later correspondence is re British Council visitors from overseas. E 2reeege BRITISH HEART FOUNDATION 1963-74 THE BRITISH DIABETIC ASSOCIATION 1967-71 Shorter correspondence re Chain's contribution to, and Honorary Patronage of, the Association, various dates. Chain was a member of the Science Committee (renamed the Scientific Advisory Committee in 1970) from its inception in 1963 until its disbandment in 1973. He also served on the Research Funds Committee, which was set up in 1970 to review applications for research grants and to allocate funds, in place of the Science Committee which was felt to have become too cumbersome to deal with the growing volume of work. of Scientific Advisory Committee. Chain received support from the Foundation for some of his own research projects at Imperial College; see especially E.25 below for material relating to his application with D.J. Hearse for a grant for research into 'Drugs and Cardiac Metabolism’. Correspondence re Chain's membership of the two Committees, 1963-73. thanks for service on both committees, letter re disbandment Includes letters of invitation to serve, letters of EB. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations E22 Correspondence re arrangements for committee meetings, symposia, and other business of the Foundation, 1967-72. bear. 24 Correspondence re applications for research grants, with Chain's comments, evaluations, correspondence with colleagues or applicants, lists of grants made at meetings of Advisory Committee, etc. 2 folders as follows: 1967-71 1972-74 Correspondence re grants made by the British Heart Foundation to the Biochemistry Department, Imperial College, 1967-74. Includes grant applications, correspondence re staff appoint ments, press releases, reports on research, publications, etc. The grants include work on 'Oxygen Metabolism of Heart Muscle', 'Metabolism of Heart Muscle', Metabolism’. ‘Drugs and Cardiac General correspondence re meetings and lectures. 1970-78 1967-70 Roget, ot THE BRITISH NUTRITION FOUNDATION (BNF) 1967-78 THE BRITISH INDUSTRIAL BIOLO GICAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION (BIBRA) Chain served on the first Scientific Advisory Committee of the Foundation, on the Executive Committee (sometimes as Chairman), and on the Information Committee. In 1974 he chaired a committee set up 'to re-assess the Foundation and the direction in which it is heading', and he played a major part in the Foundation), etc. Includes invitation to serve on Scientific Advisory Committee, correspondence with A.C. Frazer (first Director-General of The material includes correspondence with Officers of the Foundation, and with scientific and industrial colleagues, on all aspects of the Foundation's work. personal material. There is also a little its grant-awarding and prize-giving activities. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations 1972 1973, January-April 1974 Includes meetings chaired by Chain, funding and matters arising. May-December 1974 Includes speeches by Chain at Nutrition Foundations’ Annual Book Award, and at BNF Annual Luncheon (both October), and correspondence re B.B.C, ‘Tuesday Call-in' programme on chickens. 1975-78 Includes correspondence re press comment on alleged carcinogens in coffee, Chain's service on Information Com- mittee of BNF and his re-appointment to other Committees. Correspondence 1972-75 with J. Rank re affairs of the Foundation, officers, etc. E.33-E 83 CANCER RESEARCH CAMPAIGN 1966-76 (Until 1970: British Empire Cancer Campaign for Research) Chain served as Royal Society representative on the Grand Council 1969-75 (see E.33) and on the Executive Committee (see letter of 20 July 1970 in E.34). E. 33-38 are a chronological sequence of general corres- pondence on policy, funding, committee and discussion meetings, lectures and the general affairs of the organisation. E.39-E.43 deal with research grants made to Chain by the Campaign for projects at Imperial College. ful lines in cancer research, Includes correspondence on research developments, typescript of an address by Lord Nathan at Royal Society Cancer Research Symposium, and letter by Chain setting out his views on fruit- Letters of re-appointment as Royal Society representative on Grand Council, 1969-75. 1966-May 1972 October-December 1972 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations January-February 1973 Mainly re research policy of C.R.C. April-November 1973 Mainly re committee membership, with various memoranda by Chain. 1974-76 Letter of 15 May 1975 refers to nomination of D.A. J. Tyrell as Royal Society representative on Grand Council in place of Chain, and other membership changes. Also included is letter of thanks (May 1976) from the President for Chain's service. Correspondence and papers 1967-73 re grant to Chain for research on 'Large scale production of microbial asparaginase and the study of its antileucaemia and pharmacological properties’, and continuing related researches. This grant was awarded by the British Empire Cancer N.B. Campaign for Research, and continued after the change of name to Cancer Research Campaign. 1967-68 1969-70 197] 1972 5 folders as follows: Includes grant application, correspondence with Imperial College, press releases, research report. Statements of account, arrangements for visitors and meetings, applications for grant renewal, report. amino acids of bacterial origin’. Application for continuation grant for 'Studies on the isolation and purification of bacterial asparaginases', statement of account. Application for continuation grant with statement of research on 'Large scale preparation of purified deaminases of essential E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations 1973 Application for renewal of grant for work on 'Large scale preparation of purified deaminases of bacterial origin for essential amino-acids', arrangements for visit to Chain's department by Scientific Committee of C.R.C., and for future of enzyme research after Chain's retirement as Head of Department of Biochemistry . THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY 1950, 1968 Brief correspondence re Chain's application for Fellowship, 1950. Correspondence and papers re 5th International Symposium on 'The Chemistry of Natural Products', London 1968. Chain was one of the Honorary Vice~Presidents and chaired the Plenary Lecture by C.B. Anfinsen on 12 July. Includes ms. and typescript drafts of Chain's introductory speech, Handbook, List of participants. E.4arE 252 THE CIBA FOUNDATION 1961-79 'Action of Insulin on Metabolic E.46, E.47 1961-62 Correspondence and papers re meetings and symposia. A little personal material is also included. 1961-62 Correspondence re Symposium on ‘Enzymes and Drug Action’, March 1961. Chain's contribution, Reactions', was published in the symposium proceedings 1962 (Bibliog. 91). Group, sent to Chain for correction. Chain spoke on 'The new penicillins’, and his contribution was published in the proceedings. Correspondence and papers re Study Group on 'Resistance of Bacteria to the Penicillins', February 1962. Invitation, programme, list of speakers and participants, abstract of Chain's paper, etc. Editorial correspondence, transcript of discussion at Study E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations 1965 Letter of invitation to seminar on 'The Problem of Deter- mining Social Usefulness', October 1965. 1966-67 Correspondence and papers re Symposium on 'Interferon', April 1967. The Symposium was organised at the request of Alick Isaacs, who died in January 1967. to his memory. The symposium was dedicated 1967-69 Shorter correspondence re ‘Dunant Coterie' Dinners, etc. (Chain gave a talk at a 'Dunant Coterie' Dinner in 1969, on the Independent University. See E.68.) 1969, Correspondence re possible Chinese participation in a Ciba conference. 1970-71 1972-74 1977 +79 re Symposium on ‘Further perspectives in organic chemistry' (to commemorate Sir Robert Robinson), February 1977, and other commemorative meetings. Programme and correspondence re Study Group on 'Peptide Transport in Bacteria and Mammalian Gut', November 1971, and re 23rd Ciba Annual Lecture, given by H. Theorell, 1971. and technological research. General correspondence with members of the Conservative party, ministers and officials on the organisation of scientific THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY 1965-75 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC POLICY 1965-67 Working Party on Liaison between Universities and Government Research Establishments. The Working Party was set up under the Chairmanship of Sir Gordon Sutherland, and an interim report was produced in October 1965. to present a final report by June 1966. to serve on the committee in November 1965. of the Working Party was A.V. Cohen. It was then decided to expand the committee Chain was invited The Secretary Papers include invitation to serve, notices of meetings, material especially re German university and research systems (includes draft 'Comments' on the subject prepared by Chain), correspondence re drafting of report, letter of thanks for service. COUNCIL OF ENGINEERING INSTITUTIONS 1967-68 Joint Manpower Committee. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL SECURITY 1969, 1975-76 Correspondence 1969 is re Medicines Commission. Chain served as one of the Royal Society representatives on the committee, which was set up 'to review and analyse the various manpower reports and surveys in relation to the future needs of industry’. The Chairman was Sir Eric Mensforth. Material includes invitation to serve, correspondence and drafts of report, final revised version entitled 'Engineers, Technolo- gists and Scientists in the National Economy’. Continued Mainly concerned with grant of £100,000 made by DSIR to Department of Biochemistry, Imperial College, for Chain's research on 'Fermentation Biochemistry and Technology and Biosynthetic Mechanisms in Micro-Organisms'. Correspondence 1975-76 is with Minister (D. Owen), advisers and colleagues re medical research policy. DEPARTMENT OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH (DSIR) 1963-65 E.B, Chain CSAC 92/3/83 E.57 (Cont'd. ) Societies and organisations Includes correspondence, details of grant budget, claims and statements ofaccount, etc. anda note by Chain ona new Postgraduate Course in Biochemistry to start in October 1966. Also included here is brief correspondence re visit of Russian scientists, 1964. EUROPEAN SOCIETY FOR BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLO GY 1963 The Society was formed in 1963. international organising committee, and the first President. Chain was a member of the Correspondence re formation of society, ms. draft of Chain's "Opening address, introducing Professor Otto Warburg! at first public meeting of society. Reprint of printed version, published in Progr. biochem. Pharmacol. 1, 1965. See E.60, G.190, K.236. EVOLUTION PROTEST MOVEMENT 1970-75 Correspondence, mainly re request to quote from Chain's article on 'Social responsibility and the scientist’. FEDERATION OF EUROPEAN BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETIES. (FEBS) 1964 Also included here is brief correspondence re newly-founded Pakistan Society of Pharmacology and Experimental Thera- peutics, 1963. for membership of the Federation at this meeting (see E.58). Correspondence and papers re first meeting of the Federation, March 1964. The European Society for Biochemical Pharmacology applied E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations E.6I-6.63 THE FLEMING MEMORIAL FUND FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH 1959-64 Chain was one of the founding members of the Council of the Fund (see letter of 19 March 1959 in E.61). General correspondence te launching, organisation, publicity, etc. of the Fund, 1959. N.B. incoming letters survive. Almost all of this is Chain's carbons only; few Announcement of grant of £50,000 from Fleming Fund to Chain for research on 'The study of regulatory mechanisms' and on 'The study of metabolic reactions in nervous tissue’, 1963. Copy of minutes of 24th and Final Meeting of Executive Com- mittee, 1963. Correspondence re applications for research grants, submitted to Chain for comment, 1964. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO) 1954, 1963 Brief correspondence 1954 re lecture to be given by Chain in Rome. Correspondence and papers 1963 te meeting held in Rome in March 1963 to publicise Freedom from Hunger Campaign. Includes programme, list of participants, discussion of manifesto to be issued, Chain's carbons of letters to colleagues sending copies of the amended version of the manifesto. Continued The Fundacién, a philanthropic non-profit foundation, was established in 1971; the Miguel Servet Fund was created in April 1973 under the patronage of the Fundacién with the aim of assisting research in diseases of the heart. FUNDACION GENERAL MEDITERRANEA (MIGUEL SERVET FUND) _ 1974-77 Chain served as Honorary Member of the Council. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 E.65 (Cont'd. ) Societies and organisations little scientific correspondence. Material includes invitation to serve, arrangements for meetings, conferences, awards of Miguel Servet Prizes, anda Chain gave his lecture on ‘Government, the Medical Sciences and the People! at the Fundacién's meeting in October 1975 (see J.163). Includes photographs taken at 1976 meeting. £.66-E.72 THE INDEPENDENT UNIVERSITY 1968-75 Chain was a member of the Planning Board (see letter of 3 February 1969 in E.67): his brother-in-law Max (later Lord) Beloff became the first Principal of the Independent University when it was established at Buckingham in 1974. The material deals with the early organisation, funding, manifestos, meetings and conferences, publicity and launching for the project and includes some committee papers. 1968 1970 1971 1972 Witha little 1969 1969 Ms. draft and typescript version of talk by Chain on the Independent University, given at the Dunant Coterie Dinner Meeting, Ciba Foundation, October 1969. related correspondence. 1973-75 Correspondence with Dr. M.L. Zarnitz. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 E.faee.r 3 INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGY 1964-74 Societies and organisations Chain was invited to become a Fellow in 1964 and was made an Honorary Fellow in 1966. General correspondence 1964-74 on the affairs of the Institute, elections, meetings, etc. Symposium on 'Biology and the Manufacturing Industries’, London, 29 and 30 September 1966. Folder includes correspondence re arrange- Chain was invited to take the Chair for the first session of the Symposium. ments, typescript drafts of Chain's introductory remarks, and of the report of Chain's speech and the discussions in which he took part, sent to him for correction prior to publication (Academic Press). Conference on 'Improving the contacts between industry and university’, held at the Royal Society, 1 December 1967. Chain was asked to give a short talk on 'Academic biologists as consultants to industry’. Folder includes correspondence re arrangements and part of typescript drafts of Chain's talk, for publication in the Institute's Journal. 1963 THE INSTITUTION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 1963 Brief correspondence re formation of a Working Party on Biochemical Engineering. THE INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC AFFAIRS LTD. 1968-79 General correspondence with R. Harris (General Director) on the affairs of the Institute. Chain was nominated as a Councilor. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL SOCIETIES (IAMS) Correspondence and papers re formation of a Section on "Economics and Applied Microbiology’. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL FOUNDATION 1974-79 (Founder: Sun Myung Moon) Correspondence 1974-79, mainly about the International Conferences on the Unity of the Sciences (1.C.U.S.), and other activities organised by the Foundation. Chain was frequently pressed to accept invitations to participate in various ways in the work of the Foundation, but appears to have declined them all. Includes some printed matter and correspondence about the Foundation and its supporters, and the associated Unification Church. INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN 1969 Correspondence re grant applications. 1970 INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING (IOBB) 1968 Correspondence re establishment and aims of the Organization. Correspondence and information re foundation of the Academy and request for Chain's participation. INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC ACADEMY FOR THE PROTECTION OF LIFE, FOR ENVIRONMENT AND BIOPOLITICS Correspondence re Chain's election to Life Membership. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF BIOCHEMISTRY Brief correspondence re Sth International Congress. THE IRAN SOCIETY 1978 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations THE LISTER INSTITUTE OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE 1975 Correspondence with Chairman (A. Neuberger) and others on the affairs of the Institute. MEDICAL RESEARCH CLUB 1950-78 Chain was a member from 1946. Brief correspondence re subscriptions and meetings, including invitation to speak at the Club's meeting to commemorate Fleming's original 1929 paper on penicillin. c,G7rE. 112 MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MRC) 1950-76 Chain had many links with the Council. He was a member of some of its committees, a referee for grant applications, and on friendly terms with many administrative and scientific officers. The Council contributed to the funding of several of his research projects at Imperial College, sometimes in collaboration with other bodies such as the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, the Beecham Group, the Fleming Research Fund (qqv.). He waged vigorous polemical see especially E.93-E.95 From the early 1970s Chain became increasingly critical of the direction of officially-funded medical research, which he considered too favourable to molecular biology at the expense of other disciplines. campaigns with MRC and others; for material on this subject. mittee, 1962, Correspondence te lecture to MRC by Chain (January 1962), on some recent developments in chemical microbiology. Correspondence re Chain's service on Chemotherapy Com- General correspondence on affairs of MRC 1950-76. E.96-E.112 Chain's research projects funded by MRC 1961-73. E.B7E.92 GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE ON MRC AFFAIRS, 1950-76 E.93-E.95 | Correspondence and papers on the organisation of medical research 1972-76. E.87-E.92 1950-54 E.87 E.88 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations Correspondence re visit and lecture to MRC by Chain, October-November 1962. Includes ms. and typescript drafts of talk with provisional title 'Some contributions of chemical microbiology to biochemistry and medicine’. E.90 6:91 04 Correspondence with the Secretary, 1963, re Fellowship Fund for bringing foreign scientists to Britain. Correspondence with A. Isaacs, 1963. Miscellaneous references for grants, etc., 1970-75. Eon. 90 CORRESPONDENCE AND PAPERS ON THE ORGANISATION 1972-76 OF MEDICAL RESEARCH Chain felt very strongly that physiological biochemistry was becoming neglected in favour of molecular biology, and he lobbied vigorously against this trend. In particular, he pressed officials of the Department of Health and Social Security and of the Medical Research Council on the subject, and a joint meeting was held at the Council on 22 July 1974. See also E.104, E.105. A copy is included Correspondence and papers exchanged with MRC including papers for Joint Meeting. 1973-74 Correspondence and papers exchanged with Department of Health and Social Security, leading up to Joint Meeting. 1972-74 Among the papers discussed at the meeting was Chain's 'Future contributions from biochemistry to the advancement of medical research', originally a talk given to a special meeting of the Council's Training Awards Committee in May 1972, when Chain first obtained a hearing for his views. in E.93. Correspondence with Secretary, 1976. Correspondence re MRC Cell Board on molecular biology and on EMBO. cs 1976 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations 6.96-6.112 CHAIN'S RESEARCH PROJECTS FUNDED BY MRC 1961-73 E.96-E.101 E.96 Metabolic Reactions Research Unit 1961-71 Correspondence 1961-62 with Secretary and officials exploring possibilities of setting up unit at Imperial College. Includes letters relating to lecture by H. Himsworth at Istituto, Rome, on the organisation of medical research in Britain. Correspondence 1963-64 re application for funding and its acceptance, press release, etc. Correspondence 1962-64 re staffing of unit. Correspondence 1967-68 re 'press visit’ for medical and science correspondents to Chain's unit, arranged at request of MRC, on 23 January 1968. press release and notices. Includes time-table of visit, Correspondence and papers 1968-69 re visit to Chain's unit of MRC Sub-Committee, on 5 March 1969. Includes programme of visit, guest-list, miscellaneous drafts for Chain's introductory talk. B.102E. 105 Continuing metabolic research 1971-73 Miscellaneous typescript reports on the work of the Metabolic Reactions Research Unit, 1965-67, 1969 (for visit in E.99 above), on apparatus, visits to U.S. laboratories, etc. The MRC Metabolic Reactions Research Unit at the Biochemistry Department, Imperial College, was closed on 1 September 1971. Chain applied to the Council for funding for two research projects to continue the work of the Unit. Continued The Council did not accept these applications in full; although Chain was able to continue his research on insulin (partly from MRC Private Funds), his application to work on ergot was refused, as was his application for training grants for Ph.D. students. The projects, to run 1 September 1971-31 August 1973 with possible extension for one further year, were: 'The mode of action of insulin’ 'The biogenesis of ergot alkaloids' E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 E.102-E.105 (Cont'd. ) Societies and organisations These refusals prompted him to raise the question of the balance between molecular biology and physiological whole-animal biochemistry in U.K. research. A special meeting of the MRC Training Awards Committee was held on 10 May 1972 for which Chain prepared and spoke to a paper 'Future contributions from biochemistry to the advancement of medical research’. See E.93-E.95 for similar material. 'The mode of action of insulin’. Ms. drafts of application and background information, copy of application as sent 1971. "Production and biosynthesis of the ergot alkaloids’ Ms. drafts of application and background information, copy of application as sent 1971. Correspondence, October 1971-June 1972, re refusal of Chain's applications, and the special meeting of Training Awards Committee (includes committee papers) and corres- pondence after the meeting. E. 105 Ms. and revised typescript versions of Chain's paper for the meeting. E.106-E.108 Non-specific immunity 1968-73 The first grant for this project was made in 1966 (starting date 1 March) but the original application does not survive. The papers deal with various renewals of the grant 1968-73. The research was a collaborative project with the MRC Common Cold Research Unit and with Beecham Research Laboratories. Similar material, December 1970-March 1973. Miscellaneous drafts and revisions of application for renewal of grant, correspondence with MRC, Beecham and Imperial College officials on the matter, notification of support from MRC, December 1968-February 1969. Budget accounts, reports on research in progress, renewals of grant, etc., April 1969-December 1970, E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations F. WOE, 1g Interferon Inducer Project, 1969-72 This was a collaborative project between MRC (funding team at the Biochemistry Department, Imperial College), Beecham Research Laboratories, the MRC Common Cold Research Unit, and researchers in other laboratories and institutions. Chain's General discussion of project, definition of fields of collabora- tion, preliminary meetings and visits, January-November 1969. Correspondence and drafts, January-June 1970, re terms of agreement between MRC, Beecham and Imperial College, progress reports, background information, copy of agreement as finally signed 2 June. Correspondence, etc., September-November 1970, re project, results, and re Chain's proposed paper (with Buck and Himmelweit) on ‘Interferon Induction in mice ...', published in 1971 (draft included) (Bibliog. 145). J. gen. Virol. 12, Correspondence, etc., 1971, re project and renewal of grant, patents, etc. ivo0~7 / Elton rte MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FOOD Chain was a member of the Scientific Advisory Panel 1965-68, when the Panel was dissolved in favour of co-optation of ‘independent scientists, where necessary, for particular investigations' (see Minister's letter of 28 June 1968 Chain continued to act as adviser and to corres~ inE.115). pond with Ministry officials on various problems until 1977. 1976-77, on ‘vertical greenhouses’. 1965. on the subject of diseases due to bacteria and the use of antibiotics in food and feedstuffs. Correspondence and papers, including report by Chain 1967. on Zimpro Wet Sludge Oxidation Process, arrangements for Central Veterinary Laboratory Golden Jubilee, etc. Correspondence, references and material assembled 1968. Includes Minister's letter dissolving Panel. 1972, 1974 (on single cell protein). 1976-77, on microbial fermentation of straw. Societies and organisations MINISTRY OF HEALTH 1961, 1968 Correspondence 1961 is on pharmaceutical industry (Chain advised on the Italian pharmaceutical industry). Correspondence 1968 is re exchange of information on asparaginase. MINISTRY OF TECHNOLOGY 1967 Correspondence, notes of meetings and application for research support (submitted jointly by Department of Biochemistry, Imperial College, and Department of Medical Physics, Manchester University) for 'Project for the development of the spark chamber as a tool for the quantitative evaluation of mono and bidimensional paper and thin layer radiochromatograms, and for clinical use in Y-cameras', 1967. NATIONAL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CORPORA- TION (NRDC) 1969-76 Chain was invited to act as a consultant from 1 January 1970 (see E.121 for preliminary discussions and contract of service). E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Ev t21+E. 129 The material is presented as a chronological sequence; it deals mainly with meetings, research projects, appointments, etc. and a brief indication is given of the principal topics in each folder. Reports and background material of special relevance have been retained as well as Chain's reports and comments on research. engineering and biochemical instrumentation’ (December 1969). The Department of Biochemistry, Imperial College, also partici- pated in an NRDC project on 'Meat Tenderisation by Ante- Mortem Treatment', in collaboration with the Agricultural Research Council's Meat Research Institute and others. first reference to this is E.124), and E.125-E.129 also refer. Correspondence re meetings and research projects. 1969. Preliminary discussions leading up to Chain's appointment as consultant 'within the fields of biochemistry (including chemical microbiology), pharmaceutical chemistry, bio~ in letter of 29 February 1972 (see The E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations 1970 Gnotobiotic Technology Specific Polyelectrolytes Edible Proteins of Fungal Origin Viral Insecticides Medical Isolators 197] Viral Insecticides Specific Polyelectrolytes Fermentation Processes for Selected Ergot Alkaloids 1972, January-April Viral Insecticides Meat Tenderisation by Ante-mortem Treatment (collaborative project with Imperial College and ARC's Meat Research Institute) Plant Suspension Cultures 1972, June-November Meat Tenderisation 1973, March-August Meat Tenderisation Letter to Chain of 20 March announces NRDC support for a two-year programme of work on the project, to be carried out at Imperial College and ARC Meat Research Institute. Also included is general correspondence re terms of contract, appointments, progress of research. Antibiotic from Ps Cocovenenans Meat Tenderisation (the project was closed in July) 1975-76 Meat Tenderisation Effluent Treatment with Tubular Reactor 1973, September-November Meat Tenderisation 1974 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 FE. 191, £132 THE NUFFIELD FOUNDATION 1969-71 Societies and organisations E131 E.132 General correspondence on the affairs of the Foundation, grant applications, research fellowship project,etc. 1969-71 Correspondence and papers re Second Food Safety Conference, organised by the Foundation and held at Churchill College, Cambridge, 14-17 July 1969. The opening paper, on 'The need for more biochemical information in the field of food safety evaluation’, was to have been given by A.C. Frazer, who died suddenly on 14 June. Chain presented the paper, with an introductory tribute to Frazer. Chain's tribute, and his contribution to the dis- cussion, were published in the conference proceedings. Material includes programme, list of participants, typescript of Frazer's paper, ms. and typescript versions of Chain's tribute and contribution, correspondence re conference and publication of proceedings as a book 'Metabolic Aspects of Food Safety’. THE NUTRITION SOCIETY here OFFICE OF HEALTH ECONOMICS 1963-78 Chain was an Honorary Adviser (see letter of 1 January 1964, and E.219). Brief correspondence re a symposium held by the Scottish Group of the Society. General correspondence with G. Teeling-Smith (Director) re publications, meetings and affairs of the organisation. corrections. Chain was asked to serve on the Advisory Committee on Medical Research for 4 years from 1973 (letter 22 February 1973). for annual meetings of the Committee in Washington, Chain was unable to attend the meeting in 1976 because of other commitments. remarks at the 1973 and 1974 meetings, with Chain's ms. PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION 1973-77 Folder contains correspondence te arrangements 1973-75. Also included are transcripts of Chain's E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations THE PARLIAMENTARY AND SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Brief correspondence only re meeting. E.137-E.145 PAUL EHRLICH FOUNDATION 1959-79 Chain was awarded the Paul Ehrlich Prize, and gave the Paul Ehrlich Lecture, in 1954, Ehrlich's Centenary Year (see A.90-A.94). This award gave him great pleasure. He became a member of the Council of the Foundation (Stiftungsrat) and played an active part in meetings of the Council and in the nomination and recommendation of candidates for prizes; he also, whenever possible, attended the annual prize-giving ceremonies at Frankfurt on 14 March (Ehrlich's birthday). Formal circular letters to members of the Council te meetings, recommendations and elections, etc. have been discarded as a complete record of deliberations is held at the Paul Ehrlich Foundation. addressed to and conducted by Chain personally, including recommendations, elections and meetings in which he was actively concerned. The folders below contain correspondence 1959-64 1965-66 An explanatory booklet about the Foundation is included for information in E.137. The correspondence is mainly conducted with scientific colleagues and with successive Secretaries of the Foundation, but also includes letters from members of the Ehrlich family. 1974 Includes correspondence with and re F. Peyton Rous. 1967 1968-70 1971-73 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations 1975 Correspondence with colleagues re research on cell fusion. 1976-77 1978-79 Includes arrangements for Chain to give farewell address to outgoing Secretary. PAUL EHRLICH INSTITUTE Brief scientific correspondence 1952, 1955 with Director of Institute, R. Prigge. 1252, 4505, 1961-62 Correspondence 1961-62 re Prigge's successor as Director. THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN 1956; 1975 Brief correspondence only. E.1495E.155 THE RANK PRIZE FUNDS 1972-79 PUGWASH CONFERENCES ON SCIENCE AND WORLD AFFAIRS (and BRITISH PUGWASH GROUP) 1970, 1971 The prizes were distributed by the Rank Science Trust, the establishment of which was announced in April 1972. Rank (April 1972). Includes invitation to serve on committee and initial arrange- ments for organising Funds. Also included here is a letter of thanks from Joseph Rank to Chain for his obituary of Lord The material relates mainly to arrangements for committee meetings, applications for awards, symposia organised by the Rank Prize Funds, etc. Chain was a member of the Committee on Nutrition (Chairman: A. Spicer). Brief correspondence only. 72 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 1973 1974 Societies and organisations Includes material re Symposium on 'Bread' held in September. (Chain chaired a session and edited trancripts for publication.) 1975 1976 1977 Includes material re International Symposium on 'The Diet of Man - Needs and Wants', held in April 1977. (Chain chaired a session. ) 1978-79 Includes brief correspondence re International Symposium on "Food Chains and Human Nutrition’, held in April 1979. (Chain was to chair a session but declined for reasons of ill- health.) ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS 1965-72 General correspondence and papers. Chain addressed guests at a specially- THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION 1949 Correspondence re request for Foundation support for work with D. Bovet at Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome. College (see G.51). Includes Chain's election as an Honorary Fellow (1965), 450th Anniversary Appeal (1968), and exchange of views on the organisation of biochemical research and the Research Councils (1971-72). convened small dinner-party to discuss the subject and a typescript of his remarks is included. In 1964 Chain gave the Oliver-Sharpey Lecture at the E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY Brief correspondence only, re Louis Rey. THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY 1954 Brief correspondence, chiefly re publication of lectures by Chain. THE ROYAL INSTITUTION 1965 Correspondence 1965 re Evening Party to celebrate 50th Anniversary of Award of Nobel Prize to Sir Lawrence Bragg. See also K.188 (Porter, G.) ROYAL POSTGRADUATE MEDICAL SCHOOL 1964, 1971-74 Correspondence 1964 is Symposium. a brief note re speakers for E.162-E.183 THE ROYAL SOCIETY 1954-79 E.162-E.170 Committees, meetings, symposia For Chain's election to the Fellowship of the Society, see A.85, A.86. Correspondence 1971-74 is on the affairs of the Committee of Management on which Chain served as a co-opted member. In 1974 the School was granted a new Royal Charter which established a School Council in place of the former Committee. Cancer Research Campaign, q.v.), 1964. Letter of appointment as Royal Society representative on the Grand Council, British Empire Cancer Campaign (later General correspondence on affairs of the Society E.162-E.170 COMMITTEES, MEETINGS, SYMPOSIA Eile t-E, to Elections BE. hW7-E 183 E.162 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations Papers re Use and Management of Biological Resources Sub- committee of the British National Committee for the Inter- national Biological Programme, 1967-72. The Chairman of the Subcommittee was N.W. Pirie, and there is earlier correspondence with Pirie from 1963. Papers re Mullard Award. Advisory Committee. from the Beecham Research Laboratories for the 1971 Award (for work on semi-synthetic penicillins). Includes Chain's nomination of a team Chain served on the Standing Discussion meeting on U.K. participation in European Molecular Biology Organization (EM3O), October 1969. programme, background papers, ms. and typescript drafts of Chain's contribution to discussion. Includes For Discussion meeting on ‘Penicillin ard related antibiotics - past, present and future', organised by Chain and E.J. Stokes and held 20-21 May 1971, see B.73-B.84. E.166 E.167-E.169 Discussion meeting on 'Food Technology in the 1980s', May 1974, organised by Chain, S.A. Goldblith, L. Rey and A. Spicer. The meeting arose from discussion at June 1972 meeting of the Royal Society Industrial Activities Committee, and the papers were published in Proc. Roy. Soc., B, 191 (Bibliog. 170). Correspondence and papers re 'A Framework for Government Research and Development' (the "Rothschild Report") 1971-72. Includes Chain's letters to Officers of the Society, papers and minutes of the Royal Society Industrial Activities Committee (Chain was a member) commenting on the Report, corres- pondence re Select Parliamentary Committee on Science and Technology, and later correspondence with Rothschild, April- June 1972. copy of Chain's 'Concluding remarks’. Continuing correspondence re arrangements, time-tabling, letters of invitation and thanks, includes some abstracts of papers and 3 folders as follows: 1973 1974 Preliminary discussions and arrangements, scope of meeting, invitations to speakers, provisional programme. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations 1975 Mainly correspondence re publication in the Society's Proceedings, and the paper on 'Engineered Food' given by E.F. Binkerd (substituting for J.V. Luck) which was omitted from the publication. with accompanying photographs, is enclosed. A copy of the paper as delivered, Termination of service on National Committee for Biochemistry, 1976. Correspondence on new technologies, 1978. Correspondence on Joint Working Party on Biotechnology, 1979 (Chain was to give evidence to the Working Party on 6 September 1979, but died the previous month). For correspondence on Discussion meeting 'Penicillin 50 years after Fleming’, see B.90. E.171-E.176 ELECTIONS Bia) 1954-60 1963-70 1971-75 1971-74 1972-77 1963-66 E476 1974 EPE77. E.178 E.174 E.175 Bvi72 Sctsa Ec ue tee GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE ON AFFAIRS OF THE SOCIETY 1978 (and one letter 1958), Correspondence re Royal Society/Israel Academy scheme for the exchange of scientists, 1970. Correspondence and papers re Royal Society Club, 1970-72, ELt77 E.180 1970 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations Brief correspondence and papers re visits of Russian scientists arranged under Royal Society's exchange agreement with the USSR Academy of Sciences. Various dates, 1971-79. Correspondence re Appeal fund, 1974. 1977-78. THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS 1972, 1974 Brief correspondence only. THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF HEALTH 1969 Correspondence re award of Gold Medal to A. Sabin. THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE 1961-79 General correspondence on the affairs of the Society. ST, MICHAEL'S FOUNDATION LTD, 1972-74,. 1977 Chain was a member of the Council of Management. Correspondence 1968 refers to award of Jephcott Medal to Chain. Correspondence 1969 refers to Chain's election as Honorary Fellow of the Society. Correspondence 1977-79 includes requests for an editorial on virus chemotherapy and Chain's reasons for considering the time premature. of the Foundation. Correspondence and papers 1972-74 is mainly re St. Michael's Medical Services Ltd. and proposed St. Michael's Hospital for diseases of heart and circulation. Correspondence 1977 includes announcement of the winding-up E.B. Ghoin CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations SAINT-VINCENT INTERNATIONAL PRIZE 1978-79 Includes invitation to serve on committee for the Seventh Saint-Vincent International Prize for Medical Science (instituted in 1950), and Chain's recommendation of Sir John Charnley for the prize. Ew AGE. 196 SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL (SRC) 1968-73 Correspondence and papers on general SRC policy and support for projects in areas of biochemical research and the biological sciences, including Chain's reports on applications for research grants from SRC Biological Sciences Committee. July 1968- January 1969 Mainly correspondence with the Secretary (Professor (now Lord) Flowers) and with colleagues re increased support for biochemical research and Chain's proposal for a Biochemistry Committee of SRC. Chain ‘Arguments for increased support of basic biochemical research by the SRC', and his views on the report of the SRC's Enzyme Chemistry and Technology Panel. Includes an earlier (1966) paper by Correspondence October 1968 re SRC Grant for Fermentation Biochemistry in Chain's Department at Imperial College. Correspondence and papers re meeting held at SRC to discuss "Industrial Biology', 3 April 1969. Includes discussion papers prepared for meeting (Chain's was entitled 'The case for support by the SRC of long term research projects in the field of industrial biology'), minute of meeting and Chain's comments on it. Report by Chain, and by L. Wolpert. Continuing correspondence re SRC Working Party on Industrial Biology, Biological Sciences Committee, and Enzyme Chemistry and Technology Committee, August-October 1969. Chain's reports on grant applications for SRC Biological Sciences Committee, February 1970. Correspondence and papers, mainly re SRC interim Report on Developmental Biology, August- November 1970. Includes correspondence with colleagues, and comments on E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations Correspondence and papers re funding of Chain's Advanced M.Sc. Course in Microbial Biochemistry and Fermentation Technology, February-December 1972. Included here is a ms. draft letter on similar subject, n.d. and perhaps earlier. Chain's reports on grant apptications for SRC's Biological Sciences Committee, 1973. SLOAN-KETTERING INSTITUTE FOR CANCER RESEARCH 1978-79 Chain was invited to serve as a member of the Board of Scientific Consultants from July 1978. Correspondence re arrangements for meetings of the Board in October 1978 and March 1979. SOCIETA CHIMICA ITALIANA 1952-62 SOCIETA ITALIANA DELLE SCIENZE VETERINARIE 1954-55 Brief correspondence re lecture at congress. SOCIETA ITALIANA DI CHEMIOTERAPIA 1953-63 Chain was one of the founder members, and a member of Council (1953) and Honorary President (1963). General correspondence re conferences, invitations to lecture, conferral of Honorary Membership (1958). Brief correspondence only re congress. SOCIETA ITALIANA DI SCIENZE FARMACEUTICHE 1958-59 SOCIETA ITALIANA DI MICROBIOLOGIA Brief correspondence re conference. E .B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations SOCIETY FOR ANGLO-CHINESE UNDERSTANDING 1965-66 Correspondence re formation of Society. Chain was one of its sponsors and was asked to serve as co-treasurer, but declined from pressure of work. SOCIETY FOR ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY 1979 Brief correspondence, May 1979, re Chain's nomination as one of the Society's first Honorary Members. SOCIETY FOR DRUG RESEARCH 1971 Correspondence 1971, mainly re Symposium on 'Interferon Inducers’, organised by Society, 27 October 1971. Chain was one of the Chairmen and spoke on 'Double stranded ribonucleic acids as interferon inducers’. SOCIETY FOR GENERAL MICROBIOLO GY 1951-79 E.207-E.216 SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 1958-70 E.207-E.210 deal with the VII Ith National Congress of the Societa Chimica Italiana held jointly with the Society of Chemical Industry, Turin, 26 May-2 June 1958. Italian organisers were Marotta and Chain. The Includes correspondence re Symposium on ‘Antibiotics: Structure and Function', September 1963 (Chain gave the opening speech on 'Retrospect and Prospect') and Symposium on ‘Biochemical Activities of Antimicrobial Drugs', April 1966. included. Includes an article by Marotta on Istituto Superiore di Sanita, and also correspondence with Editor, Manufacturing Chemist. A little correspondence te award of C.B.E. to Marotta is also Correspondence 1958 re Congress with colleagues, invitations to speak or attend, letters of thanks, publication, etc. A little scientific correspondence is included. Correspondence 1958-59, mainly with Editor, Chemistry and Industry, re publication of material about Congress, and of its papers. E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations Miscellaneous typescript and ms. drafts of Chain's account of the Congress, for publication in Chemistry and Industry. Ms. draft of speech by Chain introducing Sir Robert Robinson. Printed programme, speeches, menus, etc. Correspondence 1959, mainly re meeting of the Society in Glasgow when Hon. Membership was conferred on Marotta. Includes biographical notes on Marotta prepared by Chain. Shorter correspondence 1960 Miscellaneous invitations to Chain to lecture to various Groups of the Society, 1961-68. Invitation to give the Lister Memorial Lecture (given in Edinburgh, 28 May 1965) and arrangements, 1963-65. Correspondence 1961-63 re Second International Fermentation Symposium, held in London 1964. Chain and his collaborators contributed their paper on Aeration Studies IV (Bibliog. 119). Also included here is brief correspondence 1966 remeeting on cephalosporin. Includes programme, and ms. and typescript versions of Chain's introductory remarks. Correspondence and papers re Symposium on 'The isolation and applications of microbial enzymes', London, September 1968. Correspondence and papers re Symposium on 'Keys to Industrial Fermentation Development', held at Imperial College, June 1970. Correspondence re ‘Rencontre pour I'universalité de I'UNESCO'. Chain chaired the meeting and led the discussion. UNESCO 1975 E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 1975-79 Miscellaneous correspondence, 1975-79, mainly with Secretary, G.K. Skryabin. Correspondence 1975 refers to Chain's visit to Russia for celebrations of 250th Anniversary of Academy. Correspondence 1976 refers to Chain's election to Honorary Membership of Academy. See also A.170, H.59. Correspondence 1976-79 refers to research, publications, etc. THE WELLCOME FOUNDATION LTD. 1961-65, 1972 General correspondence with Directors of the Foundation re visits, collaboration, etc. Includes correspondence 1963 re link with Sclavo (q.v.) and invitation to Chain 1964 to serve on Advisory Panel, Office of Health Economies (see E.134). THE WELLCOME RESEARCH LABORATORIES 1957-64, 1976 Correspondence mainly re grant applications supported by or referred to Chain. General correspondence with Directors and research scientists re exchanges of specimens and information, visits to laboratories, etc. British Section. WORLD FEDERATION OF DOCTORS WHO RESPECT HUMAN LIFE Tria; lone THE WELLCOME TRUST 1966-77 Brief correspondence only, re conferences organised by the Chain E.B CSAC 92/3/83 E«223-E,237 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) 1948-74 Societies and organisations The International Research Centre of Chemical Chain's connection with WHO began in 1948. He served on the Expert Committee on Antibiotics (later designated Expert Advisory Panel on Antibiotics) from its inception in 1950. Microbiology at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita was one of the research stations affiliated to the WHO, accepting WHO Fellows for research and training. Many of the conferences organised by Chain in Rome (see Section C) were held under the auspices of this scheme. From 1971 the Expert Advisory Panel on Antibiotics was integrated in the Expert Advisory Panel on Biological Standardization on which Chain was invited to serve. Copies of correspondence, 1948, re lectures on penicillin given in Czechoslovakia by Chain on behalf of WHO. January-February 1949 Mainly re arrangements for meeting at Geneva, February 1949, 'to determine aspects of the way in which WHO and ECE [Economic Commission for Europe] can assist in getting the UNRRA donated penicillin plants into operation’. Chain attended as an Expert Consultant. Includes Report on the findings of the meeting. April-December 1949 Includes correspondence re formation of an Expert Committee on Antibiotics, and plans for establishment in the Istituto Superiore di Sanita of a Centre for research and training in antibiotics, with funding from WHO. Some correspondence re Podbielniak extractors, and re penicillin research in Czechoslovakia and Poland, is also included. Chain was elected Chairman of the committee at this meeting. Miscellaneous WHO research reports on antibiotics, 1948-49. January-March 1950 Mainly re arrangements for first meeting of Expert Committee on Antibiotics, Geneva, 11-15 April. agenda, memoranda by Chain and by S.A. Waksman, committee papers (with WHO report on 'Training and research facilities in Antibiotics' at Istituto), Includes drafts of E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations April-May 1950 Includes draft and final versions of report on the committee meeting. June-August 1950 te Committee, WHO Fellowships at Rome, criticisms of Expert Committee's report. September~November 1950 te WHO Fellowships, penicillin plant in India, etc. 1951 Includes letter, 21 January, inviting Chain to serve on Expert Advisory Panel on Antibiotics which replaced former ‘expert committee’, and correspondence re proposed visit by Chain to U.S.A, (letter of 16 March gives briefing). In the event, the visit was cancelled by WHO and Chain's U.S. visa was refused (see E. 232). Folder also includes material on Indian penicillin project and symposium at Rome. 1952-53 1952 1953-60 1966 The account was Correspondence re symposium, visa, publications, etc. Correspondence and papers re refusal of a U.S. visa to Chain and the cancellation of his WHO visit in 1951 (see E.231 above). Includes 16 pp. account prepared by Chain of his relations with WHO, penicillin plants from UNRRA, etc. originally intended for publication in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists but was sent to the U.S. State Department via the Science Attaché. — Also includes press-cuttings. Department at Imperial College. Correspondence re renewal of service on panel, symposium, meetings, etc. Correspondence re WHO Fellows wishing to work in Chain's E.B. Chain CSAC 92/3/83 Societies and organisations 1967-71 Correspondence re renewal of service, visits, etc. 1971-74 Correspondence re service on Expert Advisory Panel on Biological Standardization, WHO circulars on rauwolfia, etc. WYNDHAM PLACE TRUST 1969, 1972 Brief correspondence only, re meetings.