BURHOP, Eric Henry Stoneley v2

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Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of ERIC HENRY STONELEY BURHOP FRS (1911 - 1980) Compiled by Peter Harper and Timothy E. Powell Deposited in the Library, University College, London NCUACS40/2/93 All rights reserved University of Bath 1993 THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Report on the correspondence and papers of ERIC HENRY STONELEY BURHOP (1911-1980) physicist in University College Library, London Reproduced for the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists (NCUACS40/2/93) by The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts Quality House, Quality Court, Chancery Lane, London WC2A 1HP 1993 All rights reserved No 4/93 NRA 36166 cs National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists under the guidance of the Royal Society's National Committee for the History of Science, Medicine and Technology Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of ERIC HENRY STONELEY BURHOP FRS (1911 - 1980) Compiled by Peter Harper and Timothy E. Powell Deposited in the Library, University College, London NCUACS 40/2/93 All rights reserved University of Bath 1993 E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 The work of the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists, and the production of this catalogue, are made possible by the support of the following societies and organisations: British Petroleum plc The Institute of Physics The Royal Society The Wellcome Trust E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 LIST OF CONTENTS Items Page GENERAL INTRODUCTION SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL SECTION B =PUGWASH CONFERENCES ON SCIENCE AND WORLD AFFAIRS A.1-A.35 B.1-B.14 INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS 11 E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 3 GENERAL INTRODUCTION PROVENANCE The papers were received in March 1993 from Dr Brenda Swann. OUTLINE OF THE CAREER OF E.H.S. BURHOP Eric Henry Stoneley Burhop was born at Hobart, Tasmania in 1911. His parents were Salvation Armyofficers in poorfinancial circumstances who made considerable sacrifices to enable him to attend Ballarat and Melbourne High Schools, and enter Melbourne University as an engineering student in 1928. After one year he changed overto science, specialising in physics. In 1929 he was awarded the Aitchison Bursary which provided financial assistance for the rest of his undergraduate studies. He graduated with first class honours in physics in 1931 and then took In 1933 an Exhibition of 1851 Overseas an MSc. in the subject working with T.H. Laby. Scholarship took him to the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge where he carried out experimental research in nuclear physics working under Rutherford. After two years he returned to Melbourne to take up the post of Research Physicist and Lecturerin the University. During the Second World War he undertook war-related research at Melbourne and Sydney until May 1944 when he joined the British team working on the atomic energy project in the USA. He worked on isotope separation in the group led by H.S.W. Massey. In 1945 Burhop accepteda postof Lecturer in the Department of Mathematics at University College, London (Reader 1949). In 1950 he transferred to the Physics Department as Reader in Physics and in 1960 became Professor of Physics by confermentof title. He researched widely in atomic and nuclear physics including the Augereffect and electronic and ionic impact phenomena. He was a founder memberof the European K meson collaboration and played a leading role in the UCL Bubble Chamber group. Burhop waselected FRS in 1963. Burhop wasstrongly committed to the political left and sought a rapprochement between the Soviet bloc and the West during the Cold War. To this end he wasactively involved in the work of the World Federation of Scientific Workers, of which he was President for many years. Burhop played an importantrole with Bertrand Russell, C.F. Powell and J. Rotblat in the organisation of the first Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs which met in July 1957 at Pugwash, Nova Scotia. Financed by the American industrialist Cyrus Eaton who was born at Pugwash, the conference brought together senior scientists from East and West to discuss the dangers of nuclear war, and provided the model for a series of similarly organised Pugwash conferences on this and related topics. Burhop was awardedtheJoliot-Curie Medal of the World Peace Council in 1966 and the Lenin International Peace Prize in 1972. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 4 For a full account of the life and career of Burhop see the memoir by H.S.W. Massey and D.H. Davis, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 27, 1981. DESCRIPTION OF THE COLLECTION This small collection contains interesting biographical material relating to Burhop’s interest in furthering rapprochement between East and West, and documentation of the first Pugwash conference. There are no records of his scientific research or scientific correspondence. Section A, Biographical, contains records of the ‘passport case’ when the Foreign Office withdrew Burhop’s passport on the eve of a visit to the Soviet Union in 1951 and the award of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1972. There is also correspondenceonthe possible nomination of Bertrand Russell for the World Peace Council’s International Peace Prize in 1957. Section B, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, relates principally to the first conferencein July 1957. The material includes documentationof the role of the World Federation of Scientific Workers in the organisation of the first conference, and manuscript notes of the proceedings. There is also an index of correspondents. P. Harper T.E. Powell BATH 1993 E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL A.1-A.35 A.1 A.2 Application for Chair of Physics, University of Adelaide, 1948. Appointment as University Reader in Physics, University College, London, 1950. Press-cuttings only. Confermentoftitle of Professor of Physics in the University of London, in respect of post at University College, 1960. Letters of congratulation, press-cuttings. A.3-A.17 Passport Case 1951-1962 Burhopplannedtovisit the USSR in July 1951 as a memberof a scientific delegation organised by the Society for Cultural Relations between the Peoplesof the British Commonwealth and the USSR (SCR). Shortly before his departure the Foreign Office cancelled his passport. In a parliamentary written reply this action was justified by the argumentthat it was ‘in the national interest to discourage atomic scientists who had at any time had accessto classified information from going to Russia’. Burhop had worked on the atomic energy project in the USA from May 1944 to October 1945 but subsequently had no connection with the atomic energy project and In August 1951 Burhop no accessto classified information in the field. was issued with a new passport in return for assurances that he would not proceed to the USSR or to any countries regarded as within the Soviet orbit at any time without prior consultation with the Foreign Office. Burhop continued to advise the Foreign Office of his plansto visit Eastern Europe until 1962 when he wasreleased from his undertaking. Press reporting of the cancellation of Burhop’s passportledto libel actions against the press in Britain and Australia. Burhop’s solicitor was Arnold (later Lord) Goodman. scientific colleagues, Documentation includes correspondence with politicians, journalists, trade unionists and ordinary membersof the public concerned at the cancellation of Burhop’s passport and his treatment by of solicitor the representations to Foreign Office and thelibel actions. press, and correspondence with his in respect A.3 A.4 A.5 1951 June. 1951 July. 1951 August(1). E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 A6 A.7 A8 Ag Biographical 1951 August (2). 1951 September, October. ‘Opinion’ in respect of ‘Dr Burhop v. Australian Associated Press’, 27 November 1951. 1952 January-May. Includes ‘Statement of claim’ in respect of ‘E.H.S. Burhop Plaintiff and Australian Associated Press Proprietary Limited Defendants’, February and ‘Defence’in respect of ‘E.H.S. Burhop and the “Daily Telegraph”Limited’, 21 March. A.10 1952 June-December. Includes ‘Notice to admit facts’ in respectof ‘E.H.S. Burhop and The “Daily Telegraph” Limited’, 6 June. 1953 January-June. Includes documents returned to Burhop in March: ‘Facts concerning cancellation of passport of Dr E.H.S. Burhop... ’, copies of correspondence with Foreign Office July, August 1951, and ‘At home to the press’, Burhop’s accountofhis treatment bythe press after the cancellation of his passport. 1953 July-December. Includes typescript copy of statements in Burhop’slibel case returned to him in July by the editor of Atomic Scientists’ News. A.13 1954. 1955. A.15 1955-1962. Correspondence with Foreign Office re Burhop’s undertaking to inform Foreign Office of his plans to visit Soviet bloc. A.16 Nd. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 A.17 A.18 A.19 Biographical Press-cuttings. Correspondence re Hungarian surgeon Professor Paul Rubanyi and his family, 1956-1957. Correspondencewith Burhop’s family and others in Australia, 1953, 1957- 1958. A.20-A.32 Lenin International Peace Prize 1972. Burhop was awardedthe Lenin Prize ‘For Strengthening Peace Amongthe Peoples’ for the years 1970-71 on 21 April 1972. He received theprize at a ceremony at the Soviet Embassy in London on 18 October 1972. Notification and arrangements for presentation of prize, April-October 1972. Letters and telegrams of congratulation on announcementof prize, May- July 1972. A few with replies by Burhop. May(1). May(2). June, July. congratulations. Includes list of names and addresses of those who sent List of those invited to award presentation, invitation card, speech of presentation and Burhop’sreply. A.20 A.21-A.23 A.21 A.22 A.23 A.24 A.25, A.26 Letters and telegrams of congratulation on the presentation of the prize, October-December 1972. A few with replies by Burhop. A.25 A.26 A.27 October. November, December, nd. Includes Christmas and New Yearcards. Correspondenceand papers re donations from Lenin Prize money. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS40/2/93 8 Biographical A.28 Award presentation photographs. A.29-A.31 Press-cuttings. 3 folders. A.32 ‘Speech on occasion of presentation of prize to James Aldridge’. 4pp manuscript draft by Burhop. A.33 A.34 Miscellaneous correspondence and papers, various dates, 1951-1959, 1972. Correspondencere possible nomination of Bertrand Russell for the World Peace Council’s International Peace Prize, 1957. Russell’s letter of 30 November explained why he did not wish to be nominated. A.35 The Times obituary of Burhop, 24 January 1980. Invitation to a memorial meeting ‘to pay tribute to Eric Burhop’s work for the abolition of nuclear weapons, for disarmament and international understanding’. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 SECTION B PUGWASH CONFERENCES ON SCIENCE AND WORLDAFFAIRS B.1-B.14 Burhopplayed an importantrole in the organisationof the first conference which was held at Pugwash, Nova Scotia in July 1957. With the exception of B.14 all the material relates to this first conference. B.1-B.4 ‘Relations of WFSW [World Federation of Scientific Workers] and 1st Pugwash. Incomplete.’ Contents of Burhop’s folder so inscribed divided into four for ease of reference. Correspondence and papersre organisation offirst Pugwash Conference. Photocopies. B.1 B.2 B.3 B.4 1956 October-December. 1957 January-March. 1957 May, June. 1957 July, November. B.5-B.14 ‘Pugwash’. Contents of Burhop’s folder so inscribed divided into ten for ease of reference. B.5 B.6 B.7 Correspondenceand papersre organisationoffirst Pugwash Conference, March, June 1957 and nd. Includeslists of possible participants, conference programmes. Correspondencearising from first Pugwash Conference, July-December 1957, March 1958. Discussion paper on ‘Disarmament’ by E. Rabinowitch. Duplicated copy of paper presentedatfirst Pugwash conference; revised version dated 14 August 1957. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 10 Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs B.8 Notes of discussions at first Pugwash Conference,etc. 39pp manuscript + 4pp duplicated typescript on ‘Legal questions relevant to the use of nuclear weapons (in connection with discussion on international control)’. B.9 Miscellaneousdrafts re first Pugwash Conference. B.10-B.12 Press-cuttings re first Pugwash Conference. 3 folders. B.13 B.14 ‘Chapter 7 Conference’ by Burhop. Actions of the W.F.S.W. leading up to the first Pugwash Photocopy of published text. Miscellaneous items re Pugwash, nuclear energy and peaceissues, 1974- 76. Includes correspondence and Vietnam war photographs. E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 11 INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS ADAMS,Ruth (Mrs Robert McCormick Adams) AINLEY,T. ALLEN, Douglas AMALGAMATED ENGINEERING UNION ANNAN, Noél Gilroy, Baron ARTOBOLEVSKY,Ivan Ivanovich ASSOCIATION OF CINEMATOGRAPH TELEVISION AND ALLIED TECHNICIANS B.6 A.4 A.5, A.7 A.6 A.24 A.25 A.23 ASSOCIATION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKERS A.2, A.4 ATOMIC SCIENTISTS’ ASSOCIATION AUSTRALIAN ASSOCIATED PRESS BARBER, Noel BARNABY,Frank BATCHELOR, A.L. BAUDISCH, Kurt BENJAMIN, John A. BERNAL,Eileen BIQUARD, Pierre BOYD-CARPENTER, John Archibald, Baron BRITISH PEACE COMMITTEE BRITISH SOCIETY FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN SCIENCE BRITISH SOVIET FRIENDSHIP SOCIETY BURHOP, Henry A. BUSH,Alan BUTLER, Sir Clifford (Charles) CARRUTHERS,Leslie W. CHALMERS,R.A. CHOU, Pei-Yuan COCKROFT,Sir John (Douglas) COLE, George H.A. COOTE,Colin R. A.12 A.13 A.6 A.22 A.4 B.3 A.19 A.25 B.1-B.4, B.5 A.7 A.4, A.7 A.22 A.5-A.7 A.19 A.23 A.2 A.6 A.4, A.5 B.1-B.3, B.5 A.4, A.5 A.25 A.14 E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 12 Index of Correspondents CORNFORTH, Maurice GOULSON, Charles Alfred CUSACK, Dymphna DAILY TELEGRAPH DARLOW,Roy DEBENHAM, Celia de CASTRO, Josue DOMBEY, Norman DREFAHL, Guenther DUNCAN-JONES,Vincent DUTTON, J.K. EATON, Cyrus Stephen ENTWISTLE, W.W. EWART,Arthur E. FEATHER, Norman FIRE BRIGADES UNION FITZPATRICK, Brian FOOT,Michael FOREIGN OFFICE GABOR, D. GEORGE W.H. GOLDRING, Patrick A.4 A.2 A.4, A.5 A.14 A.19 A.4 B.3 A.22 A.25 A.34 A.2 B.1, B.3, B.6 A.4 A.4, A.5 A.4, A.5 A.5 A.7, A.9 A.6, A.7 A.4, A.5, A.15 A.18 A.2 A.13 GOODMAN, Arnold Abraham, Baron A.4-A.7, A.9-A.13 HADEN-GUEST, Leslie Haden, Baron HAMPSTEAD PEACE COUNCIL HASTED, J.B. HAZI, Vencel HODGKIN, Dorothy Mary Crowfoot HORNER, John HUMPHREY, John Herbert A.4, A.7 A.7 A.21 A.25 See A.22 A.4, A.5 A.18 E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS40/2/93 13 Index of Correspondents ISHLINSKI, Alexander Yurievich JAMES,J.LP. (‘Jip’) KOTLIAR, Vladimir S. KRISHNAN, Sir Kariamanikkam Srinivasa LACASSAGNE, A.M.B. LEEDS PEACE COMMITTEE LESCOMBS, Bertram MARTIN, Sir Leslie (Harold) MAYHEW,E.B. MIDDLETON, Peggy MOTT, Sir Nevill (Francis) MOUSSATCHE,H. MUNRO,DuncanC. NEMEC,Th. NETTLETON, Vera May née BURHOP OLIPHANT, Sir Mark (Marcus Laurence Elwin) OPARIN, Aleksandr Ivanovich PEIERLS, Sir Rudolf (Ernst) PFEIFFER,E.W.(‘Bert’) POWELL,Cecil Frank POWER, Edwin A. PYE, Sir David (Randall) RABINOWITCH, EugeneI. RAHMAN,A. RAWSON, R.R. REID, lan D. RITCHIE-CALDER, Peter Ritchie, Baron ROSENHEAD, Jonathan A.25 A.18 B.14 B.2 B.6 A.2 A.4, A.6 A.1 A6 A.2 A.4, A.5 A.26 A.2 B.3 A.19 A.1 B.1-B.3, B.5 A.6 B.14 B.2, B.4, B.6 A.21 A.7 B.3 See also B.7 A.21, A.33 A.5 A.7 A.5 A.22 E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS40/2/93 14 Index of Correspondents ROTBLAT, Joseph RUBANYI, Agnes RUBINSTEIN, Harold Frederick RUSSELL,Bertrand Arthur William, 3rd Earl RUTMAN,R.J. B.1 A.18 A.6 A.34, B.1, B.3 B.3 THE SALVATION ARMY SAMUEL, Howard SANDELLS, George W. SANDER, H. SELOVE,W. SISAKYAN, Norair Martirosovich SKIDMORE, Howard SKOBELTSYN, Dmitri Vladimirovich SOCIETY FOR CULTURAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PEOPLES OF THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AND THE USSR (SCR) SOUTH EAST ASIA COMMITTEE STEELE, Eric S. SVESTKA,Bedfich SZILARD, Leo TIOMNO,J. TITELMAN, Gregory TODD, Judith TOMONAGA,S. TURI, Susanne A.6, A.19 B.1 A.19 A.26 B.6 B.1, B.2 B.6 A.20 A.3 A.5, A.6 A.25 A.22 B.3 A.26 A.21 A.3 B.6 A.21 UNION OF SHOP, DISTRIBUTIVE AND ALLIED WORKERS A.4, A.7 VALKO,E. VERNON,Major Wilfrid Foulston VIRE-TUOMINEN, Mirjam VOZAR, Libor A.18 A.4 A.33 A.25 E.H.S. Burhop NCUACS 40/2/93 15 Index of Correspondents WALPOLE, Joseph WEISSBACH,H. WEST, Jenny WILKINS, Maurice Hugh Frederick WOOSTER, William Alfred (‘Peter’) WORKERS’ EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION A.33 A.25, A.26 A.33 A.22 A.27 A.7 WORLD FEDERATION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKERS A.27, B.1-B.4 YANUSHKOVSKAYA, Tamara Petrovna A.25