BULLARD, Edward Crisp Vol1

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THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Report on the correspondence and papers of SIR EDWARD CRISP BULLARD (1907-1980) Geophysicist deposited in Churchill College Archives Centre, Cambridge Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre Reproduced for the (CSAC 100/4/84) No 84/12 THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS Quality House, Quality Court, Chancery Lane All rights reserved London WC2A 1HP by 1984 | CSAC 100/4/84 CONTEMPORARY SCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE British National Committee for the History of Science, Medicine and Technology under the guidance of the Royal Society’s Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of SIR EDWARD CRISP BULLARD FRS (1907 - 1980) Compiled by: Jeannine Alton and Peter Harper 1984 Deposited in Churchill College Archives Centre, Cambridge General Introduction All rights reserved VOLUME | List of Contents Sections A - E E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 The work of the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre, and the production of this catalogue, are made possible by the support of the following societies and institutions: The Biochemical Society The Charles Babbage Foundation for the History of Information Processing The Institute of Physics The Nuffield Foundation The Rhodes Trustees The Royal Society of London The Institution of Electrical Engineers The Institution of Mechanical Engineers The Wolfson Foundation E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 NOT ALL THE MATERIAL IN THE COLLECTION IS YET AVAILABLE FOR CONSULTATION. ENQUIRIES SHOULD BE ADDRESSED IN THE FIRST INSTANCE TO: THE ARCHIVIST, CHURCHILL COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 LIST OF CONTENTS GENERAL INTRODUCTION SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL A.1-A.261 A.| -A.14 Biographical, autobiographical, bibliographical A.15 -A.47 Diaries A.48 -A.123 Career, honours and awards A.124-A. 205 Family and personal A. 206-A, 257 Photographs A. 258-A. 261 Tape recordings B,1- B72 B.5 -B.29 B.30-B.73 B.1 -B.4 Early history of the Department SECTION B CAMBRIDGE B.1-B.88 Department of Geodesy and Geophysics Research and administration, 1956-80 Postwar organisation and research, 1943-48 Lectures and teaching Other Cambridge departments and institutions C.¥-Cui Administrative and personal C.12-C.28 Research and academic SECTION C CALIFORNIA Introduction to Section C B.74-B.88 Lectures B.89-B .92 C.29-C.43 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 SECTION D RESEARCH D.1-D.651 Introduction to Section D List of contents SECTION E COMMITTEES AND CONSULTANCIES E.1 - E.231 Introduction to Section E List of contents SECTION F SOCIETIES AND ORGANISATIONS F.1 - F.120 Introduction and list of contents SECTION G PUBLICATIONS, LECTURES, BROAD- CASTS G.1- G.268 G.136, G.137 = Reviews G.138-G.175 G.193-G.268 G.1 -G.110 Writings on scientific topics with an introductory note G.111-G.135 — Biographical writings G.176-G.192 Radio and television broadcasts Lectures with an introductory note Correspondence re publications, lectures and broadcasts with an introductory note Introduction to Section H SECTION H VISITS E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 SECTION J CORRESPONDENCE Jc* de 200 Introduction to Section J LIST OF PUBLICATIONS With an introductory note INDEX OF INDIVIDUALS, ORGANISATIONS AND FIRMS E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 GENERAL INTRODUCTION PROVENANCE The collection, which is very extensive, was received at various dates 1981-84 from Dr. Belinda Bullard (Bullard's eldest daughter) who had assembled it from several locations: Bullard's homes in Cambridge, England, and at La Jolla, California, where he died, his office at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (also at La Jolla) and the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, Cambridge University, where a laboratory now bears his name. In addition, Lady (Ursula) Bullard made available the sketchbook at A. 140; Dr. D.H. Matthews added the photocopied account of the pioneering seismic expedition of 1938 at D.350. marine heat-flow (A.4) and of his correspondence on the subject with R. Revelle (D.415A) were sent by the Archivist of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, where the originals are housed. The photocopies of the article on Bullard's work on He was educated at OUTLINE OF THE CAREER OF E.C. BULLARD Bullard was born in 1907 into a comfortable family of Norwich brewers and heat-flow in South African bore-holes. who provided him with relative affluence and a dash of eccentricity. Repton and Clare College, Cambridge; his first graduate research was at the Cavendish Laboratory when its Director, from whom he says he learned much, was Rutherford. Bullard himself worked under the direction of P.M.S. (later Lord) Blackett and in collaboration with H.S.W. (later Sir Harrie) Massey, on electron scattering in gases. In 1931, partly because of the economic depression, he accepted a post under Sir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham at the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics in Cambridge; here he worked with great energy and success on a variety of projects: geophysical instrument design and development, gravity determination in Britain and Africa, explosion seismology including the first British expeditions to study the Atlantic seafloor, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 During the Second World War Bullard was seconded to the Admiralty, again Elected to the Fellowship of the Royal Society in 1941 he was a member working on various tasks, including anti-mine protection, operational research and intelligence; at the end of the War he was Assistant Director, Naval Operational Research. of the Society's Post-War Needs in Geophysics Committee and instrumental in organi- sing the allocation of surplus equipment and apparatus to universities at the end of Returning to Cambridge, he put much effort into re-establishing the hostilities. Department and its several lines of research, including gravity measurements, heat- flow and deep sea seismic refraction. In 1947 he accepted a post as Professor of Physics at Toronto, a sudden and many felt an unwise decision which Bullard himself attributed to frustration at While there, but the lack of administrative and research facilities at Cambridge. on a summer vacation visit to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, he did some of his most important work on the design of equipment for the measurement of heat-flow at sea (in collaboration with A.E. Maxwell), and in 1950 returned to Britain as Director of the National Physical Laboratory. ment! post, which brought him a knighthood in 1953, was remarkable in the amount of research he continued to pursue undistracted - His tenure of this essentially 'establish- or minimally distracted - by administrative and official duties. taking part magnetism. Once again, his research interests proliferated, in collaboration with many In 1956 Bullard returned to Cambridge and to the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics as Assistant Director of Research (Reader in Geophysics 1960, Professor He continued to work on marine heat-flow, building apparatus and in sea-going expeditions, and also developed his dynamo theory of terrestrial stries of Defence, Science and Supply), to professional and learned societies such as 1964). gifted students (the ‘Cambridge Mariners') to include continental drift and plate tectonics as well as continuing work in seismology and geomagnetism, and a very practical interest in the development of computer programs for processing large amounts of observational and adviser to Government Departments (notably the Admiralty, Foreign Office, Mini- data. During this period too, Bullard was increasingly in demand as consultant E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 8 the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, and to industrial firms principally Shell and IBM UK of which he was a director for ten years. He was a founder member of the Natural Environment Research Council, played a part in attempts to negotiate a test-ban treaty and was joint chairman of the Anglo-American Ballistic Missiles Committee. Bullard had always enjoyed his contacts with America where he had many friends. He paid regular visits to various research institutions and was frequently offered tempting appointments. Most of all, he admired the personnel and facilities at Scripps; he accepted from 1963 a Visiting Professorship to spend three months there each year, and on his retirement from Cambridge in 1974 he and his second wife became American residents living at La Jolla. He continued research in geomagnetism and plate tectonics and took part in Scripps expeditions as well as in its teaching and lecturing programmes; and he added a last topic of interest - energy sources and nuclear waste disposal - in his capacity as consultant to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of Caltech. Despite failing health he remained occupied in writing and research until his death in April 1980. DESCRIPTION OF THE COLLECTION The material is presented in the order shown in the List of Contents. The following paragraphs aim only to give a brief guide to its substance and interest; entries in the catalogue. The surviving papers cover almost every aspect of Bullard's career. The additional explanatory notes accompany many of the Sections, sub-sections and individual The chief lacunae in this collection are his wartime papers (see J.7 where Bullard expresses his regret at having destroyed these in 1945) and his official papers at Toronto and at NPL. Despite efforts to assemble as full a collection as possible, there are probably also gaps in the correspondence files, deriving from frequent transatlantic migrations. childhood and schooldays, written in 1973 and updated in 1980, as well as many tributes by others, some of which have been drawn upon in compiling the catalogue. Section A includes (A.9) Bullard's own autobiographical notes of his family, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 ? material on his career, though incomplete, yet includes offers of many posts which he The ‘personal’ material includes declined and which are not always generally known. several items on Bullard's antiquarian book collection (A.185-A.189). mainly concerned with the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics at Cambridge and includes the original correspondence leading up to its foundation in 1921 (B.1, B.2), and Bullard's efforts to reinvigorate it after the Second World War (B.5-B. 29). Section C records his connection with the University of California, chiefly the Scripps Section B is Some of the items deal with his lecturing, teaching Institution of Oceanography. and examining there at the end of his life (C.29-C.43); for all his experience as a lecturer he admits in his letters of resignation (C.11) that direct contact with under- graduate work was new to him and he must have been gratified by the unmistable warmth of response he met (C.31, C.34). Section D (Research) is the largest Section and documents almost all of It is Less Section G includes research career; Of more general interest is D.273, Bullard's continental drift and plate tectonics. detailed account of (it seems) every penny spent on the 1933-34 expedition in East Bullard's many research interests, some more comprehensively than others. remarkable to see the extent of manuscript notes, calculations, diagrams, site des- in Bullard's hand whether written criptions, drafts and, later, computer programs all in the African field, as Director of NPL or as Professor of Geophysics at Cambridge. Especially full are the records for gravity measurement including the famous 1933-34 expedition to East Africa, for heat-flow research including the 1938 Atlantic expedition, His last research, and for the work on dynamo theory and on computing applications. on energy sources and nuclear waste disposal, is also documented, and includes drafts for a book on the subject on which Bullard was working right up to his death. fully represented in the surviving papers is Bullard's contribution to the theory of | there is a reference to his 'experiences with lions' dated January 1939 and refers toa later trip to South Africa to study terrestrial heat- in a letter (at D.366) but this is Sections E and F document Bullard's public life as consultant, committee Because of the confidential or official nature member and adviser on science policy. of much of this work, the surviving material is sometimes sparse. he may have borne his learning lightly but its presence is irrefutable. flow. Insum, this Section provides an impressive record of Bullard's distinguished Africa. The famous story of his being treed by lions, however, is not recorded: E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 10 several unpublished, or unlisted, works, arnong them substantial drafts for a book on optics, in collaboration with P.B. Moon, commissioned by Cambridge University Press in 1934 (G.2-G.18). There is also a rather full record of Bullard's joint editorship with N.F. (Sir Nevill) Mott of the International Monographs in Physical Science for the Clarendon Press (G.194-G.230). The sub-section on 'Lectures' (G.138-G.175) is of interest in showing at once Bullard's mastery of his subject and the temperamental poise, even panache, which enabled him to lecture with rivetting success on the basis of half a page of notes. Both Sections H and J are somewhat disappointing in that it is unlikely that they represent more than a selection of Bullard's visits and conferences (H) and correspondence (J). The latter Section contains a high proportion of material dating from his later years when he was frequently consulted by historians of several disciplines for his recollections and opinions. Bullard's historical interests were not confined to the events of his own career, though it is true that he was at pains to collect material about the early history of the Cambridge Department (Section D) and Bushy House his official residence as Director of NPL (Section A). But he was a respected collector of scientific books, with (Section B). He wrote several biographical tributes and accounts of colleagues; the Bullard was held in almost universal esteem and affection, which transpires selected for quotation in L. and H. Fowler, Cambridge Commemorated, 1984. a special interest in Newton and Halley; he played an important role in the Royal on the disposal of its historical book collection (Section F) and presented a scion of Newton's apple tree for planting at the new buildings of the Cambridge Department hearted’ (his description) account of Rutherford published originally in NATURE was most substantial of these is perhaps the memoir of W.M. Ewing, while a more 'light- Society's Halley Tercentenary celebrations (Section G), advised the Institute of Physics Bullard - known and addressed academies and government ministries to junior employees and sixth-formers, or the more ‘objective’ criteria of 'Course and Professor Evaluation’ (at Scripps) and BBC throughout the collection, whether in the flood of requests to visit, lecture, or advise on technical matters, the many offers of influential posts in Britain and America, the trust placed in him as adviser, referee and consultant at every level from national audience research panel reports. One can see why. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 1 by all as 'Teddy' - seems to have grown younger and less forrnal as his age and honours increased. Even without his voice and living presence, his personality emerges un- mistakably in all he wrote: serious without pomposity, forthright without animosity, loyal without prejudice. He rarely lost contact with old friends and colleagues and often intervened quietly to help them or their families left unprovided for by death or inadequate pensions (a topic on which he felt strongly). He appears never to have written a routine letter; he may (as he often claimed) have never quite mastered English spelling: conventions, but his thought and his wit are immediately accessible. In view of the very full and frank nature of some of the documents it will readily be understood that they are not all currently available for consultation. Material of this kind occurs in Sections A, C, E, F, Gand J. LOCATIONS OF FURTHER MATERIAL Certificates and scrolls of honour remain in family hands. Material relating to the Anchor Brewery (the Bullard family firm) is held at the Norfolk and Norwich Record Office. Material assembled by Bullard for his memorial writings on W.M. Ewing is at Columbia University, New York. Air Historical Branch, Ministry of Defence. Correspondence exchanged with W.H. Munk and others is in the Archives of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego. Official papers relating to Bullard's service on government committees are held at the E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our main debt is to Dr. Belinda Bullard for her initiative in assembling material, her encouragement, and her comments on the draft catalogue. We are also indebted to: Dr. H.C. Jenkyns and Dr. C.E. Phelps for information, and for their patience. Dr. D.H. Matthews, for information and for additional material. Mrs. D.C. Day, Archivist of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for information and additional material. Lady Phillips, for help with indexing. Mrs. M.M. Edwards, for patiently typing various drafts of the catalogue. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL _A.1 - A. 261 BIOGRAPHICAL, AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL, BIBLIO GRAPHICAL DIARIES A.48 -A.123 CAREER, HONOURS AND AWARDS A.124 - A.205 A.258 - A. 26] A. 206 - A.257 PHOTOGRAPHS FAMILY AND PERSONAL SOME OF THE MATERIAL IN THiS SECTION MAY BE SUBJECT TO RESTRICTION TAPE RECORDINGS E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal 14 A.1-A.14 BIOGRAPHICAL, AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL, BIBLIOGRAPHICAL BIOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNTS OF BULLARD AND HIS WORK "Profile', New Scientist, 1959. Biographical note and list of Bullard's publications, by M.N. Hill, 1962, with ms. note ‘originally written for R.S. Profship’. Biographical note, for Scripps Institution, 1970. tables of Bullard's salaries from 1931. Includes ‘Sir Edward Bullard', by D. Davies, Earth-Science Reviews, 1968 (Photocopy). Ip. biographical note, 1971. Revised Who's Who entry, 1975. Newspaper article, 1977. ‘Sir Edward C. Bullard', 3pp. note, January 1978. Obituary and Memorial Service notices, The Times, 1980. Memoir by W. Nierenberg and R. Revelle. AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL ‘Imagined Worlds: The Day the Earth Moved', by D. McKenzie (on plate tectonics), The Listener, 1982. "E.C. Bullard's First Heat-Probe' Article by E.N. Shor, incorporating shortened version of a taped conversation with Bullard on 5 August 1973, published in EOS, 28 February 1984. (Photocopy kindly made available by the Archivist, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. ) Correspondence with both publishing houses, 1972-78. Note for McGraw Hill Modern Men of Science, c.1966 (on work on the origin of the earth's magnetic field). Later extended note for McGraw Hill and for Monadori Editore, 1979. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal "Edward Bullard'. Non-Linear Dynamics' (Bibliog. 1978a). Dedication by W.H. Munk for 'Topics in 19pp. ms. draft (photocopy). App. typescript version as published with a ms. note 'This was written entirely by me. ECB 3-30-78". Interview for Oral History Department, United States Nava! Institute. Correspondence, 1969-70, and corrected typescript transcript of interview conducted during Symposium Oceanography 2000, including reminiscences of much of Bullard's research career. A5pp. "Notes for Biographical Notice of Edward Bullard’. 36pp. ms. account of family, early life and schooldays up to and including Repton. and sent to the Royal Society with a covering letter re his biographer, 31 March 1980 (Bullard died on 3 April). Written 1973, with Ip., 6 March 1980, Miscellaneous autobiographical notes by Bullard. Included in the folder are a few additional notes, family trees, etc. Includes lists of children's and grandchildren's birthdays, of wartime colleagues, of his addresses 1921-75, of his research notebooks, of his proposed periods of residence at La Jolla, etc. tion (1977) - this last being of special biographical interest. A selection of letters written by Bullard in response to enquiries or requests for his views on various topics. be found elsewhere, particularly in the correspondence section where an indication is given, but these offer a compendious in- sight into Bullard's characteristic approach. They include letters on the value of interchange with overseas students (1967), on the Rothschild Report (1971), on pension schemes (1976), and on combining research and administra- Similar material may E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal BIBLIOGRAPHICAL List of publications. 27pp. (variously paginated) typescript with ms. additions, made available by B. Bullard, 20 July 1983. Pp. is reproduced on 311-337, It This is the bibliography used in the attribution of publications, drafts and research material in the manuscript collection, in the form @ibliog ...) appended to the relevant entries. Copies, or photocopies, of papers selected by Bullard as of special interest, and bearing his own ms. comment. the Director, Scripps Institution, 12 May 1975, witha covering note as follows: Sent to ‘This selection of my papers attempts to give a cross- section of the things about which | have written, | have not attempted to select the "most important" papers. The papers are: This item was added to the selection at a later date, probably 1978. See J.10, J.91. "Work of H.S.W. Massey and E.C. Bullard on electron scattering’, App. typescript and ms. account by Bullard, n.d. 'The protection of ships from magnetic mines', (Bibliog. 1946a), with comment 'An account of work during the war’. ‘The Elastic Scattering of Slow Electrons in Argon’, (Bibliog. 1931a), with comment 'Work done while a graduate student. Experimental Atomic Physics’. Continued ‘Homogeneous dynamos and terrestrial magnetism', (Bibliog. 1954e), with comment 'A long and rather complicated theoretical paper on the origin of the earth's magnetic field’. 'The flow of heat through the floor of the Atlantic Ocean', (Bibliog. 1954c), with comment ‘Experimental work at sea', ee E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A.13 (Cont'd.) Biographical and personal ‘Continental drift', (Bibliog. 1964b), with comment 'An attempt to persuade the geological establishment of the error of their beliefs - it was successful beyond my expectation’. "Reversals of the earth's magnetic field', (Bibliog. 1968a), with comment ‘Review to a high-level audience of a critical part of the evidence for the recent revolution in geological thought’. "The origin of the oceans', (Bibliog. 1969b), with comment ‘A popular exposition - to its original sales in the Sci.Amer.)'. it has sold 180,000 copies (in addition "Electromagnetic induction in the oceans', (Bibliog. 1970a), with comment ‘Systematic review and development of a relatively new branch of geophysics’. "Basic theories', (Bibliog. 1973b), with comment 'Ist chapter in a UNESCO book on Geothermal Power, relates the problems to the scientific background’. ‘Rutherford's Cavendish', (Bibliog. 1974b), with comment 'A light-hearted historical work'. "Minerals from the deep sea', (Bibliog. 1974c), with comment "Possible source of base metals in the ocean’. Miscellaneous lists of publications, compiled for bound volumes Miscellaneous lists of names and addresses for reprint distribution, for various periods of Bullard's career; some very early, and continuing to 1978. and for various occasions (to 1973). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A.15-A.47 DIARIES Biographical and personal These are all small pocket diaries. They forma relatively complete sequence, 1942-78, though some are scantily used. Diaries for 1951 and 1955 are missing. ula 16 ei Ys .18 1942-43 1943-44 1945 1946-47 A.19 1947-48 A.20 A.21 1949 1949-50 1952 (hardly used) 1952 (hardly used) 1953 1954 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal A.48-A.123 CAREER, HONOURS AND AWARDS A.48 Two letters from Bullard to his mother, one dated 1917, the other '?1916'. Repton School Reports 1924-26. Bullard as 'a willing worker, with no literary tastes’. The English master describes Includes letter, January 1924, to Bullard's father from the Headmaster (G.F. Fisher). Mathematical Tripos and Natural Sciences Tripos Part | Examination Papers, annotated by Bullard, May-June 1928. Included here is a reprint of a paper by H. McCombie et al, February 1928, acknowledging work ‘carried out by Mr. E.C. Bullard, of Clare College, in the Mineralogical Museum’. Certificate of election, Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, December 1931. Superannuation Agreement on appointment as Demonstrator in Geodesy, 1932. Two letters to Bullard's parents, 1933, on his impending trip to Africa. Correspondence re possible appointment at Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1933. extension 1942. Miscellaneous correspondence on career. Includes letter re Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1935. Bullard's draft letter re Chair of Physics at Cape Town, 1936. Correspondence re Smithson Research Fellowship of the Royal Society, appointment 1935, move to Admiraliy 1939, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal Correspondence, 1941 and 1943, re Chairs at Liverpool. Letter of congratulation on election to Royal Society, 1941 (only surviving letter). Miscellaneous items re service in Second World War. Includes material re staff and salaries, invitation to serve on Physics Committee, Advisory Council on Scientific Research, Ministry of Supply, 1944, and on Scientific Research Advisory Committee, Ministry of Labour, 1945. Cambridge University, 1943-46. Includes material re Bullard's Readership, his release from war service, arrangements for 1.C.1. Fellowships, etc. Also included is letter of appointment as External Examiner in Physics, Manchester, 1945. Clare College, Cambridge, 1943-45. For offer of post at Institute of Geophysics, Los Angeles, see J.133. Correspondence, 1947, re post of Director of Safety in Mines Research, Includes correspondence re election to Research Fellowship, 1943, and Official Fellowship, 1945, and miscellaneous items on teaching and examinations. Correspondence, 1949, re Bullard's resignation. Correspondence re staffing and funding of UK Physics Departments, sent at Bullard's request by N.F. Mott, W.L. Bragg, 1949. A.59-A. 61 Appointment as Professor of Physics, Toronto. A.59 Correspondence and negotiations, 1947, including letter of appointment with effect from 1 March 1948. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal Correspondence, 1948, 1949, re possible appointments at Cambridge. For correspondence re the offer to Bullard of the post of Director of the Scripps Institution, see C.14. A.63-A.77 Appointment as Director, National Physical Laboratory (NPL). See F.39-F.49 for NPL material after Bullard's resignation as Director. See A. 241-A.246 for photographs of NPL occasions. Letters and cables re appointment. Includes letters of appointment, press~cuttings. Letters and cables of congratulation. $= T Y eoW First name and un- identified signatures Correspondence and accounts, mainly with Royal Society, re payments from the Petavel fund for expenses of furnishing and entertaining at Bushy House (residence of the Director, NPL). by Bullard, 1950-55. App. notes and references from State Papers, 1689-1695. Includes detailed ms. accounts of expenditure claimed A.72-A.76 Material relating to the history of Bushy House. A.72 Notebook inscribed 'References to Bushy House’. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal Bundle of index cards of references, 1621-1864/5. 3pp. note on Bushy House, no author, 1932. Correspondence re early owners of Bushy House, 1952, 1962. Correspondence on Bushy House, 1962, 1970, 1980. Invitation (declined) to serve on Visiting Board of NPL, 1976. Warrant of appointment, Board of Visitors, Royal Greenwich Observatory, 1953. Correspondence and negotiations re return to Cambridge, 1953-54. Correspondence re election to Berkeley Bye-Fellowship, Caius College, Cambridge, and resignation from NPL, Janvary- July 1955. Correspondence, 1955, re proposed research at Cambridge. Correspondence re appointment as Senior Assistant in Research, Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, November-December 1955, and one letter 1956. Offer (declined) of "Institute Professorship’ to head new Laboratory of Earth Science, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nology, 1958. 1957. Miscellaneous honours, 1959. Award of Arthur L. Day Medal of Geological Society of America for 1958. Election as foreign associate, National Academy of Sciences, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal Churchill College, Cambridge. Bullard was a Professorial Fellow from 1960, anda "Pensioner Fellow' on his retirement in 1974. pondence refers to general academic and social affairs of the College. The corres- 3 folders as follows; 1960-73 1974 1975-78, Includes Bullard's letter of resignation from College committees, and material re up to mark his retirement and awarded to the Churchill undergraduate achieving the highest marks in Physics in the Natural Sciences Tripos. the Bullard Prize set Correspondence re Headships of Colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, 1960, ¢.1966, 1968. Offer of Professorship at Yale, 1960 (declined). elsewhere than at Barclays Bank. received an Honorary D.Sc. in 1976. 3 folders as follows: A.89-A.91 University of East Anglia. 1961, 1970. Includes material re University's decision to bank Bullard served on the Court of the University, and 1976-79, Includes material re Bullard's Honorary Degree, originally 1974-76. proposed for 1975 but deferred until 1976. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal . A.92-A.,94 The Vetlesen Prize. The prize was established in Columbia University in It is awarded for 'achievement in the sciences of the 1959 by the G. Unger Vetlesen Foundation (itself set up in 1955). earth and the universe’, the first recipient being W.M. Ewing. Bullard regularly attended the presentation meetings and made recommendations, and was himself awarded the prize, with F. Birch, See especially A.93 below. in 1968. 3 folders as follows: 1962. Award Dinner for H. Jeffreys and F.A. Vening Meinesz. 1968. Award to Bullard and F. Birch. Includes notification, letters of congratulation, ms. note of Bullard's speech of thanks at dinner, 8pp. draft of his lecture at the symposium, publication arrangements, 14pp. revised version, printed information re Vetlesen, Foundation and prize, etc. See also C.24, 1970, 1971. Award of Alexander Agassiz Medal, National Academy of Sciences, 1965. The letter of notification (11 October 1968) explains the history of the prize which it was intended would 'in time «+. tank in dignity and significance with the Nobel Prizes which now recognise scholarly and scientific achievement in other fields’. Election as Honorary Fellow, Indian Geophysical Union, 1967. Correspondence, press notice, draft of Bullard's remarks on receiving medal. Award of Wollaston Medal, Geological Society of London, 1967. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal Invitation to University of Toronto as Centennial Visiting Professor in 1967. Brief correspondence, 1966-68. See also G.157. Correspondence, 1968-69, re offer to Bullard of newly-created Henry L. Doherty Chair, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts . Correspondence, 1969, re Election as Foreign Member, American Philosophical Society. Certificate of Commendation, Committee on Oceanography, Texas House of Representatives, 1970 (Bullard's letter only). Election to Mark Twain Society, 1971 and 1976. Conferral of honorary D.Sc., Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1971. Correspondence, programme, etc. Honorary Membership, Stokes Society, Cambridge, 1972 (correspondence only). Honorary Fellowship, Geological Society of India, 1972 (correspondence only). Society, 1974. Letters and cables of greeting, signatures of those attending retirement diriner at King's College, Bullard's notes for speech. Retirement from Cambridge, 1974. “7 Correspondence re honorary degree, Leicester University, 1974. Correspondence re honorary membership, European Geophysical E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal Correspondence re offer to Bullard of Directorship, Marine Science Institute, University of Texas at Austin, 1974. Bullard declined, preferring to retain his connection with Scripps. A.110-A.114 The Royal Medal, 1975 A.110 Notifications, citation, arrangements for award of medal, press-cuttings.« A.111-A.114 Letters and cables of congratulation. A.111 A- B Alise: Res A.112 G-N A.114. V -~W and unidentified. Award of the William Bowie Medal, ‘for outstanding contributions to fundamental geophysics and for unselfish cooperation in research', 1975. Seealso F.3. Midsummer Banquet, Mansion House, London, 1976. Includes photocopy of Bullard's 'Reply on receiving the Bowie Medal’. See also F.4. Bullard was not able to receive the Medal in person; is his ‘Response on receiving the Ewing Medal'. Caius College, Cambridge. Re-election to Combination Room, 1978. The Ewing Medal, 1978. the item E.C, Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal A.119-A, 121 "A Meeting in Honor of Sir Edward Bullard’, held at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 11 and 12 January 1980. The papers were published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, 1981, 86, pp. 11509-11695, The meeting was sponsored by: Cambridge University Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Office of Naval Research Scripps Institution of Oceanography The University of Miami Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute The range of sponsors and of the topics discussed (A.119) indicate the breadth of Bullard's research interests. friends (A.120) and Bullard's letters of thanks to the organisers (A.121) show the affection in which he was held and his own pleasure at what was tacitly recognised as a farewell. The letters from Programme, list of participants. Letters and cables from friends. Programmes of lectures, symposia and conferences given, organised or attended by Bullard. Bullard's letters of thanks to A.E. Maxwell and W.A. Nierenberg (photocopies). honours. Miscellaneous press-cuttings of Bullard, career, activities, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal A.124-A. 205 FAMILY AND PERSONAL A.124-A. 148 The Bullard family A.149~A, 157 Personal correspondence A.158-A, 205 Miscellaneous biographical material A.124-A. 148 The Bullard family Certificates (or copies) of Bullard's birth, marriage, divorce, second marriage. A.124 A.125 d. 1950) and mother (Eleanor See below. Correspondence, mainly with solicitors, about the estates of Bullard's father (Edward John, Howes Bullard, d. 1962). is the family brewery in Norwich. Correspondence runs 1950-66 and in large part concerned with the affairs of Bullard and Sons, Short account of the 'Anchor Brewery’, the family firm founded in 1837. Bullard became a director in 1952 and continued as such until the firm was taken over by Watney Mann in 1964. effect of weather on beer consumption. This is a photocopy of the original document which has been deposited, with other material relating to the firm (1951-68) at the Norfolk and Norwich Record Office where earlier records of the firm are already held. Mainly about data processing systems and including a report by Bullard after a visit to Watney Mann computer centre at Brighton; also includes correspondence and papers on the épp. typescript, August 1955. Correspondence and papers exchanged with Watney Mann, 1970-71. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal Sir Harry Bullard (Bullard's grandfather, M.P. for Norwich, d. 1902). Mainly correspondence about estate (1955-57) but includes some reminiscences by Bullard in response to an enquiry (1974). Sir Frank Crisp (Bullard's grandfather). Mainly correspondence from Bullard's sister, Molly, about Friar Park, the house at Henley built by Crisp and bought (1970) by George Harrison of the Beatles. : A.130-A. 133 Margaret Ellen (Tom) Bullard, Bullard's first wife (m. 1931, marriage dissolved 1974), See Section D passim for Margaret Bullard's active participation in various research projects in the 1930s and early 1940s. The surviving correspondence dates from the later and less happy years when the marriage was under strain. Very few of Margaret Bullard's letters are dated and in the absence of postmarks they are placed in a tentative order based on context. 1968 (approx. ) 1971-73 (approx.) 73-76 Includes post-card from Bullard, 1941 (after raids on 1954, 1962, 1965, 1967 and one unidentified letter to Margaret Bullard 1934. Portsmouth). Brief correspondence, 1960s and 1970s. Emily (Stewart) and Henrietta (Bullard's twin daughters). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A,135-A. 137 Polly (Hill), Bullard's youngest daughter. Biographical and personal Very few of these letters are dated. 1966-79, in three folders. They run approximately A.138 Notes and letters from Bullard's grandchildren. A.139,A.140 Ursula Margery Bullard (formerly Curnow, née Cooke, Bullard's second wife). Miscellaneous shorter correspondence. Drawing book, containing two drawings of Arthur, son of Belinda Bullard (Bullard's eldest daughter) by Odile Crick, and 7 drawings of Bullard in his last illness, 2 April 1980, by Ursula Bullard. Made available by Lady Bullard, 1982. A.142-A.145 Miscellaneous correspondence with other members of the Bullard family, or others of the same name, some including reminiscences or biographical information. Miscellaneous correspondence about purchase, heating, various lettings of the house, 1954-75. 19 Clarkson Road, Cambridge (Bullard's home, now occupied by Belinda Bullard). in 1974. Miscellaneous correspondence with Belinda Bullard, 1970-76, on various matters, including transfer of the lease of the house In his letter of 21 June 1955 Bullard states that the house was built for him in 1935. 1950, 1954-57. 1968-75. 1955 (Bullard's drawings and specifications). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal A.146-A. 148 Correspondence with solicitors (Francis & Company, Cambridge), on various family matters, wills, trusts for children and grandchildren, divorce settlement, etc. 1962-71. Wills and settlements. 1973-74. Mainly divorce petition, and transfer of lease of house. 1974-77. Wills and settlements. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal A.149-A, 157 Personal correspondence These are all! letters from female friends, most of very long acquaintance. when there is a postmark, and some are signed with first names only. Few of the letters can be dated except 149, A.150 G 1940-74 shoe ol Be 1953-76 1950-79 1955-80 Miscellaneous cheques. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and grap Pp persona! A.158-A. 205 Miscellaneous biographical material A.158-A.177 Finance and Investments in Britain. A.158-A. 164 Correspondence with accountants on UK Income Tax. Includes statements of income and expenses prepared by Bullard and by accountants. The accountants were Down, Kilner & Company (corres- pondence: W.R. Packer) until 1 May 1971, and thereafter Buzzacott, Vincent, Watson, Kilner & Company (corres- pondence: Thomas Kilner). 1961-64 1965-67 1968-69 1970-71 1974 1972-73 1975-80 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal A.165-A. 171 Correspondence with N.M. Rothschild & Sons. Rothschilds took over the management of Bullard's investments at his suggestion from June 1967 (see letters May- June 1967 in A.165). actively maintaining his portfolio, keeping capital, income and deposit accounts and trans- ferring monies to and from his bank accounts as requested. The material includes transfer certificates, balances of accounts and general correspondence on the management of funds. 1967 1968 1969-70 1971-72 1974-79 1973. Includes statement of holdings as at 31 December 1973. 1971-74, Correspondence, 1975-79, with National Westminster Bank concerning transfer of funds on Bullard's and Lady Bullard's becoming U.S. residents. Correspondence re possible participation in Lloyds syndicate, Miscellaneous statements of accounts with Rothschilds. Shorter correspondence re U.K. pension, 1975-80. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal Miscellaneous shorter notes and correspondence on financial matters, various dates, 1956-79. Miscellaneous royalty statements, broadcast and TV fees. Miscellaneous college and university fees, thesis supervision and examining. Bundle of dividend warrants, chiefly Bullard & Sons. A.178-A, 184 Finance and Investments in U.S.A. A.178 Correspondence with accountant (George A. Peterson) on U.S.A. income tax and financial matters, 1962-78 (not alli complete). Correspondence and papers re Lux Land Company, Brawley, California, R. &R. Land and Cattle Company. Bullard was a ‘Limited Partner’. 1965-74. See also See A.181-A. 184 Bullard was a ‘Limited Partner’. Correspondence and papers re Universal Resources (a California estate company), 1969-73. Correspondence and papers re R. & R. Land and Cattle Company, Brawley, California. also Lux Land Company. Plans of ranch holdings and land improvements, mainly 1972. 1970-73 1974~76 1979 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A.185-A. 189 Books. Biographical and personal Bullard had collected books on science and on the history of science since student days, with a special interest in Halley. He bought at auction and from dealers, many of whom came to respect his knowledge and to consult him on Certain items. See G.123- G.133 for Bullard's contribution to the Halley Tercentenary. See also F.21. Correspondence with Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1960-79. Miscellaneous correspondence on books and book purchases, 1965-77. Similar, 1978. Similar, 1979. Photocopy of Bullard's catalogue of his books, some with notes Miscellaneous notes and lists of books and book purchases by Bullard. Includes notes for a talk on 'My Books' given at San Diego, February 1977, describing his interest and collection. of dates of purchase and prices. Biographical and personal E.C Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A.190-A. 194 Health A.190 1943-49 A.191 1968-72 A.192 1973-74 A.193 1975-78 A.194 1979 A.195 Miscellaneous birthday, greeting, get-well cards, 1970s. A.196 Miscellaneous memos., lists, engagement plans drawn up by Bullard. A.199, A.200 Miscellaneous humorous anecdotes, drawings, quotations collected by or sent to Bullard. Correspondence re portraits, photographs and interviews Includes correspondence, 1972-73, with with Bullard. Ruskin Spear about the retirement portrait now at the Cambridge Department. 1974-79 Miscellaneous correspondence, notifications, etc. of societies and appeals. on Disarmament appeals. Several of these are requests to sign Test Ban 1959-77. 1961, 1970-73 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and persona! Letters of congratulation sent by Bullard to colleagues receiving honours and awards. only, but some with replies. Mosily Bullard's carbons 1960-79. Letters of thanks to acknowledge books, articles, photographs, etc. received by Bullard. Shorter correspondence on social invitations, 1966-73 (only). Miscellaneous items, including results of I.Q. test (1952), speeding fines, wine merchant (Bullard sent regular gifts of wine to his doctors). Miscellaneous items of personal correspondence, various dates. Includes letter recalling Bullard's childhood in Norwich, letter from wartime colleague at Portsmouth, etc. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal A. 206-A. 257 PHOTOGRAPHS A. 206-A, 214 Photographs of Bullard A.215-A. 218 Family and personal friends A.219-A, 233 Conferences and groups A. 234-A, 239 Scientific colleagues A. 240 Second World War A.241-A, 246 National Physical Laboratory A.247-A. 257 Expeditions and research A.206-A.214 Photographs of Bullard A. 206 Includes a photograph of Lecturing at Royal Institution, ¢.1954. At National Physical Laboratory. the portrait of Bullard by Bernard Dunstan at NPL. in 1950s. Watching solar eclipse, with Chapman Pincher, n.d. Miscellaneous photographs, some with dates E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal E Photograph labelled by Bullard on verso: 'ECB with apparatus for measuring heat flow through the floor of the ocean. Taken Hel I5O:: a6". Photograph inscribed 'NPL, British Ass. visit to ICI salt mine’. At home. Later photographs, including some late portraits at Alaska, 1978, 1979, Set of 4 photographs, one labelled 'Lux Ranch’. 1970s. Portrait study photograph. A.215-A. 218 Family and personal friends Of Ursula Bullard. On safari in Kenya, 1968. A.215 A.216 A.217 Humorous drawing of 'The BOMM bomber’. Envelope of miscellaneous photographs of friends, a few only named and dated. Washington D.C., September 1939 (2 copies). Group photographs of the Cambridge Department, 1930s (with Lenox=Conyngham), 1960s. Seventh General Assembly, 1.U, Geodesy and Geophysics, A.219-A. 233 Conferences and groups A.219 E.C, Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal Dallas, 1955. National Bureau of Standards, 1955. Anglo-U.S. ballistic missiles committee, Los Angeles, 1956. Geneva conference on nuclear tests, 1958. Set of photographs of visit to U.S. Air Base (probably Anglo- U.S. missiles committee, 1959). Press Conference on ‘Space’, c.1958. First Major International Congress on Oceanography, United Nations, New York, 1959. Includes R. Revelle, W.M. Ewing. Vetlesen Lecture, 1960. Earth Tide Symposium, Brussels, 1961. IBM Conference at Churchill College, 1967. Churchill College, Cambridge. Inauguration photograph. Photograph of Bullard with Lord Home. Second International Oceanographic Congress, Moscow, 1966. Bullard with astronauts, at Cambridge, 1971. Opening (by Bullard) of Geomagnetic Research Laboratory, Newfoundland, 1971. Symposium on Earth's Magnetic Field, Washington D.C., 1968. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographica! and personal Alaska, n.d. Conference at Princeton, 1972 (with Walter Sullivan). Penn. State, 1976. Unidentified. album from Rocketdyne (aviation company). Loose photegraphs anda commemorative A. 234-A. 239 Scientific colleagues A. 234 Early Cambridge days. Includes copies of photographs of Rutherford and J.J. Thomson; photograph of Bullard with G.1. Taylor, 1938; miscellaneous photographs at Cavendish, 1930s. Small photograph of Bullard with B. J. Schonland (perhaps in Africa, c.1938). M.N. Hill. Sir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham. Sir Harold Jeffreys. Set of photographs taken at the Royal Society, London, on the occasion of the award of the Vetlesen Prize Medal to A. Holmes, 1964. M. Prior. (The presentation was made by W.M. Ewing.) J. Miller, 1960. T.F. Gaskell, 1970. L. Szilard, 1965, and Trude Szilard, 1970. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal Miscellaneous other photographs, inciuding NATO conference, historical photograph of Einstein and von Neumann, Bullard with Blackett and others. Second Worid War Set of photographs, only one dated 'Clarence Pier 1940', but all of same period, recording the devastation caused by fire after anair raid. and consequently Bullard and the team rnoved to Edinburgh. The mine-sweeping apparatus was destroyed National Physical Laboratory A. 241-A, 246 A. 24] The Pilot ACE. A. 242 Visit by H.R.H. Prince Philip. A. 244 Visitors to the High Voltage Laboratory. Includes Coronation exhibition A. 243 Visit by The King and Queen of Sweden. Various NPL oscasions. lorry (with Polly Bullard), opening of NPL auditorium, start of work on Ship Tank, presentation of Bullard's portrait, Bullard with staff of Physics Department. a later copy). Photograph labelled 'Fishing a large net from the Discovery II May 1937' (photograph is Informal NPL occasions, sports days, garden parties, etc. A. 247-A,. 257 Expeditions and research A. 247 E.C. Bullard | CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal Set of photographs taken in H.M.S. Tudor, July 1946, during the Royal Society submarine gravity survey of the eastern North Atlantic. (B.C. Browne, R.I.B. Cooper, W. Niewenkamp). Includes equipment, colleagues Set of photographs of work on marine heat flow, 1949. Includes equipment and apparatus, research vessel 'E.W. Scripps', A.E. Maxwell with probe, etc. Envelope of photographs (smal! format) of equipment, colleagues, etc. on 'Discovery' expeditions, none dated but some identified on verso (Hill, Gaskell, Cleverley, Swallow, etc.). Miscellaneous photographs, similar material, of 'Discovery' equipment, colleagues and crew, etc., n.d. 1950s. Photographs of heat flow probe, many taken by NPL. n.d. 1950s. Miscellaneous expedition photographs, some with various dates, 1958-64, Miscellaneous photographs (small format) of later expedition, W.G., 1y/ 08; Miscellaneous photographs of expedition to Fiji, Easter Island and South Pacific, 1967. by Scripps Institution or other U.S. sources. Miscellaneous photographs of research vessels, equipment and apparatus. None dated. Miscellaneous photographs of expeditions and apparatus, taken E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Biographical and personal A.258-A.261 TAPE RECORDINGS A.258, A.259 Two lectures at Berkeley, 1975. A. 258 'The Floor of the Deep Oceans ~ What Are They Like?' 20 January. "The Floor of the Deep Oceans ~ What Is Happening There?! 3 February. See H.20 "Physics and W.W.II', given at Berkeley 1976 (cassette). "Scientific advice to government. (cassette). Lect.7' dated 3/4/76 See G.167 for transcript of the lecture. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 SECTION B CAMBRIDGE B.1 - B.92 B.1-B.88 DEPARTMENT OF GEODESY AND GEOPHYSICS 5.1 -B.4 Early history of the Department B.S =B4i27 Postwar organisation and research, 1943-48 B.30-B.73 Research and administration, 1956-80 B.74-B.88 Lectures B.89-B .92 OTHER CAMBRIDGE DEPARTMENTS/INSTITUTIONS For biographical material on Bullard's career at Cambridge, For materia! on research projects at or connected with his colleges, home and interests, see Section A, passim. Cambridge, see Section D, passim. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge DEPARTMENT OF GEODESY AND GEOPHYSICS EARLY HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT The early material appears to have been inherited by Bullard from Sir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham, either directly or via B.C. Browne. Tagged folder of correspondence and papers, inscribed ‘British Association Geodesy Committee/Correspondence 1916-1919 relating to the Establishment of a Geodetic Institute in Britain’. The British Association's Resolution of 11 May 1916 called for a series of reports on various sciences. by F.W. Dyson, C.F. Close and E.H. Hills, resulted in the setting up of a Committee 'To discuss the present needs of Geodesy, including its relation to other branches of Geophysics, and to report ...'. | The Chairman was C.F. Close, and the Secretary was E.H. Hills, whose folder this originally was. The report on Geodesy, On the appointment of a Committee in Cambridge to con- sider the establishment of a Professorship with a Geodetic Institute, the B.A. Committee's work came to an end (see letter, 30 June 1919), preliminary material, correspondence with colleagues, members of the committee, agendas, memoranda, committee arrangements, appointments, etc. International Geodetic Association. The folder, which runs May 1916-July 1919, includes Also included is earlier correspondence, 1915, re the E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge Correspondence exchanged between H.F. Newall and G.P. Lenox-Conyngham, re the funding, setting up and organisation of a school of Geodesy at Cambridge. The letters are ms., with typed transcripts. Enclosed with the material is a letter, 1960, to 'My dear Ben' (B.C. Browne) from Lenox-Conyngham's daughter who had found the letters among her father's papers and thought them of historical interest. sumably inherited them. Browne died in 1968 and Bullard pre- The letters run 23 December 1918-April 1921. In his letter of 19 April 1919 Lenox-Conyngham writes 'The last two days have been rather anxious ones, with this attempted rebellion at Amritsar and elsewhere’. Correspondence March~April 1921 explores the possibility of Lenox-Conyngham's appointment as Director of the proposed school. Annual Reports of the Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics, 1932-36, 1938, 1940-43, 1945-48. These reports have been drawn upon for information on research 2pp. ms. account by Bullard 'Fifty years of Geodesy and Geo- physics at Cambridge’, prepared for the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Department, 1971. With brief correspondence re Praelectorship in Geodesy at Trinity College, Cambridge. at the Department, and particularly Bullard's own projects. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge B.5-B.29 POSTWAR ORGANISATION AND RESEARCH, 1943-48 B.5-B.10 Memoranda and Reports B.1T=B .22 Equipment B.23-B.29 Research and administration Bullard's earliest note on postwar requirements dates from 1943 (B.5-B.7). He was a member of the Royal Society Committee on postwar needs in Geophysics set up in February 1944, to which he submitted several memoranda, and whose recommendations included the extension of the Cambridge Department. See F.86- r 67. Bullard was also a member of the joint committee appointed by the Royal Society and the University Grants Committee to organise the distribution of government surplus stores to universities at the end of the war. He was active in visiting various official stores and depots, drawing up lists of material, and - as representative of Cambridge University - bidding for material on behalf of other Cambridge departments as well as the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics (B.11-B.16). On his return in 1945 to his post as Reader in Geophysics, Butlard was for practical purposes head of the Department and responsible for matters of equipment, staff and day- and Fraser. 8pp. typescript draft, with a covering letter from Sir Ronald Fraser dated March 1943, bearing ms. corrections by Bullard 'The Post-War Development of Geophysics. to be submitted to the Nuffield Trustees. ' Draft of a scheme to-day administration (B.17-B. 29). Memoranda and reports E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge 'Drafi of a scheme for the Post-war development of Geophysics.' 9pp. typescript with ms. revisions. “Bos Uses similar material to "Notes on the cost of providing for Geophysics in Cambridge. ' 9pp. typescript and ms. draft by Bullard, written to supplement the above, July 1943. ‘Report of the sub-committee appointed by the Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics.' (Cambridge). Report, and amendments, prepared for meeting on 20 September 1943. Letter from Bullard to Lenox-Conyngham, setting out his views on the development of geophysics at Cambridge, with reference to the above, March 1945. ‘Draft report of the Committee of the General Board on the future of the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics', 1948. See D.351 for a research proposal, 1949, re compilation of lists of Equipment Draft memoranda re distribution of surplus government equipment to universities, correspondence with officials, ministers, colleagues, etc., material available through scheme, March 1945-March 1946. B.C. Browne. Official lists of Government surplus stores made available for purchase via University Grants Committee, various dates, 1945. The list of radio components is annotated by Bullard and E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge Supplements to Ministry of Supply lists and miscellaneous other typescript lists or drafts for lists; Correspondence, etc. te requirements of various Departments of Cambridge University (including Department of Geodesy and Geophysics), October 1945-August 1946. Miscellaneous lists of requirements of machinery and equip- ment prepared by various Cambridge Departments (including Department of Geodesy and Geophysics). Consignment notes, invoices, etc. for equipment supplied from various ministries and government stores to Department of Geodesy and Geophysics. B.17-B.19 Correspondence and papers re gravimeter for research in the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, 1946-47 (not indexed). With officials and colleagues te Graf gravimeter from Germany through Treasury Reparations Scheme. Bullard's ms. notes and diagrams. B.20-B.22 With commercial firms and suppliers of parts and equipment. Correspondence with industrial firms and suppliers re various items of equipment for Department and research projects. Not indexed. a purpose of research project to make a Gravity Survey of the western seaboard of the British isles, under the joint Navy/Royal Society advisory committee for ship- borne research. Correspondence August is re standard- isation of thermometers. 1945 1946. Correspondence April includes letters explaining E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Miscellaneous receipts, invoices, consignment notes, etc, for departmental supplies, 1945, 1946. B.23-B.29 Research and administration B.23 Correspondence, 1944-46, with Lenox-Conyngham, B.C. Browne, L.R. Flavill re resumption of work at Cambridge, and with others coming or applying to work there. Correspondence and papers te Shell Studentships in Geophysics, 1945, Two Studentships were offered by the Royal Dutch Shell Group of Companies, to begin 1 October 1945; folder includes corres- pondence with the Company and with Cambridge University re setting-up of scheme, draft notice, etc. and with applicants for the first studentships. Correspondence, 1946-47, re proposed collaborative research on echo-sounding at sea, with Admiralty and others, and its funding. Correspondence re trials of Siebe Gorman Bathysphere at Portsmouth, as a witness, 1946-47, Includes ms. report by B.C. Browne who attended Correspondence, 1945-46, re requests to visit Bullard or seek advice on starting or continuing research projects, set up institutes, etc. 1945-46. Correspondence with Cambridge University General Board and Treasurer re affairs of the Department: budget estimates, staff, building requirements. Shorter administrative correspondence, 1946. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 B.30-B.73 RESEARCH AND ADMINISTRATION, 1956-80 Cambridge B.30-B.37 Research proposals B.38-B.64 Expedition and research reports B.65-B.73 General administrative material It should be noted that much of the material on research is by other members of the Department, principally M.N. Hill. The authorship is noted where known. See Section D for further material on research projects undertaken at this period. The 'General administrative material' at B,65-B.73 consists of the surviving in no sense a comprehensive record of the documents from Bullard's own files and is Department. B.30-B .37 Research proposals B.30 "Proposed survey of the mid-Atlantic ridge.' "Proposed future plans for marine investigations by the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics ...' 7pp. typescript by M.N. Hill, November 1959. 2pp. draft, n.d., probably written for G.E.R. Deacon by M.N. Hill in 1958, shortly after D.H. Matthews joined the Department. (Information from D.H. Matthews, 1983.) 3pp. typescript, no author, January 1960, ‘Geological and Geophysical investigations of the floor of the ocean and of neighbouring shallow seas undertaken by the Department ...' A historical survey, 6pp. typescript, by M.N. Hill, November 1959. "Seismology in the United Kingdom. Future requirements. ' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge "NATO Magnetic Survey.' 5pp. typescript + tables and notes (the latter signed ‘DHM' [Matthews J, 9 March 1962). "Needs of the Department ... for the Quinquennium 1962-67', App. typescript memorandum, no author or date. "Data logging and data reduction at sea.' App. typescript by D.H. Matthews, July 1965. "Marine Geophysics at Cambridge. ' 3pp. circular letter by D.H. Matthews, on past research and future proposals, January 1980. B.38-B.64 Expedition and research reports 'M.N. Hill's journal of the cruise of "Discovery II" May to July 1958." 28pp. typescript. B.38 19pp. typescript. magnetometer are marked by Bullard. All references to work with the proton See D.484-D.506. Untitled journal, 18 July-30 August, no author or year, but almost certainly by Hill and referring to R.R.S. 'Discovery II" expedition, 1956. 13pp. typescript, with contributions by several participants. 'The cruise of R.R.S. "Discovery II" May 9 tc July 28, 1958. Report from the Department ....' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge "MNH's journal of "Discovery II" cruise August-October 1960.! 22pp. typescript + 3pp. ‘Extract from journal of A.S. Laughton’, and 'Station List’. ‘Expedition by R.V. "Sarsia", June 19-29 1961.!' 3pp. typescript by Hill. 'MNH's journal of "Discovery II" expedition: January-March 1962," 35pp. typescript. "Station list! for above expedition. App., and chart. ‘Cruise Report' for above expedition. 3pp. typescript by B.C. Browne. Report on expedition in R.V. ‘Argo! (a Scripps Institution vessel), October-November 1962. 2pp. typescript by T.J.G. Francis. Report on the work Spp. typescript, no author. Report on Indian Ocean meee er! in H.M.S. ‘Owen', 12-26 April 1962. 2pp. typescript by B.C. Browne. 'H.M.S. "Vidal" - operation NAVADO. of members of the Department ... during the cruise from Portland to Hamburg and back', September-October 1963. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge 'H.M.S. "Vidal" ... Portland to Oporto,' October 1963. 2pp. typescript by J.O. Beaumont. Office of Naval Research Grants. Application, budgets, reports, etc. prepared for O.N.R., many relating to the expeditions above. B.50 is a budget for 1960-61 in which the grant reference is NR 083-153; on the other reports the contract number is N 62558-2704. The dates run 1 December 1960 to 28 February 1963; some of the reports are signed by M.N. Hill and other members of the Department. B.65-B.73 General administrative material B.65, B.66 Requests to visit~vork in Department, letters of thanks. B.65 1960-69 B.67 Correspondence on research at Department, 1960-68. B.66 1970-77 Includes list of 'The Whereabouts of Cambridge Mariners’, listing names and careers of research students, 1950-79. Miscellaneous correspondence re staff, research, expeditions 1963-79, sine lift from the Cambridge Department. Correspondence, 1968-69, with Hydrographer of the Navy re the transfer to his new Geophysical Laboratories of a E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge Correspondence, 1974, re the organisation of 'earth science’ at Cambridge. Bullard's reply of 24 October, in answer to a request for information, is an interesting summary of his work on the history of the subject at Cambridge, its likely development there, and his own suggestions for its place in university studies. Correspondence with J.A. Jacobs (Bullard's successor as Professor) re research and affairs of the Department, 1975-79. Correspondence 1979 includes discussion on the merging of ‘Earth Sciences Departments’ at Cambridge and the proposal to name the Madingley Rise site the ‘Bullard Laboratories’. Miscellaneous correspondence re buildings. Includes press report from O.N.R. 'European Scientific News' re opening of new building at the Department, and a from Bullard to Jacobs, 1978, about the apple tree at Depart- ment, a scion of Newton's apple tree, obtained by Bullard from Kew in 1970. letter Correspondence, 1969-70, with David Peace re engraved glass door for new building. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 B.74-B.88 LECTURES Cambridge These are notes for University lecture courses, mainly at Cambridge, but see B.76-B.78 for lectures originally given at Toronto. Very few are dated. Other lectures given in Cambridge may be found in Section G. Miscellaneous lecture schedules and summaries, various dates and undated. Extensive sequence of notes for courses of lectures in Mechanics, 28 numbered pages and many intercalated pages. pp. 2 and 3 only of similar material. "2nd Year Acoustics Lect.' Miscellaneous ms. notes, some paginated. folder. First given at Toronto 1948. In original ‘Lecture notes' In original In ‘Applied Geophys. Lect.' Miscellaneous ms. notes, some paginated. folder, n.d., similar to above. Miscellaneous ms. notes on various topics in physics. original folder, n.d., similar to above. ‘Rockets and Satellites (to Arts Students 1959)! ‘Origin of the Earth's Magnetic Field', 1957 Miscellaneous shorter lectures: "Physics for Arts Students, 1956' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge "Earth's Magnetic Field’ Course of 8 lectures, 1958. In original folder. "Geological Time' Course of 3 lectures, Michaelmas Term 1959. In original folder. 8.82. 8763 Notes for courses on Geophysics, various dates, numberings and paginations (few complete). 1956, 1961, 1962. In original folder. 1967, 1971, 1973 (complete course of 8 lectures). "Mechanics' 20pp. sequence, 1960. In original folder. "Earth structure and oceans’ 7 lectures, October 1963. ‘Earth's magnetic field', 1974 "Phys. of Earth. Part 2 General’ Similar sequence paginated 8-23. Lectures 2-8 of course, October 1967. ‘Continental Drift', 8th lecture (only), n.d. ‘Minerals from the deep sea', 1971 Miscellaneous shorter lectures: In original folder. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Cambridge B.89-B.92 OTHER CAMBRIDGE DEPARTMENTS AND INSTITUTIONS In alphabetical order. Department of Botany Cambridge Philosophical Society 1964 1946, 1964 The Cavendish Laboratory 1956-63, 1969, 1973 General correspondence, principally with N.F. Mott but also with other colleagues, on research, funding, personnel, lectures, etc. Computer Laboratory Pye of Cambridge 1971 1970 Scientific Periodicals Library 1970, 1977 University Chemical Laboratory 1973, 1974 University General Board 2pp. 'Comments ... on the development of the University’, with ams. note at end 'prob. about 19o7 of 1958, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 SECTION C CALIFORNIA C.1 - C.43 INTRODUCTION TO SECTION C Bullard's first documented connection* with the University of California was during his period at Toronto, when he spent the summer of 1949 working with A.E. Maxwell at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography on marine heat flow (C.12- C.14). This work, mainly concerned with the design of apparatus, was the start of continuing work through the 1950s and its successful completion was regarded as a ‘historic occasion’ for Scripps (see C.26). A typescript draft report of the 1949 work, by Bullard and Maxwell, appears at G.25. See also A. 249. During the 1949 visit, Bullard was approached to consider appointment as Director of Scripps, but declined in view of his decision to return to Britain as Director of NPL (see C.14). His connection with Scripps, and the friends and colleagues there, remained among the most valued of his life. He returned regularly over the The offer of the Directorship of See The symposium organised in his honour at Scripps in January 1980 was a tribute to his role in animating research projects and to the affection he inspired. A.119-A.121. years in various research and teaching capacities, and became a United States resident, based in California, after his retirement in 1974. Scripps was repeated in 1964 (see C.18) and again declined, this time from loyalty to Cambridge. SOME OF THE MATERIAL IN THIS SECTION MAY BE SUBJECT TO RESTRICTION. * See J.133 for correspondence with L.B. Slichter in 1947 offering Bullard a post at the newly~constituted Institute of Geophysics at UCLA where Slichter had been appointed Director. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 A note on nomenclature California Bullard's long connection spanned various expansions, mergings and changes of organisation and title at the University of California, not all of which are consistently represented in the references or indeed on the letter-heads of the correspondence. The following outline of events, quoted by permission, was provided by the Archivist of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Library: 'The Scripps Institution of Oceanography has been part of the University of California since 1912. It was founded in 1903 as the Marine Biological Association of San Diego, and its name was changed in 1912 to the Scripps Institution for Biological Research of the University of California. In 1925 the name was changed to Scripps Institution of Oceanography. From 1912 to 1937, the Berkeley campus of the University of California granted degrees to students studying at Scripps and undertook some administrative and fiscal responsibility concerning the operation of Scripps. In 1938 these functions were transferred to the new University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Since 1960, when the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) was founded, Scripps has been officially defined as a research and graduate school of UCSD. The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is a university- The University of California, San Diego, began in the late 1950s as | There are branches of IGPP The institute was founded in 1946 as the Institute Scripps branch of the institute was established, and the name of Although the La Jolla branch wide institute of the University of California. at Scripps and at UCLA. of Geophysics, and its headquarters were at UCLA. Walter Munk was the sole representative of the institute on the Scripps campus. In 1960, the the institute was changed to its current form. of IGPP is physically located on the Scripps campus and cooperates closely with Scripps, in administrative terms it of California campus. | the brainchild of Roger Revelle, then director of the Scripps Institution. 1960 is generally recognized as the official date of its establishment even though some UCSD faculty was recruited before that date. Campus was completed, its Institute of Technology and Engineering and School of Science and Engineering were physically located on the Scripps Campus. The University of California, San Diego, was initially called the University of California, La Jolla. by the University and a degree granted under that name. For politica! considerations, however, the name was changed in 1961 to University of California, San Diego. is acceptable to refer to it as the San Diego campus of the University of California as well.' In fact, one dissertation was accepted It From 1947 to 1960, is independent of any single University Before the UCSD E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 California Cole. 1) ADMINISTRATIVE AND PERSONAL Includes Bullard's appointments, visa applications, resident status, retirement pension, insurance. For other personal material see Section A passim. Ga2-C .28 RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC Includes research correspondence and papers, staff, promotions, expeditions, meetings, conferences, publications, other institutions of the University. Much of this is necessarily exchanged during Bullard's periods at Cambridge away from California, and is thus only a partial record. For work on BOMM, see D.528 - D.576. For work on palaeomagnetism, see D.586 - D. 592. For work on nuclear waste, see D.613 - D.643. For consultancies in California, see E:99 - E.113, E.185 - E.187. LECTURES AND TEACHING E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 California ADMINISTRATIVE AND PERSONAL 1961 (one letter only). 1962 Includes correspondence, July, re Bullard's appoint- ment as 'research associate in the Institute of Geo- physics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, San Diego’. Includes correspondence, July, re Bullard's appoint- ment as 'Visiting Professor V for a period of three months each year commencing September 1, 1963, in the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics’. 1964-66 — Includes correspondence, February 1966, re Bullard's appointment as 'Professor, Step V, Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego ... from July 1, 1966, for a period of three months per year'. in the 1967-68 1971-72 Includes correspondence, May 1971, about 1973-74 Includes correspondence re Green Scholarships 1969-70 Includes a note, April 1970, by Bullard of his for inclusion in Institute Report. Bullard's promotion to what he terms in his letters of thanks, ‘a yet grander kind of professor’. research at |GPP on Plate Tectonics and on the Earth's magnetic field, Also included is material about the proposed Inter- national Center of La Jolla. ments and salary at Scripps Institution. Correspondence, visa applications and other miscellaneous papers re granting of U.S. resident visas to Bullard and to Lady (Ursula) Bullard, December 1974-August 1976. (see also C.8, C.27) and to Bullard's visit to Berkeley (see also H. 20). Includes biographical information, details of previous appoint~ E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Ca lifornia 1975-76 Includes correspondence, December 1975- January 1976, on Bullard's appointment as a 'Cecil H. and Ida Green Scholar', and correspondence, October 1976, on his appointment as ‘Professor Recalled to Active Duty'. 1975-76 Correspondence, etc. te retirement pension. See A.11 for a letter by Bullard commenting on the University pension system. 1975-78 Correspondence, etc. re medical insurance and claims. 1977-79 Includes correspondence, December 1977, re Buliard's re-appointment for Full Quarter 1977 and Winter Quarter 1978, his letters of resignation, April and May 1979, and a copy of a paper by R. Revelle 'The Adolescence of The Elephant' given at the 75th anniversary banquet of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, April 1978. See also A.249, C.26, G.25. C.12-C.28 C.12-C.14 RESEARCH AND ACADEMIC Correspondence 1979 testifies to the great success of Bullard's lectures and teaching. Correspondence and papers, 1948-49, re Bullard's visit to Scripps, June-September 1949, to work on marine heat flow. with comments by Bullard. Invitation and arrangements, comments on the research proposal sent to C, Eckhart (Director, Scripps Institution). Letters of thanks after visit, list of ‘Submarine geologists . E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 California Letters re the offer to Bullard of the post of Director of In his letter of 9 September 1949 to President Scripps. Sproul, Bullard explains his reasons for declining, his admiration for Scripps and his warm commendation of R. Revelle for the Directorship. 1962 Includes correspondence, February-March, re W.H. Munk's fellowship at Churchill College, Cambridge, to ‘extract components of oceanic and atmospheric tides from very long geophysical time series' (jointly with Bullard); correspondence on ocean heat flow with W.H.K. Lee and others. Includes continuing correspondence on heat flow, and preliminary suggestion for Bullard's part-time appointment (see also C.1). 1963-64 Correspondence re Scripps expedition in R.V. Baird to Easter Island, Juan Fernandez and Valparaiso in August 1964. See D.586-D.592 for research on palaeomagnet ism arising from expedition. 1964-65 General correspondence on scientific matters, including BOMM, SCOR (q.q.v.). Bullard to consider nomination as Director of Scripps. Letter of 13 May asks Correspondence with W.H.K. Lee re publication ‘Terrestrial Heat flow' (ed. Lee), Geophys. Monogr. No.8, to which Bullard contributed a 'Historical introduction’ (Bibliog. 1965e). 1966, etc. Includes correspondence and data re magnetic reversals for rocks from South Pacific expedition (see D.586- D.592), correspondence re proposed publication in Bullard's honour of papers of International Symposium on Geothermal Problems at |.U.G.G. General Assembly, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 California Cea 1966-67 General scientific correspondence re research and appointments. 1966-67 Correspondence and papers re Scripps NOVA expedition to southwestern Pacific. Horizon, 13 July-8 August, Suva-Brisbane, for sampling of palaeomagnetic rocks and volcanic lavas, Bullard was on Includes a carbon letter from Bullard, 1970, te specimens collected on NOVA expedition. 1968 Correspondence with and reY. Bottinga. 1968-70 Includes congratulations on the award of the Vetlesen prize, a note, August 1969, by Bullard on ‘Magnetic Stratigraphy and JOIDES', Bullard's assess~ ment of the work of IGPP, etc. 1971-73 General correspondence on research and appoint- ments. 1973 See A.4 for a copy of the article 'E.C. Bullard's First Heat~Probe' as published in 1984. Material on the history of research on marine heat flow at Scripps, stemming from Bullard's joint work in 1949 (see C.12-C.14). of the subject by E.N. Shor, with comments and corres- pondence by Bullard, September-October 1973. Includes a draft account 1974-78 Correspondence and papers re selection of Green Scholars, funded by Cecil and Ida Green 'for the benefit of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics and ... the entire Earth Sciences community at Scripps Institution of Oceanography', 1973-74, 1979, Bullard was Chairman of the selection committee and was him- self a Green Scholar in 1976 (see C.8). Folder includes background information on the terms of the gift. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 C.29-C .43 LECTURES AND TEACHING California Bullard was concerned with various sets of lectures for the APIS* courses. He gave lectures, and also set, graded and moderated tests and examinations. He explains in his letter of resignation (C.11) that he had previously been little involved with undergraduate teaching, but had found it enjoyable; this was clearly reciprocated (C.31). The several records of tests and examinations indicate his conscientious yet humane approach to this aspect of academic life, even in 1979-80 when he knew that he was terminally ill (see esp. C.33, C.34). : APIS = Applied Physics and Information Sciences. General correspondence and circulars on timetables, schedules, @tex),. 1967, 1974479, Reading-lists, orders for books/reprints, handouts and teaching material for Bullard's classes. Evaluations of, and comments on, Bullard's courses by participants. Tests and examinations: question papers, draft or ‘ideal’ answers, various dates, 1973-79. 1728, 1972. 1974, but mainly 1978-80, when Bullard was seriously ill but still brought meticulous care to re-assessment, comments on work, etc. Material re examinations, winter 1979 (Bullard's last at Scripps). Arrangements, scalings, detailed performances. Correspondence with and re students and their examination grades. Lists of participants in Bullard's courses, and their gradings, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 California 2lpp. ms. notes for course of lectures on 'The Earth', some dated 1973, 1974. llpp. ms. notes for course of lectures on ‘Earth's Magnetic Field (Scripps Oct. 1974)', and 2pp. additional notes. Shorter ms. notes for lectures on 'Magnetic Limestones' and ‘Atlantic continental edges', both October 1974. Ms. notes, arrangements and schedules for lectures and seminars on Plate Tectonics, January 1976. Ms. notes for lectures on 'Plate tectonics’, 'Fits and Splits', ‘Earth's magnetic field', 'Disc Dynamos', all October- December 1977. La Jolla, various dates, 1965-73. Miscellaneous notes, summaries of lectures, etc., various Ms. notes, arrangements and schedules for lectures and seminars on ‘Development of ideas on plate tectonics’ and ‘Origin of earth's magnetic field', 1978 and 1979, Miscellaneous shorter notes for lectures on various topics, given at dates or undated. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 SECTION D RESEARCH D.1 - D.651 INTRODUCTION TO SECTION D Almost all this work is in manuscript, anda substantial part of it remains in Bullard's original folders bearing his descriptions and dates, which are quoted in inverted commas in the catalogue entries. arrangement of the folders has been followed even when only one or two sheets of paper were contained; D.143, D.293 contain folders now empty from which material had been removed or redistributed by Bullard in ways not now easily traceable. The policy of retaining the original Very bulky folders, and a fortiori the large filing-drawer dividers Bullard sometimes used to hold his more extensive accumulations of material, have been split into more manage- able units for ease of reference. relating to staff and activities there. Much of the early work on gravity measurement and explosion seismology, con- ducted from the Cambridge Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, includes corres- pondence with or to the then Reader, Sir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham, and other members of the Department. In conjunction with Section B it thus forms a usefu! contribution to the history of the subject and the Department. To a considerably less extent, some of the work on geomagnetism conducted when Bullard was Director of the National Physical Laboratory includes material The topics are presented in chronological order of the earliest documented evidence of Bullard's involvement. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 LIST OF CONTENTS Research D. Lede SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY NOTEBOOKS 1925-29 D.18 -D.23 ELECTRON SCATTERING 1929-31 D.24 -D.294 GRAVITY MEASUREMENT Pendulum Swings D.24-D.143 1924-53 With an introductory note African Gravity Campaign D.144-D.294 With an introductory note 1933-36, 1956 D.295-D.351 EXPLOSION SEISMOLO GY Introductory note On land D.295-D.341 1937-58 1949-58 1933, 1935-36 1937-39 D.352-D.426 HEAT FLOW At sea D.342-D. 351 With an introductory note At sea D.399-D.426 With an introductory note 1947-79 AIRBORNE MAGNETOMETER With an introductory note D.434-D.476 DYNAMO THEORY D.430-D.433 FIGURE OF EARTH 1947 c.1947 On land D.352-D.398 D.427-D.429 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research EARTH DENSITY PROTON MAGNETOMETER 1956-58, 1966 SEISMIC REFLECTION/APPLIED SEISMO LO GY ARGON DATING With an introductory note 1956-58 1956-61 SECULAR VARIATION c. 1958-59 COMPUTER APPLICATIONS EDSAC D.523-D.527 c.1959-62 With an introductory note BOMM D.528-D.576 With an introductory note 1960-76 ¢.1962-65, 1975 PALAEO MAGNETISM CONTINENTAL DRIFT ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF OCEANS MISCELLANEOUS ENERGY SOURCES/NUCLEAR WASTE MAGNETIC VARIATIONS With an introductory note 1964-66 1965-71 1967-69 1976-80 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY NOTEBOOKS, 1925-29 School Notebooks Black notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard 28/12/25 Chemistry’. Hardback notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard Feb 4th 1926 Repton. Cohen's Organic Chemistry’. D.3-D.17 Undergraduate notebooks Chernistry D.3 Hardback notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard 14/10/26 Chemistry' (few pages used). D.8 Clare. Hardback notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard. Volumetric'. January 1927-February 1928, some checked and counter- signed 'J.B.'. Record of experiments. 16/1/27. Mineralogy Three jotter-type notebooks, all bearing Bullard's name and two with a later note '1927 or 1928'. E.C.B. 2/2/38'. Blue notebook, ‘Practical Mineralogy', inscribed inside front cover 'E.C. Bullard. 18/1/27', witha ms. note ‘These note books were returned to me by Mrs. Hutchinson after Prof. Hutchinson's death. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Physics Research D.9 Small red notebook, labelled 'Heat'. Large springback folder. The inscription is 'E.C. Bullard, Repton, Oct. '25', but the contents are miscellaneous, some possibly dating from Repton, but most on various topics in physics and many bearing various dates 1926-29, in no obvious order. Hardback notebook, labelled 'E.C. Bullard. 14/10/26. Physics’. Black looseleaf notebook, of notes taken at lectures at Cambridge, 1926. Includes: = 'Mechanics & Properties of Matter. Mr. Woods' ‘Organic Chemistry. Prof. Sir W. Pope. Mr. Palmer’ "Mineralogy. Prof. Hutchinson’ Clare. 7/1/28. Clare. 14/10/27. Red notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard, Clare. Practical Physics Dr. Ellis' Lab.'. 10/10/27. Green notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard. Practical crystal physics’. This is a written-up account, paginated 1-115, with an index of 57 sections. Springback folder, inscribed 'E.C. Buliard. General Dynamics from notes taken at Mr. Pars' Lectures Michaelmas Term 1927'. by Bullard, of papers on wave mechanics by E. Schrdédinger. ) Red notebook, inscribed 'Part 2 Phys. Practical Class’. Work runs 15 October 1928-26 February 1929. Softback notebook, labelled 'E.C. Bullard, Clare. Translation of Schr&dinger, 1926'. (Translation, presumably 17/3/28. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.18-D.23 ELECTRON SCATTERING, 1929-3] This was Bullard's first research, conducted at the Cavendish Laboratory under Rutherford, in collaboration with H.S.W. (later Sir Harrie) Massey. See A.13 for an account by Bullard of the work and the conditions in which it was carried out in the ‘attic' referred to inD.18. See also J.10, J.91. D.18 Softbacked green notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard, Clare. "The Attic". Long Vac. 1929'. Experiments, mainly with apparatus, various dates July~ August 1929. Small hardbacked notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard, Cavendish Lab. 11/10/29. Lab. Diary’. Entries run 10 October 1929-15 February 1930. 3 and 4 respectively. D.20-D.23 D.20 lacks the inside No name or title, experiments run 28 October 1929-13 June 1930. Four notebooks on electron scattering. front page; D.21-D.23 are inscribed with the names of Bullard and Massey and are all titled 'Scattering of Electrons in Gases' and numbered 2, 1931. Notebook 2, experiments run 13 June-3 August 1930. Notebook 3, experiments run 7 August-12 November 1930. Notebook 4, experiments run 14 November 1930-13 March E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.24-D.294 GRAVITY MEASUREMENT D.24-D.143 PENDULUM SWINGS/GRAVITY DETERMINATIONS, 1924-53 This was one of the principal activities of the Cambridge Department in its early days, ‘largely because the Department possessed some pendulums' as Bullard character- istically put it later (A.7). Although he joined the staff only in 1931, the earliest records date from 1924 and were all kept in long~hand by Lenox-Conyngham and his assistanis, They thus form an interesting contrast with the more sophisticated methods See, e.g. D.72, D.83, D.84. Although the early folders at D.24-D.33 contain work done The material is presented chronologically as far as possible; the 'African Gravity of automatic recording and more sensitive instrumentation to which Bullard himself contributed, using the talents of Leslie Flavill, the Departmental technician whom he valued highly. Campaign’ for which Bullard was directly responsible has been treated as a separate entity at D.144-D.294, by others before Bullard joined the Department, the folders themselves and the des- criptions of contents are his. The sequence of folders is broken at D.34-D.38 to include Bullard's own laboratory and field notebooks, and resumes at D.39 with his folders of observations, correspondence and other research material, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "Pendulum Observations, 1924-25! Miscellaneous tables of observations, calculations, etc., mainly 20 May-1 June, and October 1925, all ms. in the hands of G.P. Lenox-Conyngham and G. Manley. Included here is ms. 'Résumé@ of Work at the Pendulum House, Cambridge, November 1924-March 1925', 15pp., no author, and a letter to Lenox-Conyngham, February 1926, reporting ‘gravity determinations made by our engineer Dr. F.A, Vening Meinesz'. ‘Lawes (sic) Temp. & Press. Coeffts.' Notes, calculations, bundles of observations, almost all by J.B. Laws, but with some notes by G.P, Lenox-Conyngham; related mainly to adjustments to pendulums and to thermal coefficients. Includes report by Laws on 'Final adjustment of lengths of Danish Pendulums', September 1926. Observations run various dates, June-September 1926. D.26-D.28 Similar to above, but received as loose bundies. Now in three folders. Miscellaneous bundles of observations at Cambridge, Ordnance Survey Southampton and other stations, almost all made by J.B. Laws but with some additions and corrections by Lenox- Conyngham, August-September 1926. Results ...' by Bullard, n.d. "Laws obns. 1926! Includes 'Report on the Relative Determinations of Gravity during August and September 1926' by Laws, with maps and notes by Lenox-Conyngham, and 'Recalculation of Lawes' (sic) E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research ‘Col. Crasters Obns. 1926' Folder containing 'Report on Adjustment of period of Oscillation of Pendulums Oct. to Dec. 1926', by Craster. "Pesonen 1926-29! Notes, calculations, chart of observations 1926-29 for brass and invar pendulums, in Bullard's hand (presumably a copy of earlier data). "Jolly and McCaw 1927' Folder referring to work by G.T. McCaw, Geographical Section, War Office, and H.L.P. Jolly, Ordnance Survey. Includes report 'Gravity Determinations in 1927', with ms. corrections by Jolly and Lenox-Conyngham, report on 'Gravity Observations 1927', l4pp. by Jolly and McCaw, miscellaneous tables and notes by Jolly, 1927 Obsns.' by Bullard. Ip. ‘Summary of 5 pp. draft 'Willis & Jolly 1930! D.34-D.38 Referring to collaborative work on gravity determination with H.L.P. Jolly (Ordnance Survey) and J.C.T. Willis (Geographical Section, War Office). Includes draft report, notes on loan of Cambridge Pendulum, maps, tables, etc., some by lLenox-Conyngham, and corres= pondence, April 1930-Merch 1931, between Lenox-Conyngham, collaborators and other colleagues re project. 8 August 1932 Five notebooks of observations and calculations, of Cambridge and other stations, all inscribed with Bullard's name and address and numbered 1-5 as follows: Notebook No.1, 6 July 1931-12 February 1932 Notebook No.2, 17 March ~ E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Book 3 8 August - 13 December 1932 Book No.4 24 January 1933-12 July 1935 Book No.5 16 July 1935-11 August 1937 These books are occasionally referred to correspondence. in the notes and ‘Pendulum Observations 1931! Tables, graphs, calculations, etc. almost all by H.L.P. Jolly 1931 (with a few notes 1932), J.C.T. Willis and Bullard, at various stations. Includes correspondence, 1931, all addressed to Lenox- Conyrgham, from Willis and Bullard, re progress of research. Correspondence for September refers to damage sustained by pendulums, referred to in Annual Report for 1932 included in B.4, "Pendulum Observations 1932' Tables, graphs, calculations by Jolly and Bullard, almost all 1932 but a few 1931. Includes letter to Lenox-Conyngham from Director General, Ordnance Survey and a copy of his annual report describing the history and progress of the collaborative research on gravity pendulum apparatus. Ms. drawings and figures. ‘Report on pendulum observations September 1931 to February 1932 by E.C. Bullard' "E.C.B. Report 1931-32' 18pp. draft + 6 tables (2 copies). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 'E.C.B. Press. & Temp. Coeffs. 1931-32' Folder of ms. tables and calculations. "Royston etc. 1932' Ms. records and calculations, all by Bullard, taken at Pendulum House and various sites in Cambridge district, various dates, October-November 1932. "Magnetic & cooling measurements. E.C.B. 1932-33' Miscellaneous ms. graphs, charts, calculations. 'Willis' Folder of miscellaneous shorter correspondence between Bullard and Willis, re pendulum swings, 1931, 1933. Bullard's letter 5 October 1933 (written during his voyage to Africa) describes his discovery of rust in the invar pendulums. See Annual Report 1933-34 in B.4. Included here is an unsigned letter to 'Dr. Wood', May 1941, about development of research methods. General correspondence about gravity determination research, with H.L.P. Jolly, 1932-36, and with M. Hotine, 1935-36 (both of Ordnance Survey). folder by Bullard. Includes (incomplete) ms. historical note by Jolly on ' Gravity in the British Isles’. Ms. calculations, and Bullard's copy of a letter to Jolly on subject, July 1933. Referred to in D.46 but kept in separate "Jolly' 'Kater's results! E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 'Temp. coeffis. Jan. 1933' Tables, charts, calculations, all by Bullard. annotated 'Record measured upside down’. Some pages There is a note on the folder 'see also notebook 4' (D.37). ‘Temp. & press. coeffts. of quartz pendulum 1933' Tables, graphs, calculations, mainly comparing quartz and invar pendulums. "Aneroids' Certificates of comparison for various instruments, annotated by Bullard, 1933-36. "Red Sea' Tables and notes of 'Comparison of various observers in Red Sea’, by Bullard, n.d. but kept in the sequence. ‘Pendulum Observations 1933! Includes some material 1932 and 1934 as well as 1933. Bulky folder of tables, charts, calculations, etc., almost all by Bullard but some by Jolly. Includes extensive observations at various stations in N. Wales by Bullard, March-April, and a ‘check! for July-August swings dated 'Bay of Biscay October 1933' (when Bullard was en route to Africa). Observations, calculations (not all by Bullard). '8-hr. swings Mar.-Aug. 1933! Data sheets for Pendulum House, April and June only. 8-hour swings Southampton, June 1933 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 8-hour swings, various dates and stations, June-August 1933. Observations, calculations (not all by Bullard). 8-hour swings, Southampton, July 1933. Observations, calculations (not all by Bullard). '8-hr. swings Oct. 1933' Observations, calculations for Pendulum House, Cambridge. "Cambridge 1' Observations, calculations, October 1933, at Pendulum House, mainly comparison of quartz and invar pendulums. Bullard. Al by '8-hr. swings Nov.-Dec. 1933! "8 hr. swings Jan.-Feb. 1934! '8 hr. swings Mar-Apr. 1934' Similar material. Observations, calculations at Pendulum House. Bullard, but annotated and corrected by him. Not all by Observations, calculations, at Pendulum House (not all by Bullard). Similar material (includes Ip. observations for August). '8 hr. swings June-July 1934' '8 hr swings May-June 1934' Similar material. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "Hunstanton' Observations, calculations, June 1934. "Cambridge 2' Similar material, and tabulated results. 1934, Mainly May-June "8 hr swings July 1934! Observations, calculations at Pendulum House. by Bullard. Some by D.F. Munsey. Not all "Cambridge Oct. 1934' Similar material, almost all by Bullard. "8 hr swings Oct.-Dec. 1934! Similar material, almost al! by Bullard. ‘Temp. coeffts. & summary 1934' Calculations, tabulated summary of temperature coefficient data, 1926-34. possible collaboration in gravity project. Folder of calculations, notes, tabulations, all by Bullard, mainly re temperature and density corrections of quartz and invar pendulums, n.d., kept with above. Some perhaps relating to later work with B.C. Browne, D.86-D.88. 'Tables' Includes note of 'pendulum taken to Africa’ and 'List of apparatus required at field station’. Correspondence, 1934, with National Physical Laboratory re E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research _ "Design of Quartz Pend.' Folder of notes, drafts and drawings of various dates. Includes: Note of 'Proposed alterations to quartz pendulums' July 1934, with additional notes by Lenox- Conyngham. 3 bundles of draft 'Design of Quartz Pendulum' paginated 1-12, 13-16, 17-22. 2 unpaginated bundles of calculations. Note on ‘South African Pendulum', August 1935. Blueprints for 'Quartz Pendulum', by L.H. Flavill. "Quartz Balance' Miscellaneous calculations, n.d., but kept with above as separate folder. See also D.89. "Cambridge Aug. 1935! "Southampton Aug. 1935! Similar material. Observations, calculations, all by Bullard or checked by him. Correspondence, 1935, re proposed 'magnetic survey of the oceans’ and equipment for gravity measurements, with G. Norgaard. Similar material, all by Bullard. 'WESTON COLVILLE' Similar material, September 1935. ‘Cambridge Sept. 1935' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "8 hr swings 1935! Observations, calculations, tables, all by Bullard, various dates, August-December 1935. Lincolnshire’ Observations, calculations, not all by Bullard, July, September 1936. Folders labelled ‘Cambridge Sept. 1935', 'Cambridge July 1936 (Base Southampton)! and 'Cambridge July 1936 Base Downing Place', found empty in the sequence, are included at D.143. '8 hr Swings 1936' Observations, calculations, mainly for Southampton and Cambridge, various dates 1936. Includes Ip. 'Summary of 8hr swings made at Cambridge Oct. 1934', D.82,.D.88 'O.S. Summaries' Contents of bulky folder so described. Includes correspondence with H.L.P. Jolly re meeting and Bullard's contributions, maps, tables and reports on gravity anomalies prepared by Bullard. (In or iginal folder.) Correspondence and reports re 6th General Assembly, Inter- national Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Edinburgh 1936. Continued Earlier reports on gravity measurements, kept by Bullard with above and perhaps assembled by him for 1936 report. Several refer favourably to his improved methods of measurement and recommend their wider use. Ordnance Survey Geodetic Work 1927-30 (incomplete) Summary of gravity determinations 1928 Includes: N.P.L. Report 1927 | E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.83 (Cont'd.) Ordnance Survey Pendulum Work 1927-33 Research List of Gravity Stations in Britain, by Jolly, n.d. Report cn Gravity by J.C.T. Willis, ¢.1933-34 Present Position of Gravity Survey of Africa, October 1935 "Thermal Syndicate’ (Firm of quartz manufacturers. ) Correspondence with the firm re design and supply of quartz pendulums and other apparatus; includes various sketches for equipment by Bullard. Various dates, 1932-38. 'Metro-Vic' (Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd.) Correspondence with the firm re apparatus. One letter 1933, but mainly 1936. D.86-D.88 See A.53. 'A7, Bz and C7! in the hand of B.C. Browne, who joined Observations, calculations, notes and drafts, on standardisation and correction of pendulums, various dates, 1937. Three folders of observations, calculations, notes, drafts, etc., mainly on the comparison and standardisation of pendulums. Much of the work is the Department as Demonstrator in Geodesy in Michaelmas Term 1936, replacing Bullard on the latter's election to the Smithson Research Fellowship of the Royal Society. Similar material, various dates, 1937. 'A7, B7 and C7 Pressure Coeffs.' Similar material, various dates, 1937. 'A7, B7 and C7 Temp. Coeffs.' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "Norgaard' 'Static Gravity-meter', by G. Norgaard. c. 1935-36 7 pp. report, n.d., Miscellaneous observations, 1936, letter to Lenox-Conyngham re Browne's work on pendulums, 1937. D.90, D.91 "Standardisation of Quartz Pendulums' Contents of bulky folder so labelled (in the hand of B.C. Browne). This refers mainly to a quartz pendulum apparatus made for the University of Cape Town; the pendulums were standardised by B.C. Browne at the National Gravity Station at Greenwich. See the Annual Report for 1938 in B.4. Observations, calculations, notes of operating procedure, etc., various dates, November 1936-August 1937 (in the hands of Browne and Bullard). (by Browne, heavily Also included are ms. shipping. lists of apparatus, and valuation for List of apparatus taken to South Australia by C. Kerr- Grant in order to make gravity determinations. Material relating to despatch of apparatus to Cape Town. Includes ms. and typescript versions of descriptions of apparatus and instructions for its use revised by Bullard), with letter and summary of standardisation procedure, December 1937. See Annual Report 1938 in B.4. With ms. note by Bullard at head, and signed at end by Kerr~ Grant, 10 June 1937. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research '8 hr Swings 1937' Observations, calculations, summary, all by Bullard, various dates 1937, A folder also labelled '8 hr. Swings 1937', found empty in the sequence, is included at D.143. "8 hour Swings at Downing Place Dec.-Jan. 1938-39! Folder (not by Bullard, some by Browne) of observations, calculations, summary of work on pendulum standardisation by Browne dated October 1939. Includes letter, 1949, from Browne to C. Kerr- Grant re his pendulum observations in Australia in 1938. Jez. See D.92, '8 hour Swings. Pendulum House. Dec,-Jan. 1938-39! ‘8 hour Swings. Pendulum House. July 1939" Similar material. ‘Gravity Summary 19 36-39! Similar material, mainly by Browne, on standardisation of pendulums for Dehra Dun, India. Notes, tables, measurements for submission to "Gravity on land' section of 7th General Assembly, International Union Geodesy and Geophysics, Washington, September 1939. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.79-D, 103 Research Correspondence and papers, 1939, with National Physical Laboratory, re Bullard's visit to Washington Conference in September, and standardisation of pendulums at Department of Geodesy, National Physical Laboratory and National Bureau of Standards, and other matters on gravity determinations. Includes miscellaneous comparative data by Bullard on pendulums at NPL and NBS, various dates, July-October 1939. Also included is one letter from NPL, 1938. Work on testing and standardising of apparatus and set of pendulums for University of Buenos Aires. The work was done in 1942 (D.99) much of it by Lenox-Conyngham himself with Bullard guiding the procedure and working out the results. The pendulums were re-swung in 1945 (D.100) and further testing took place in Cambridge in 1947 (D.101). pondence, etc. continues to 1949, Corres- The pendulums are referred to denote the eighth set made by the Cambridge Instrument Company. in the data as 8A /B/C to '8 hr Swings 8 ABC June-Aug. 1942! Includes Bullard's letter 'Aug.-Sept.1945 8A8C. Argentine Pendulums' Extensive folder of similar material; calculations all by Bullard. Extensive folder of observations, calculations, etc., almost all by Bullard or Lenox-Coynyngham.. ms. instructions for conducting the observations, and a from Lenox~ Conyngham on his difficulties with them. Cambridge and Buenos Aires, 1948, 1949. Correspondence re pendulums and variations of gravity at Extensive folder of similar material, April-May 1947. '] A,B,C .& 8A,B,C in Argentine! 1947 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "Normal Continuous Argentine Pendulums 1949! Observations, calculations, not by Bullard, various dates, June-July 1949, ‘Cambridge (opening swings for New Zealand work)! This refers to the standardisation of a set of pendulums sent to D.S.1.R., New Zealand, for a gravity survey, and a quartz clock which was also sent. Observations, calculations, mostly by Bullard, some by R.1.B. Cooper, various dates, April-May 1947, with ms. note 'sent to N.Z. 11/2/48'. D.105-D. 107 "Theoretical Gravity Problems' vf Contents of a bulky folder so inscribed (by R.1.B. Cooper) relating to research and joint paper with Bullard 'Determination of the masses necessary to produce a given gravitational field! Proc. R. Soc., A, 194 (Bibliog. 1948c), Typescript and ms. draft for paper, heavily revised by Bullard. Extensive notes, graphs, calculations, all by Bullard. original folder. Correspondence and research notes, 1947-48, from collaborator, and from G. Kreisel who had originally been a joint author but whose work was published as a separate paper (1947). Includes letter re gravity survey in South Africa, 1948. In "South Africa 1948' Observations, calculations, etc. standardising pendulum swings at Cambridge and Witwatersrand. Cooper. All by R.1.B. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Gravity Survey of the British Isles' Opp. duplicated typescript note by Bullard 'prepared for consideration by the Sub-Committee on English gravity recently appointed by the National Committee for Geodesy’. n.d. but probably March 1948. for Ireland and Scotland; see D.110-D.127 for the imple- mentation of the research. Recommends fuller coverage Correspondence (only) re paper by Cook and Thirlaway on ‘Recent observations of Gravity in Wales and the Borders’, 1948. D.110-D.127 Observations and calculations for gravity survey of Britain, for various stations in Ireland, Scotland and England, standardised at Pendulum House, Cambridge. The work was done in 1949, when Bullard was at Toronto; the material is therefore not in his hand, but forms part of the gravity survey project and of the work of the Cambridge Department. Dublin pendulums March-April 1949 Galway pendulums lreland D.110 A Sligo pendulums Includes letter, May 1949, Tabulated results for various stations, standardised with Cambridge. Eire 1949 (‘pre-Eirean swings' at Cambridge) | March 1949 Post-Eire (standardising at Cambridge) March 1949 April 1949 March 1949 April 1949 Cork pendulums Ireland 1949. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research England ae York D.118 Newcastle D112 Cambridge (base swings before York and Newcastle) July 1949 July 1949 July 1949 Cambridge (base swings after York, Newcastle and Edinburgh) August 1949 Scotland D.12) Edinburgh D.122 Edinburgh July 1949 September 1949 September 1949 October 1949 D.126 Australia tes September 1949 D120 Cambridge (base swings) D.124 Cambridge (base swings) D.123 Aberdeen Edinburgh and Aberdeen. Various tables of results and drafts for paper. November 1949 Folder of base swings standardised at Cambridge for similar work on Australian Survey E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4 /84 D.128-D.141 Continuing work on Gravity Survey, 195] Research Envelopes and folders of observations and calculations made at Pendulum House, Cambridge, and for other base stations as specified. D.128-D.132 Five envelopes, National Physical Laboratory as follows: D.128 24, 25 June D.129 2, 3, 5 July D.130 18, 19, 20 July D.13] 7, 8, 9 August 0.182 10, 11 September J133 . 134 Bad Harzburg, 29, 30 July Cambridge Pendulum House, June Cambridge Pendulum House, August 13 July 26 July Southampton Ordnance Survey, 28, 29 June Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Sevres, 12, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Brunschweig, 25, | Cambridge Pendulum House, 24 October-2 November Cambridge Pendulum House, 17-24 September Cambridge Pendulum House, 5-7 September E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Brief correspondence and chart of gravity data for S.W. Asiatic Russia, 1953. Empty folders originally containing pendulum data, various dates, 1935-37. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.144-D, 294 AFRICAN GRAVITY CAMPAIGN, 1933-36, 1956 This research, though related to the general work on gravity determinations con- ducted at the Department, was Bullard's first major expedition and its published results (Bibliog. 1935, and especially the long paper in Proc. Roy. Soc. Bibliog. 1936a) aroused widespread interest. Characteristically, Bullard himself later referred to the work as 'what now seems a wholly erroneous interpretation of the origin of the rift valleys’. The expedition was funded from various sources, including Cambridge University, the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society; Bullard also held a research fellowship from the Leverhulme Trust. He left Britain on 21 October 1933 and returned on 16 May 1934, having visited 57 stations, some more than once, situated in the then territories of Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, Belgian Congo and Tanganyika. An additional observation (no.58 in the sequence, now at D.224) was made in Cape Town on the journey home. Bullard was accompanied on the trip by his wife Margaret (Tom) who helped with some of the observations and record-keeping. the Carnegie Institution of Washington on the loan of equipment and the organisation of the work (D.146) and Bullard's journals, notes and observations (D.275 et seq.) See also letter from S$. Chapman in D.151. Before leaving Africa, Bullard discussed the possibility of continuing work on In addition to the gravity measurements which were the main research purpose gravity determinations, to be undertaken by officers of the Survey Department of Tanganyika. The designated officer, W. Horsfield, visited Cambridge in 1934 to secular variation of terrestrial magnetism. See especially the correspondence with of the 1933-34 expedition, Bullard also carried out observations at 14 stations on the the observations and datasheets at D.225-D.270 are signed or initialled by Horsfield Measurements in Tanganyika Territory’ appeared in 1937 (Bibliog. 1937a). Many of study the measurement technique and, using the Cambridge field-apparatus, carried out observations at 36 stations during 1935-36. A collaborative paper 'Gravity E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research or his assistant, R.N. Lissett, though all the reductions for topography and compensation were done in Cambridge by Bullard. D.294 is later (1956) correspondence on gravity measurements in East Africa. The material is presented as follows: D.144-D.157 Organisation and funding of expedition, 1933-34 D.158-D. 224 East African Station records (1-58), 1933-34 D.225-D.270 Tanganyikan Station records (1-36), 1935-36 D.271-D.293 Journals, calculations, writings D.294 Correspondence, 1956 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.144-D.157 Organisation and funding, 1933-35 D.144 "Leverhulme' Application for Research Fellowship, and correspondence arising, 1933, and one letter 1935. Application to Royal Society for grant for expedition; submitted by Lenox-Conyngham but drafted by Bullard. Correspondence with Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1933-34, 1937-38. Correspondence 1933-34 deals with the loan to Bullard of a 'field-outfit’ to enable him to conduct magnetic measure- ments in addition to the gravity observations. It includes detailed recommendations from the Institution for research on secular variations, operational instructions, etc. Correspondence 1937-38 deals with Bullard's report, return of the 'cahiers' (see also D.276-D. 281) and also refers to his seismic work at sea with R.M. Field (see also D.342-D.351). "Kohlschutter' Includes a copy of the Carnegie Institution's 'General Directions for magnetic observations ...', 1924. Correspondence 1933-34 with Kohlschitter, who had made a similar expedition in 1899, about sites, loan of maps, etc. Correspondence 1934 refers to Kohlschitter's visit to Britain and meeting with Bullard and Lenox-Conyngham. See also D.157, D. 289. Bullard visited several of KohIschutter's sites and repeated his observations. very satisfactory and was commented upon in the published papers (see D. 291), The similarity of the results was considered E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Correspondence with colleagues re equipment and information for observations in Africa, 1933-34. Correspondence with suppliers of scientific instruments. Cooke, Troughton & Simms, re pendulums, 1933-34. Cambridge Instrument Company, re coil magnetometer, 1933-34. Correspondence with Government officials in Africa re arrangements, transport, laisser-passer, 1933-34. oa Correspondence with colleagues re research plans, information on local conditions, etc., 1933. Includes letter from S$. Chapman to Lenox-Conyngham on Bullard's proposed work on magnetic variation. Correspondence, 1934, re additional gravity observation made at Cape Town on return journey (see D.224). Miscellaneous notes by Bullard. Oct. 1933'; 'Notes on Quartz Pendulums' +156, Dy Lae Correspondence with Lenox-Conyngham. Includes 'Notes on matters connected with the E. African Expedition. c.1934; 'Summary of rock densities' (for magnetism work); ms. notes of various gravity sites. the expedition. An extensive sequence of letters and cables exchanged every few days during trip, with scientific and a little personal news. See D.274 for Lenox-Conyngham's laboratory notebook for 21 September-29 December 1933 (in original folder). 4 January-2 April 1934. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Correspondence re maps and plans of sites of observations in Africa, 1934, Correspondence arising from visit. Letter from H. G, Lyons congratulating Bullard and his wife on 'a really great performance’ in obtaining data, 1934. Letters from B. Willis abcut his own work in E. Africa and on Kohischutter's results, 1935. D.158-D. 224 East African Station Records (1-58) This sequence: of folders retains Bullard's original order. Each contains, unless otherwise stated, photographic observations, dated and timed and with ms. annotations; ms. records of pendulum used; standardisation with Cambridge base, etc. The records are in the hands of Bullard and Margaret Bullard, usually checking each other's work. Some have additional information describing the observation site, conditions of work et seq. "Mombasa No.1! 18-19 November 1933 "Mombasa No.1 Second visit! or other relevant circumstances. Additional notes, calculations, maps, etc. relating to this work are at D. 27] 27 November 1933 23-25 November 1933 19-21 December 1933 "Nairobi No.2' 3rd visit 1-4 March 1934 "Nairobi I. No.2! "Nairobi Il. No.2! 17-19 March 1934 'Limuru No.3! E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 'Kijabe No.4! 28 November 1933 "Naivasha No.5' 29 November-2 December 1933 "Naivasha No.5! (2nd visit) 28 February 1934 "Gilgil No.6' 4-5 December 1933 "Nakaru No.7' 5-6 December 1933 "Nakaru No.7 (2nd visit)! 27-28 February 1934 "Eldama Ravine No. 8' 7 December 1933 "Marigat No.9! 8 December 1933 11 December 1933 "Nyeri No.13' 16 December 1933 "Nanyuki No.12' 13-16 December 1933 "Kampi-Ya-Moto No.10' 9 December 1933 "Thomson's Falls No.11' 27-28 December 1933 "Equator No.15 (2nd visit)' "Fort Hall No.14' 18 December 1933 "Equator No.15' 23-24 December 1933 26 February 1934 "Kisumu No.16' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research ‘Kisumu No.16 (2nd visit)! 23 February 1934 "Eldoret No.17' 1-2 January 1934 ‘Tororo No.18' 3-5 January 1934 "Jinja No. 19 First Visit' 6 January 1934 "Jinja (Second Visit)! 11-14 January 1934 "Jinja No.19 Third Visit' 20-21 February 1934 "Kampala No. 20! 7-9 January 1934 "Mbale No.21' 15-16 January 1934 "Lira No.23' 18-19 January 1934 'Kitgum No.24! 19 January 1934 "Soroti No. 22! 17 January 1934 Includes a later note by Bullard on corrected measurements used for this station in published paper. 25-26 January 1934 22-23 January 1934 "Aba No.27' 24-25 January 1934 ‘Torit No. 25' 20 January 1934 "Juba No. 26' 'Bai Nzoro No.28' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "Maie No. 29! 26-27 January 1934 With extensive comparative calculations by Bullard. "Nioka No.30' 27-28 January 1934 "Bogoro No.31' 29-31 January 1934 "Kasenyi No. 32! 30-31 January 1934 "Irumu No. 33' 31 January-1 February 1934 "Butembo No. 34' 1-2 February 1934 "Kisolo No. 35! 7-8 February 1934 "Kabale No.36' 8 February 1934 "Kichwamba No. 38' 10-11 February 1934 "Lwashamaire No. 37' 9-10 February 1934 12-13 February 1934 17 February 1934 13-14 February 1934 'Butiaba No.42! 16 February 1934 'Kabwoya No.41' 15 February 1934 'Kikorongo No.39' "Fort Portal No.40' "Hoima No.43' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "Mumias No.44! 22-23 February 1934 "Kitale No.45' 24 February 1934 "Magadi No.46' 5-6 March 1934 'Kajiado No.47! 6-7 March 1934 "Ngorongoro No.48' 8 March 1934 "Arusha No.49! 9-10 March 1934 "Moshi No. 50! 10-11 March 1934 15-16 March 1934 "Voi No.51' 16 March 1934 "Kilifi No. 52! 20-21 March 1934 "Tanga No. 55' 24-25 March 1934 "Kwale No. 54' 23 March 1934 "Malindi No. 53' 21 March 1934 arranging visit at D.152. 22 April 1934 This was the additional observation taken during the return journey. ‘Cape Town No. 58! "Dar-es~Salaam No. 57! 3 April 1934 "Pangani No.56' 26 March 1934 See correspondence E-C; Boliard CSAC 100/4/84 D.225-D.270 Tanganyikan Station Records (1-36) Research This sequence also preserves Bullard's original folders and arrangement. The material is similar, though the base stations vary and include Rugby, Southampton and Bordeaux. The field data are usually signed W. Horsfield or R.N. Lissett, but all the folders include checking, corrections and additional calculations by Bullard. The stations are not numbered as in the 1933-34 sequence: they are in chrono- logical order of date of observation. D.269, D.270 are additional material relating to the work, also by Horsfield and Lissett. Daan "Singida' 24 January 1935 cee "Mgori' 25 January 1935 ves. 'Sela' 24 February 1935 'Chokaa' "Mbuyuni' "Myamya' 230 231 ‘Zen 233 ‘Dodoma Base' 6 March 1935 . 228 p2ee 4 March 1935 18 March 1935 12 March 1935 'Chibwangula' 'Kilosa' "Ruvu' 11 March 1935 'Dodoma' 8 March 1935 13 March 1935 15 March 1935 EC. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research estes "Dar-es-Salaam Ist Visit! 20-21 March 1935 25 March 1935 "Dar-es-Salaam 2nd Visit! 24-26 June 1935 "Bahi'! "Itigi' 'Tura' 'Goweko! '"Kaliwa! 'Uvinza' 27 March 1935 29 March 1935 1 April 1935 5 April 1935 8-9 April 1935 12 April 1935 ‘Kingwempimpi' ‘Ruaha Bridge! 17 April 1935 'Iringa' 'Nyamapara! 'Kazuramimba' 30 April 1935 2 May 1935 14 May 1935 Includes a note by Bullard on discrepant figure in published paper. 3-4 May 1935 © 6-7 May 1935 8-9 May 1935 ‘Trig. Pt. 189! 'Itewe! 11 May 1935 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "Iwungu' "Kipembawe' "Mbogo' "Kitunda' 16-17 May 1935 20 May 1935 21 May 1935 22 May 1935 'Shinyanga' 25-27 May 1935 "Mwanza! "Mafia! 28-29 May 1935 13 June 1935 "Kilwa Kiswani' 15 June 1935 "Khartoum Ist Visit! "Musmar' 20-22 February 1936 17 June 1935 18 June 1935 ‘Mikindani' ‘Lindi’ "Kilwa Kivinji' 20 June 1935 16-18 December 1935 LS February 1936 2-4 March 1936 24-25 February 1936 27-28 February 1936 'Haiya' "Sinkat' "Suakin' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "Khartoum 2nd Visit' "Unreadable records' 11-12 March 1936 10-11 May 1936 Miscellaneous readings 1,15 February 1935, 16 March 1936 for stations Morogoro, Babati, Wembe. Large folder of 'Latitude and Barometer Heights of Pendulum Stations’. Observations made at various stations, some dated April, May 1935, in the hands of W. Horsfield and R.N. Lissett of the Tanganyika Territory Survey Department. Purple ledger-type book, inscribed ‘Pendulum Observations’. Similar material, by Lissett and another, various dates, April-June 1935. D.271-D. 293 Journals, calculations, writings Di2/) Softbacked notebook labelled 'African Gravity Campaign 1933-34', paginated 1-155 and kept in the hands of Bullard and Margaret Bullard. Entries run 18 November 1933-26 February 1934 and include detailed accounts of observations, descriptions and maps of stations numbered 1-56. All in Bullard's hand. Small pocket diary for 1934, with diary entries, calculations, mileage covered, etc., to 1 April. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Large blue account book, labelled ‘African Gravity Accounts’. Detailed account of all expenditure incurred before, during and after journey to Africa. 31 July 1934, with a final statement of account at end of trip. Entries run 26 July 1933- This is in many respects one of the most interesting items in the collection, documenting expenses in meticulous detail for personal living, travel, equipment, wages for ‘boys', sums 'lost through hole in pocket', etc. ‘Diary of Pendulum Observations at Cambridge, November 1933! This is a small format notebook, all in the hand of Lenox- Conyngham. Entries run 17 November 1933-22 April 1934 and deal primarily with 'records intended for comparison with those made in Africa'. Occasional other entries are made, e.g. 29 November 'Vening Meinesz visited the Pendulum House’, 12 March 'Cable received from Bullard "climbing Kilimanjaro"'. D.275-D.281 ‘Coil magnetometer’ Items D.276-D.280 are 'Observer's Cahiers' of the Carnegie Institution, completed by Bullard for five stations only. D.281 is a bundle of observations, descriptions and notes for various stations not distributed into 'Cahiers'. Contents of a bulky folder so inscribed, dealing with Bullard's research on terrestrial magnetism conducted at the same time as the gravity observations and with equipment provided by the Carnegie Institution of Washington (see D. 146). 1933- July 1934. Miscellaneous ms. notes and calculations, on results, comparison of various equipment, 'Test on Ordnance Survey coil magneto- meter after return from Africa', etc., various dates, December E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Carnegie Institution Observer's Cahier 18 Bundle of loose pages, similar to above, various dates, November 1933-March 1934. Tagged sequence of descriptions and summaries of work at all magnetic stations, November 1933-March 1934. ‘Attractions Zones' Miscellaneous notes, diagrams and calculations, comparative tables for East African stations, etc. Bibliog. 1934. Perhaps related to Ip. 'Report on Magnetic Observations in E. Africa, 1933-34', by Bullard. Miscellaneous notes and charts for African stations. In original folder, inscribed 'Cambridge Aug. 1935! though material does not correspond with title, and is similar to D.285 below. Tables and calculations. 'Atbara, Wadi Halfa, Abu Hamad, Meinesz Nos 12 & 13! E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research ‘Uganda Geological Survey' Correspondence, 1934-37, re Bullard's research and publications on 'Gravity Measurements in East Africa’. Shorter correspondence, 1936, re Bullard's paper on gravity measurements. "Kohlschutter's Stations' Extensive folder of tables and calculations, comparing Bullard's observations and results with those of Kohlschutter's expedition of 1899-1900. "Hts. Congo Stations' Tables and calculations. 'The Structure of the African Rift Valleys’ the draft incorporates There are various shorter items on gravity research in Africa, "Station Diags.' Plans, drawings, etc. for papers. Ms. and typescript draft for essay submitted for the Sedgwick Prize, Cambridge, September 1936; sections from Bullard's previously published accounts (Bibliog. 1935, 1936a). requests for station maps, information, etc. in Section J. Correspondence, 1956, with Department of Geological Survey, Tanganyika, re their proposed resumption of gravity measure ments in East Africa. Miscellaneous empty folders labelled for various African stations, data presumably redistributed elsewhere. >-C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.295~D.35] EXPLOSION SEISMO LOGy Research This research originated as Part of the work in applied seismology at the Depart- ment of Geodesy and Geophysics in the mid 1930s. The earliest record of Bullard's involvement dates from 1933 (D.295), but the bulk of the materig] deals with research from 1935 Onwards, Seismic reflections of small explosive cha; for the Purpose were used to measure the depth exclusively in eastern England (D.301-D .332), Bullard's chief collaborators in this work were C. Kerr- Grant and TF. Gaskell; the major publication ‘Seismic investiga- tions on the Palaeozoic floor of east Engiand! Appeared in 1940 (Bibliog , izeud), experience thus gained of equipment and methods led to Bullard's being consulted by several industrig| firms with an interest in mining or subsidence (D.333-pD, 340), a con- nection he frequently referred to in later plans for the Postwar organisation and expansion of the Cambridge Department (see esp, B.5-B.9), , Mainly but not The i What was more important, s inaugurating marine geophysics in Brita ins Fhe pre- i this was the Asa result, Bullard instigated similar work in Britain to study the western side of the continental shelf, tions took Place, in 1938 from H.M.S. Jason with the Cooperation of the See also Ee]: liminary stages and proposals for the project are documented at D.342-D 348; Bullard's letter of July 1939 in D. 348 refers to Gn additional short expedition in the trawler Arthur Rogers in August 1939 to explore the deep ocean floor. trawlers, published in 1946 and ret able by Dr. D. H. Matthews. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research The material js Presented as follows: Seismic work on land a work on land Apparatus and equipment design 1933, 1935- 39 Seismic observations and data Consultancies Miscellaneous later material 1936-38 1937~39 1947-56 D.295-D. 300 D.301-D, 332 D.333-D , 340 D.34] Seismic work at sea WOK at sea 1937-39, 1949 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Seismic work on land ee Le On. I a Research ee D.295-D.300 D295 Apparatus and e vipment design nent aus and equipment design Correspondence te purchase of explosives for planned explosion test, 1933. This refers to tests ona field seismograph belonging to the Royal Geographical Society and intended for work on thickness of ice in Polar regions, mentioned in the Annual! Report of the Cambridge Department for 1932-33 in B.4, Drawings for 'Seismic Unit", signed and dated Ee. 8 Adi 35*: 'Tests of Seismograph Apparatus, 1935-36! Black hardback notebook so inscribed, belonging to C. Kerr- Grant (a research student of Clare College, Cambridge, who joined the Department in July 1935 fo work on applied seismology). Record of various tests of calibration, sensitivity, etc. on sites in Cambridge and East Anglia, almost all in the hand of Kerr-Grant with an occasional note by Bullard. Tests run 27 July 1935-8 September 1936, with an incomplete entry for 25 January 1937, The last dated entry is 17 July 1938, Grey soft-backed notebook, inscribed with Bullard's name and address and dated 'Dec. 7 LYS?" Entries are almost all in Bullard's hand, and relate to various aspects of geophone testing. Some entries are by T.F. Gaskell, E.@. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "Geophone Design' Bulky folder of graphs, calculations and narratives, related to various aspects of geophone and to the tests recorded in D.297, D.298, almost all various dates in 1936 and 1937. Bullard's collaborative paper with C. Kerr-Grant 'The design and testing of geophones and their amplifiers’ (Bibliog. 1938b). in Bullard's hand and some bearing Probably related to Includes several paginated sequences by Bullard, one on "Hydrophone design’. ‘Calculations and lists' Folder so inscribed but containing similar material to above, calculations, graphs, narratives, almost all by Bullard but some in the hands of T.F. Gaskell and C. Kerr-Grant. Includes 'List of articles to be taken in van' for seismic survey, dated 27 May 1937, and 5pp. typescript note on 'Seismic Work in Eastern England', n.d. witha ms. note 'Paper pre- pared by Gaskell for Lord Iveagh who had expressed interest in the Lakenheath work'. (See D.330.) Probably related to collaborative paper 'Seismic investigations on the Palaeozoic floor of east England' (Bibliog. 1940a). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.301-D.332 Seismic observations and data, 1936-38 This is a series of folders somewhat similar to those for the African Gravity Campaign. Cornwall and elsewhere. Each has the name of a location, mostly in Eastern England but some in The contents vary, but may include maps, diagrams and descriptions of sites, calculations, narratives and drafts for a report or paper. Most of the work is in the hand of T.F. Gaskell though there are notes and comments by Bullard in almost every folder. The folders are less meticulously dated than those for Africa and the 'sequence' is therefore presented in the order as received, with a note of any material of special interest. The folders record the project to measure the depth of the palaeozoic floor. 'Calvert' 'Corby' See also D.333. ‘Cornwall Dec. 1938' "Tempsford' some dated 5 August 1937 some dated February 1936, January 1937 Extensive folder, with many notes and calculations by Bullard. 'Westmill' Extensive folder by T.F. Gaskell, including 5pp. note on ‘Seismic work in Devon and Cornwall December 1938', and 'Story of the Cambridge Seismic Expedition which wintered in the South West Peninsula during December 1938' (journal, photographs, maps). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 'Arlesey' 'Pertenhall' "Fen Stanton' "Bassingbourn' "Great Staughton' some dated May, June 1938 "Meesden' "Duck End! some dated October 1937 "Bow Brickhill' "Cambridge' "Brockhall' "Great Oxendon' "Benefield' some dated July 1937 "Leighton Bromswold' some dated November 1937 some dated March, April 1938 Extensive folder of calculations and drafts. 'Castlethorp' 'Feltwell' "Bridgham' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 'Saffron Walden' 'Kentford' ‘Fulbourn’ some dated August 1936 "Swaffham Prior' some dated May 1937 ‘Madingley’ ‘Bourn’ 'Charnwood' 'Culford' Includes some comparative data. 'Lakenheath' "Upware' "Laxton' some dated July 1937 Includes 3pp. ms. some dated March, April 1938 narrative by Gaskell. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.333-D.340 Consultancies Research D.333 Stewarts and Lloyds Limited, 1937, 1945 Correspondence and papers re investigation by Bullard and his collaborators of the palaeozoic floor beneath the company's works at Corby. —_ Includes arrangements to conduct investiga- tion and publish results with other seismic data, draft of Bullard's 'Report on Seismic Work at Corby ...' anda ms. draft additional explanatory letter, September 1937. Also included is a later letter from Bullard about the work, 1945. See also D.303. D.334-D. 338 Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), 1937-39 Bullard was consulted by the Company's Alkali division at Northwich, Cheshire, on measuring the shape of cavities full of brine. He made a visit to Northwich to consider the problem, returning later to carry out the required seismic tests. Correspondence with R. G. J. Fraser of ICI Alkali Limited, re the consultancy problem, fees, visits to Northwich, etc. Two reports by Bullard, as presented to the Company's Brine and Water Supplies Executive Committee. work, September 1938. D.335 ‘Report on proposed method of measuring the shape of cavities full of brine', May 1938. ‘Report on test of seismic method of measuring brine cavities’, September 1938. ICI report on visit to Company's Winnington Works to discuss Includes typescript and ms. draft of Bullard's report, and a later letter, 1939. .005; 2.336 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Ms. notes, calculations, diagrams, some paginated by Bullard, some in the hand of T.F. Gaskell, some dated August 1938. D.339, D.340 ‘Scottish Iron and Steel Company', 1939 Correspondence and papers relating to investigations into the collapse of a chimney, undertaken by Bullard because of his experience with small explosive charges, and using his geophone. Correspondence, calculations, drafts of T.F. report, 1939. Gaskell's Background papers and reports on subject, sent to Bullard. Miscellaneous later material on seismic work on land "Proposed explosions in Canada’ 3pp. draft by Bullard (from University of Toronto), 1948. Note on boreholes in E. Anglia, by F.H. Edmunds, 1955. ‘Boreholes at Soham and Wyboston', by T.F. Gaskell, 1956 Ip. circular letter by Bullard re large explosion at Heligoland, 1947. (comment on the above). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Seismic work at sea D.342 Research Folder of correspondence, 1937-39, principally with R.M. Field, re marine geophysical research in America, Bullard's visit, meeting with M. Ewing, subsequent seismic research at sea in Britain in 1938, 1939, etc. Field's letter of February 1939 also refers to Bullard's work on heat flow in South Africa. (See D.359-D.371.) Letters from M. Ewing. No letters from Bullard accompany this correspondence which runs 8 February 1937-1 August 1938, and is concerned with gravity and seismic measurements at sea, equipment and apparatus. congratulates Bullard very warmly on his 'good work on the shelf", Ewing's last letter, which is autograph manuscript, Correspondence and papers, 1937. Includes Bullard's letter (carbon only) of application to Royal Society for grant to visit America, in response to Field's invitation. Proposal for seismic research on continental shelf in Britain, October. Correspondence, 1938-39, with J.D.H. Wiseman about proposed seismic and gravity research on mid-Atlantic ridge. and H.R. Mill, and Bullard's reply. Includes 2pp. note on 'Proposed Seismic and Gravity Work on the Continental Shelf’ (no author or date, but probably from Cambridge Department), with comments by W.B. Wright Correspondence, 1938, re equipment and preliminary testing of underwater explosives. Correspondence and papers, 1938. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Correspondence and papers, 1939. Includes 2pp. note on ‘Proposed Seismic Experiments at Sea’, March (not signed, but from Cambridge Department). Letter from Bullard (carbon only) to Royal Society re investigation of deep ocean floor on short expedition funded trom unspent grant tor seismic research, July, and corres- pondence re explosives for the expedition. "Seismic work at sea. Shelf" The constitution-of the Continental Extensive typescript draft on work of 1938 and 1939 expeditions. Miscellaneous ms. diagrams and notes. 'On the Atlantic Shelf! Two articles on the 1939 expedition, by Tom Hepworth, Yachting Monthly, 8, July and August 1946. made available by D.H. Matthews. Photocopy "Proposals for a geophysical survey of the oceans' (Hepworth was the part-owner with R.C. Byng of the Arthur Rogers , the Brixham trawler used to carry the explosives. Hepworth himself skippered the second trawler used for the instruments, named by him 'Redcar' and elsewhere named as 'Renown!' and 'Terminist'.) M.N. Hill from the Cambridge Department. Spp. research proposal + 2pp. list of gear, submitted by Bullard with covering letter to J.D. Cockcroft, August 1949. Mainly related to work on echo-sounding, seismic reflections and seismic refraction to be undertaken on an expedition by E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.352-D.426 HEAT FLOW Research Heat flow on land, 1937-58 D.302-D,.398 With an introductory note Heat flow at sea, 1951-58 D.399-D.426 With an introductory note D.352-D. 398 HEAT FLOW ON LAND, 1937-58 Bullard's interest is documented from 1937, when he was concerned, in collabora- tion with A.E. Benfield, with measuring thermal conductivity in boreholes at various sites, and especially in the area of Cambridge (D.352-D.358). In 1938 he accepted an invitation to spend a few months as the first 'guest researcher' at the Bernard Price Institute of Geophysical Research at Johannesburg, where he investigated geothermal heat in South African rocks, working with L.J. Krige (D.359-D.371). During the In various hands. Most of the Includes data, lists of boreholes, calculations, graphs, narratives, D.389) and Switzerland (D.390-D. 393). D.352-D.358 Early work on boreholes war, Bullard took up the work again with special reference to sites in Britain (D.381- and elsewhere; this work was carried out by Margaret Bullard (D.372-D.378). After the early years of the Second World War, the thermal conductivity apparatus was recon- structed at Cambridge and used to continue work on the conductivity of rocks from Persia few dated, almost all by Bullard. Ledger-type notebook, listing boreholes in the eastern and midland counties of England. later entries are by Bullard and many of the earlier entries have annotations by him. Miscellaneous notes and drafts, originally stuffed into the front cover of D. 352. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.354-D.357 ‘Geothermal (Condy of Gault, etc.) Research Contents of a bulky folder so described, and dealing mainly with work on boreholes at Cambridge, 1937-38. "Report on the work of the committee for the measurement of the thermal conductivities of rocks', sent to British Associa~ tion, June 1938 (Bibliog. 1938c). Two copies, both with ms. corrections or annotations by Bullard. Notes, tables and calculations by Bullard on boreholes through gault. Work runs June 1937-June 1938 and includes summaries of data and tabulated results. Graphs, calculations, charts, almost all by Bullard but some in another hand, probably that of A.E. Benfield. Brief correspondence with equipment suppliers and engineers te borehole in gault, 1938. "Topographic corrn. to heat flow' Two paginated sequences of notes and drafts, 6pp. and 7pp., ‘Topographic Correction to Heat Flow ina finite hole’. Measurements, calculations, miscellaneous notes on various named boreholes in Britain and Europe, some referred to in Bibliog. 1938c. n.d.,.¢,.193/=38. E.G. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.359-D. 371 Visit to South Africa See also D. 645. Correspondence, 1937-39, from B.J. Schonland (Director, Bernard Price Institute of Geophysical Research), inviting Bullard to visit as the first 'guest researcher' of the newly- established Institute, and discussing research and publications. Bullard's letter (carbon only) to Royal Society, requesting permission to take up invitation to Bernard Price Geophysical Institute and outlining proposed investigations, September 1938. Also included is another letter re temperature measurements. Correspondence, 1938-39, from L.J. Krige (Bullard's principal collaborator on South African research). D.362-D. 367 "Geothermal (South Africa)! Contents of a bulky folder so described. Extensive charts and graphs of measurements, all hand. in Bullard's Ms. notes and drafts by Bullard. 3pp. ‘Abstract’ for paper at Royal Astronomical Society, November 1938 (not by Bullard) describing current research on thermal conductivity. | 'Report of Thermal Conductivity Committee’ (1938-39). Not by Bullard, but describes work of Bullard, A.E. Benfield, L. Krige, etc. 6pp. draft for short lecture given by Bullard during his stay in South Africa. 3pp. with 1p. ms. notes by Bullard on Benfield's work. 'Why is it hot underground? ' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research _ Correspondence and data from L.J. Krige, re Bullard's paper Heat flow in South Africa, Bibliog. 1939e. 1939. "experiences with the lions’. Krige's letter of 16 January refers to Bullard's January~ June Also included is letter from B. J. Schonland. Report on 'Cooling of City Deep Mine', by H.L. Callendar, 1923. D.368-D. 371 Notebooks D.368 Small black notebook, inscribed 'South Africa. E.C. Bullard's Petty Cash’. Ip. only, accounts for November and December 1938. of bcok contains data, not all are at back of book. in Bullard's hand. Rest Most entries Hardbacked notebook, similarly inscribed, dated December 1938, pages numbered 1-46. Data and calculations. Data and calculations. Hardbacked notebook, similarly inscribed, dated January 1939, pages numbered 1-48. Hardbacked notebook, inscribed with Bullard's name, address at Bernard Price Institution, dated November 1938, pages numbered 1-78. Data and calculations. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.372-D. 378 Thermal conductivities, 1940-41 This was a continuation of the work begun in the 1930s to determine the thermal conductivities of various kinds of rocks, and included specimens from Persia, Scotland and Switzerland. Ata time when most of the activity of the Cambridge Department was restricted by the war (Bullard himself being engaged in work for the Admiralty), this research was carried on single-handed by Margaret Bullard with his advice and direction. See the Annual Report for 1941 in B.4 in which her contribution is described as 'The only practical research that has been done in the Department’. Spiral-back brown notebook, only 1 page dated (March 1940), mainly by Margaret Bullard with some notes by Bullard and occasional additions from their children. Notes on Persian rocks and on 'Anderson's specimens' (Scottish rocks). Black hardback notebook. all in Margaret Bullard's hand with a date '1940' added later by Bullard. Similar material, on Persian rocks, D.374 Similar material, on Scottish rocks, Contents of a bulky folder so described. D.375-D.378 "Geothermal (Persian)' Blue hardback notebook. all in Margaret Bullard's hand. Notes, graphs, calculations by Bullard and Margaret Bullard. Includes 8pp. tabulated sequence of tests on 'Conductivity of Rocks', in Bullard's hand, various dates, April-October 1940. to Margaret Bullard, re research and specimens of Scottish rocks. Correspondence, July-November 1940, from E.M. Anderson D.376 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Miscellaneous correspondence. Includes letter from Bullard to his wife, August 1940, setting out method of research, and miscellaneous shorter correspondence not all dated. Also included is Bullard's carbon letter, 1941, requesting further information on Persian rocks. ‘Report on Geothermal work, 1940-41!' 6pp. typescript on results of measurements of 30 Persian and 6 Scottish rocks. corrections by Bullard. By Margaret Bullard, with a few ms. Brief report on research for 1940-41 sent by Bullard io Royal Society. D.379-D. 398 Later work, ¢.1944-58. D.379 Small red notebook of notes on wells and boreholes, some by Margaret Bullard but almost all by Bullard, some pages with various dates, 1944, 1945. Sept. 1945', N.B. Both these books are of very mixed content, some referring to work on Persian rocks (see above) and some to Nottinghamshire sites (see Blue hardbacked notebook, inscribed 'E.C. Bullard graphs, notes, calculations on rocks and boreholes, various dates, 1945-48, includes (at rear) Ip. ‘Accounts of work at Wilton July 1946'. below). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.381-D.389 '!1.C.1. & Notts. Temperatures' Research Contents of a bulky folder so described. Continuing work on boreholes, mainly on sites sunk by I.C.1. Limited and by D'Arcy Exploration Company, on sites in Nottinghamshire. The work covers a considerable timespan and includes material dated 1940-51, but is mainly 1946-48, Maps and charts of wells provided by I.C.1. and D'Arcy Exploration Company and mainly dated 1943-45. Many annotated by Bullard. Notebook of 'Experimental data’. Few entries only, 1940, 1944, on Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire wells. Small blue notebook of data and calculations. book used. Most entries dated 1948. Both ends of Certificates of thermometer tests, 1946. Extensive notes, charts, tabulated data, etc., all by Bullard. A few pages bearing various dates, 1944-51. Correspondence with I.C.1. re project, arrangements to visit and measure boreholes, etc., 1946-49. paper on thermal conductivity (Bibliog. 195le). Correspondence with D'Arcy Exploration Company on subject, 1946. Shorter correspondence on boreholes, 1944-46. Includes data. Shorter correspondence on conductivity, etc., 1950-51. Includes data and letter from E.R. Niblett on collaborative E.C, Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.390-D. 392 "Geothermal (Swiss)! Research Contents of a folder so described. Continuing work on conductivity, 1947-51. Maps and charts of sites studied in Switzerland, most annotated by Bullard. Notebook of sites and specimens in Switzerland, few pages used, dated September 1947. Miscellaneous ms. notes and diagrams. Correspondence and data from E.R. Niblett, 1950, 1951. Includes list of conductivity measurements on Swiss rocks, charts, etc., some annotated by Bullard. Bullard's tagged folder of correspondence with E.R. Niblett, March 1954-October 1955, on thermal conductivity of Swiss rocks, research and publication. of conductivities in Simplon Tunnel (taken in 1947). Includes Bullard's ms. data Research notes, reports, etc. by others. D.394-D.396 "Geothermal Odds and Ends' Contents of a folder so described. Miscellaneous ms. notes and calculations by Bullard, variously ‘'paginated, some dated 1948, 1949. topic by L.W. Gold, 1957. Notes, calculations, diagrams, apparently on effect of snow cover on heat flow, n.d. but folder contains paper on similar Correspondence with colleagues, on conductivity, 1946-49, Later shorter correspondence on boreholes, 1956, 1958. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.399-D.426 HEAT FLOW AT SEA, 1951-58 Bullard's first work on marine heat flow was at the Scripps Institution of Oceano- graphy in 1949 (see Section C. passim but especially C.12-C.14). The continuation of his collaboration with A.E. Maxwell at Scripps and with E.R. Niblett at Toronto can be seen in correspondence at D.406, D.415. Most of the material below is concerned with the construction of apparatus, its use during sea~going expeditions and the analysis of results 1950-58, when Bullard was at the National Physical Laboratory and then at Cambridge. For logs and accounts of expeditions on R.R.S. ‘Discovery II' during and after this period, see Section B. Titles and descriptions on the folders have been retained and appear in inverted commas (not always in Bullard's hand); the contents of bulky folders have sometimes been sub-divided for ease of reference, and very decrepit folders have been discarded. The first four are National Pages numbered 1-72. Inscribed 'Heat flow at sea. No.2!'. D.399-D, 403 Notebooks, 1951-56, 1958 The content consists of notes, diagrams, measurements, procedures, analyses of results, in preparation for and in the course of sea- going expeditions. All these are similar hardbacked books with alternate graph and lined pages, almost all in Bullard's hand with occasional inter- leaved or pusted-in additions. Physical Laboratory books, the last is from the Cambridge Department. with later additions, 1961, on pp.48-49. Entries run 5 June 1951-December Loe. Inscribed 'Heat flow at sea. Book |'. Pages numbered 1-49. Entries run 28 August-September 1952 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Inscribed 'Heat flow at sea (book 3)' Pages numbered 1-71. Entries run 9 July-November 1954. Inscribed 'Sea work 1956' Entries run 16 June-27 August 1956. dated 30 November 1958, Back page has notes Inscribed 'Heat flow at sea. Book 5. Sea work 1958! Pages numbered 1-40. 1958. In more than one hand, some by Belinda Bullard. Main entries run 12 June-19 October D.404-D.409 "Geothermal sea' Contents of a bulky folder so described, the folder itself being too decrepit to be retained. There are also Bullard's own extensive notes. Notes, diagrams and drafts on design of apparatus and evaluation of results. Almost all by Bullard, but not dated or paginated. The material covers a considerable time-span (1949-54) and includes information or correspondence from colleagues in U.S.A., Canada and Japan as well as from various divisions of N.P.L. There is considerable overlap with other folders, but Bullard had kept this material as a unit. unidentified Includes notes on 'Thermal Conductivity Apparatus’ from Earthquake Research Institute, Japan. A.E. Maxwell E.R. Niblett L.H.N. Cooper Shorter ms. notes and information sent to Bullard. Correspondence from colleagues. E.C, Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Reports and correspondence from colleagues ot N.P.L. Test results Report on 'Deep Sea Thermometer' Test results of 'T’ "Heat Conduction Problem' 1952 1953 1953 1953 Reports on the analysis of Atlantic floor sediments, seabed clays and fused silica, mainly from E.H. Ratcliffe, 1953-54. Photographs of apparatus, and of observations. Two diagrams of ‘Ocean bed temperature measuring apparatus’, drawn by Metrology Division, N.P.L., no.1877. n.d. D.411-D.413 Reports and correspondence re apparatus, from N.P.L. D.411 'Sea-bed apparatus' 195] D.412 'Tests on a Deep Sea Thermometer’, N.P.L. Report 1953 Shorter correspondence with suppliers re equipment. "Experiments to find the Best Adhesive for Attaching a Galvanometer Mirror to its Support’. Draft for N.P.L. Report. VP2Q0 made available by the Archivist, April 1984. Tagged folder of correspondence and papers re organisation of expedition, supplies, programme of research, Bullard's letters of thanks. Bullard's letter to R. Revelle, 30 June 1952, re apparatus, forth- Includes press~cuttings. coming ‘Discovery II' expedition, etc. Photocopy of originals in Archives of the Scripps Institution, kindly 'Heat Flow Work at Sea, July 1952 "R.R.S. Discovery II"' 1954-58 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research ‘Bottom Temperature Measuring Apparatus’ Tagged folder of correspondence and papers, 1953-54. Includes 2 copies of Bullard's ‘Notes on Bottom Temperature Equipment', n.d. but probably intended for M. Ewing to whom the apparatus was lent in May 1953; miscellaneous corres~ pondence with firms re repairs and supplies; correspondence with colleagues and others re expedition on ‘Discovery II' in November 1954. 'Thermal Conductivity Work (Mr. E.H. Ratcliffe)’ Tagged folder of correspondence, graphs, reports, efc. on ocean floor sediments (1955) and on fused silica discs (1954). "Heat flow 1954' Calculations, graphs, etc. all by Bullard. 'Thermal Conductivity Ocean Seds.' Untitled folder of notes, calculations and graphs, all by Bullard, some paginated. Calculations, graphs, etc., some comparing 1952 and 1954 results, most dated 1955 and including lp. graph dated 1960. n.d. but includes note on 'Heat flow problem', by G.F. Miller and report on thermal conductivity by E.H. Ratcliffe, both dated 1955. computer data. "Heat flow 1956! Extensive calculations and graphs for samples taken on 1956 ‘Discovery II' expedition. Folder includes Ip. dated 1954, Ip. doted 1960, and some E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "Heat flow 1958! Calculations, graphs, etc. (almost all by Bullard) on samples taken on 1958 expedition. D.423, D.424 ‘Heat flow 1954-58 (general papers)! D.423 Notes, graphs, calculations, mainly comparing results of observations in 1954, 1956, 1958. Includes letter from A.S. Laughton on expedition data, 1958. 8pp. ‘Calculations for paper on Moho temps. June 1961', originally included with above. 'The flow of heat through the floor of the Atlantic Ocean’, by Bullard and A. Day. ~ Typescript draft with ms. corrections by Bullard, drawings, etc. for paper Bibliog. 1961a). Annual Report, Volcanological Research Department, 1956-57 (sent for information). E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 nr Research D.427-D.429 AIRBORNE MAGNETOMETER, 1947 D.427 'The compensation of an airborne magnetometer for the magnetisation of the aircraft' lS3pp. typescript and ms. report by Bullard, not dated but using the calculations and formulae of D.428 below. 'Corrn. of Airborne Magr.' 7pp. ms. calculations dated '1/1947'. There is no indication of the origin or destination of the report, but it would seem to form part of the 'Early History' referred to Ministry of Supply in 1957 (see E.169). in Bullard's report to the D.429 Report on ‘Surveying from the air', produced by Photographic Survey Corporation Airborne Profile Recorder, Toronto, 1949. D.430-D.433 FIGURE OF EARTH, c.1947 Ip. (only) 'Contribution to RAS discussion on the Figure of the Earth' (perhaps Bibliog. 1948a). Notes and calculations relating to methods of determining the ellipticity of the Earth, using variation of g with latitude, the Moon's parallax, triangulation, etc. to D.432 above. 'The application of the International Figure of the Earth to the different countries surveys and maps' épp. typescript and ms. report sent to Bullard, n.d., relating to D.433. Translation of 'Commander Schmidt's paper’. 60pp. typescript, n.d., referred to especially in ms. addition Paginated sequences of notes and calculations, pp. 1-22, pp..1~22, pp. 2-7. Shorter unpaginated notes and drafts. inscribed 'Figure of Earth’. In original folder EC. Bullare CSAC 100/4/84 D.434-D.476 DYNAMO THEORY, 1947-79 Research The earliest documents date from 1947 when Bullard was at Cambridge immediately after the Second World War. The work continued at Toronto and then at the National Physical Laboratory. Several publications resulted during the 1950s, in particular with H. Gellman in 1950, 1954. Although Bullard consulted members of the NPL staff and other colleagues, and also made use of the ACE computer at NPL, it is noteworthy that virtually all the calcu- lations and graphs in the folders - for what he himself described as a 'long and elaborate paper' (see A.7) - are in his own hand, and most of the calculations submitted by others are checked or corrected by him. The material was received crammed into folders or filing-drawer dividers with only a summary indication, usually 'Dynamos 1950-54'. The contents are now sub-divided for ease of reference though the contents of each named section are respected and pre- served as such; this has sometimes resulted in an overlap of material, but it was thought but many loose pages remain. work on disc dynamos. D.434-D.438 ‘Rotating Spheres' best to retain Bullard's overall divisions. Paginated sequences of notes are preserved, Contents of a bulky folder so described. Bullard continued to investigate and publish on dynamos; see D.474-D.476 for later Shorter sequence 'For cylinder', paginated 1-3 Extensive sequence of notes and calculations, paginated 1-46 with many intercalations. Shorter sequence 'For sphere', paginated 1-5. | f r . E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Similar material, not paginated but usually with heading or indication of content. Calculations and graphs, some on University of Toronto paper. In original folder. "Dynamos 1950-54" Extensive folder of drafts, calculations and graphs, all Bullard's hand except for a few printouts with his note ‘tabulated by ACE' (The Automatic Calculating Engine at NPL). in The material is paginated 1-156 with a very few pages missing and many intercalated pages. for pp.1-140. printouts bear various dates in 1951. bered pages and graphs at end. The work is not dated, but some of the ACE There is a rough ms. index There are some unnum- All in original folder. Contents of a bulky folder so described. Includes photocopies Includes ip. chart D.440-D .444 "Dynamo Theory 1950-54' Paginated sequences of notes and drafts. of his two short papers on spherical dynamos of which the originals are at D.449, D.450. In original folder. Unpaginated sequences of calculations. of 'Prelim. results' and extensive bundle of calculations and notes dated 8 May 1953 with a note 'These are believed to be final results’. Unpaginated sequences, mainly graphs and tabulations. More fragmentary notes, graphs and calculations. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Correspondence and data from colleagues, 1951-53. from NPL, but includes letter from G.K. Batchelor on his and Bullard's views on dynamos (April 1953). Mainly D.445-D.448 ‘Earth's non-dipole field ...' Contents of a bulky folder so described. Correspondence with H. Gellman on research and publication, January-March 1950. Includes data. Notes, calculations, graphs by Bullard. Tables of calculations in another hand, several annotated or with additions by Bullard. j Yenc e,t ' ‘ In original folder. D.449-D .464 "Dynamos 1950-54' Tables of data on non-dipole field, typescript and numbered 1-6 by Bullard. Contents of folder (now at D.456) and of filing-drawer divider so described: a very extensive assembly of material, some dating from 1947, now sub-divided for ease of reference. included by him in several other folders. These two notes by Bullard form the basis of much of his work on dynamo theory and photocopies of part or all of them were 'On the impossibility of a liquid sphere acting as a dynamo' 'On the possibility of spherical dynamos' 13pp. pencil draft, commenting on above. ° épp. pencil draft. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Paginated drafts and sequences. 2pp. ‘Boundary conditions’ 13pp. ‘Resistance of core for dynamo paper', etc. 24pp. calculations. l5pp. calculations 22pp. calculations Spp. calculations 6pp. calculations 13pp. calculations T1pp. calculations Ms. diagram for sphere and cylinder. Table of results - 'Prelim. - not to be believed’. 17pp. calculations l1pp. calculations Miscellaneous pages of calculations, some with page numbers, but not forming a sequence. In original folder. Extensive loose pages of diagrams, charts, calculations and drafts, some with headings, a few with page numbers. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.457-D.463 Correspondence with colleagues and collaborators, 1947-53. In alphabetical order. Several of the early letters refer to P.M.S. Blackett's paper ‘The magnetic field of massive rotating bodies’ (Nature, 159) Batchelor, G.K. Blackett, P.M.S. Chapman, S. Elsasser, W.M. Ett, Gellman, H. Aid, 1948, 1949 1948 1948, 1949 nea. 1950 Includes report on 'spherical dynamo problem! 1947 1949 1949 1948 carbon only) 1952-53 Hales, A.L. Hartree, D.R. Inglis, D.R. Mott, N.F. Gravity and magnetic research in South Africa. On thermal conductivity, but with Bullard's heading 'file geomag.' ‘Child's guide to results in dynamo problem’. Mainly re results of calculations made in NPL Mathematical Division, but includes Bullard's 1947, 1949 (Bullard's Olver, F.W.J. Runcorn, S.K. 1952 1948 Vestine, E.H. Woodger, M. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research ‘Suggestions to the authors’ 10pp. typescript detailed comments on paper submitted No author or date, but perhaps refers for publication. to paper with Gellman (Bibliog. 1954e). annotated by Bullard. Very heavily Included here are pp. 14-18 of draft paper, with many ms. additions and corrections. D.465-D.468 ‘Eigen Values’ Contents of a folder so described. for a paper arising from problems of calculation involved in dynamo theory. Mainly notes and drafts 'Real eigen values of certain linear differential equations’ 13pp. ms. draft, very heavily corrected, n.d. but Ip. draft references lists Bullard's paper Bibliog. 1954e. In original folder. 6pp. earlier draft for paper, same title. Shorter drafts, calculations and notes. 28pp. and 2 unnumbered pages, drafts and calculations. No separate paper of this title is listed in the Bibliography. 25pp. headed 'Disc Dynamo', May 1954. Paginated drafts and calculations by Bullard. D.469-D.471 'Disc Dynamo 1954-5! Contents of a folder so described. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 7pp. App. 3pp. Spp. tables 'Comparison of ACE and DA Solutions', by Bullard, comparing methods of solving problem by computer and by differential analysis. Charts, diagrams, printouts (annotated). Correspondence and information from members of NPL staff, L955, In original folder. Drawing 'To illustrate Bullard's theory of the earth's magnetic field', with various notes and queries. but refers to model with 'magnetic axis coincident with rotational axis’. No author or date, ‘Oscillating dynamos' Various D.474-D .476 ‘Dynamo Theory' Contents of a folder so described. Miscellaneous research material. paginated notes by Bullard, and three sets of notes by others, one dated 1967. Includes three sets of Correspondence with colleagues, 1979. Research data, from 'Program LOOKSE', in collaboration with D. Gubbins at Scripps, some annotated by Bullard. dates, January-March 1975. Includes two ms. notes by Bullard, on 'Two-dimensional dynamos' and 'Non-existence of a dynamo with a two- dimensional magnetic field’. Correspondence with D. Montgomery, 1978. E.C, Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.477-D .483 EARTH DENSITY, ¢.1951-56 The folders cover various topics such as temperatures in the earth's core, resistivity of molten iron, seismic velocities. Some of the material is related to publications, particular to Bullard's contribution 'The Interior of the Earth' to The Solar System in Pp Sein tbe enag cette? ed. G.P. Kuiper (Bibliog. 1954g). See also G.30. D.477-D.479 "Solar System Chap. 2! Contents of a folder so described. Bibliog. 1954g.) (The reference is to Very extensive calculations, charts and diagrams on earth's mantle, core, etc. all by Bullard, n.d. In original folder. In alphabetical order. Correspondence and data from colleagues; dated letters are all 1952. Miscellaneous photographs of seismic velocities, various dates, 1948-51 (not by Bullard). Untitled folder of notes and drafts on the melting point of iron. F959. Includes 2pp. ms. draft by Bullard 'The melting point of iron at high temperatures’, and miscellaneous notes on the subject by members of NPL staff, various dates, 1951, 1952, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research ‘Density in Eorth' Contents of a folder so described, mainly relating to testing of theories of H. Jeffreys and others on seismic velocities and density in earth. Extensive notes, charts, diagrams by Bullard. includes 26pp. sequence on ‘Constants adopted'. the diagrams bear various dates, 1955, 1956. Some of In original folder. Printouts, all headed and some annotated by Bullard, ¢.1956, done on NPL Computer. in the folder, to Superintendent, Mathematics Division, explains his research and wish to use 'Pilot ACE or DEUCE to get solutions of the equations connecting the seismic velocities and density within the earth' (June 1955). A letter from Bullard, included Correspondence and data from 8. Gutenberg on velocities, and notes and calculations by Bullard arising, 1955. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.484-D. 506 PROTON MAGNETOMETER, 1956-6 Research Most of this work derives from research expeditions in R.R.S. 'Discovery II’ (in 1956 and 1958) and in 'Sarsia’ (1957). (See also expedition reports in Section B.) The material continues to 1966. The material, which includes printouts of computer data as well as Bullard's manuscript accounts, notes and calculations, was received in filing-drawer dividers iii a. is L . . . . 2 . and there are in consequence fewer original folders. Chart of 'Discovery II' expedition, July-August 1956, showing observation stations for the various research projects undertaken. With several annotations by Bullard. Listings, 10pp. and 6pp., of observations off Brittany and in Channel, August 1956. ‘Abstract of Navigator's Notebook' ‘Extracts from rough log 16/8/56' 1Opp. ms. notes and calculations by Bullard. Bullard's list of tapes made on 1956 expedition, of work to be done on them, notes on computer data, ms. charts and graphs based on tapes, etc. expedition, and magnetometer survey. 8pp. ms. notes and calculations by Bullard, July-August 1956. Miscellaneous notes, diagrams and calculations on 1956 App. ms. notes and calculations by Bullard. ‘Astronomical Observations' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Extensive folder of computer printouts of various measure ments on tapes of 1956 expedition. All the printouts are headed, and many are annotated or checked by Bullard. Some are dated December 1959. D.492-D.496 "Heading Correction' Contents of a filing- drawer divider so labelled. comparative data based on expeditions of 'Discovery II" and 'Sarsia'. Mainly 'Effect of ship's heading on magnetometer' 12pp. ms. draft. Drafts, diagrams and calculations on subject. Pages numbered 19-32 with many intercalated pages, mainly on 1956 expedition. Miscellaneous ms. diagrams of proton magnetometer readings, most dated July 1956. Similar but more extensive material, mainly relating to readings on 'Sarsia' expedition, 1957, and comparison with 1956. 1958 expedition, almost all by Bullard. Bullard's list of 100 magnetic tapes made on 1958 'Discovery II' expedition, with details of time, place and comment on content. Similar, shorter material, for 1958 expedition. Miscellaneous ms. notes re tapes, ‘Things to be checked', annotated printout. Two diagrams of readings, May 1958. Calculations and charts on magnetometer readings from E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Calculations and printouts on 'Daily variation’, May- July 1958. D.900; 2.301 'Magnetics Atlantic 1958' Contents of a folder so described. Ms. charts and diagrams by Bullard. Printouts, some annotated by Bullard, mainly magnetic reductions. Similar material - printouts of magnetic reductions for ‘Discovery !I' and various stations, May-July 1958. Notes and diagrams by Bullard, mainly on secular variations. Spring-back folder of notes, calculations and printouts, not all in Bullard's hand. Folder is labelled (in another hand) 'Fit Function - Atlantic. Determination of Regional Gradient for North Atlantic’. Material related in part to collaborative paper with M.N. Hill and C.S. Mason 'Chart of the total force of the earth's magnetic field for the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean' (Bibliog. 1962b). the program, by J. Bath, dated 7 October 1966. Later observations, diagrams and printouts, mainly by Bullard or annotated by him, various dates, 1965, 1966, re computer program to reduce data from a proton magnetometer. Related to, and including a copy of, a paper desctibing Shorter correspondence from colleagues forwarding data for magnetic research, 1956-62. Correspondence with colleagues on magnetometer design, 1957;.A¥ors Correspondence with manufacturers re costs of supplying magnetometers, 1960, 1963. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.507+D.513 SEISMIC REFLECTION/APPLIED SEISMOLOGY, 1956-58 Most of the material was received in a filing-drawer divider labelled 'Seismic Reflexions'. proposal on the subject by Bullard in 1949, See D.351 for a research D.507-D.510 Research proposals by Bullard: D.507 ‘Research in applied seismology’ épp. typescript and ms., October 1956. ‘Appendix to "Research in applied seismology"' Spp. typescript and ms., December 1956 (2 copies). ‘Computation of reflexion seismogram from geological structure’ 3pp. typescript and ms. note based on appendix above, n.d. All in original folder. 'The evaluation of the Fourier integral representing the ground motion due to reflected waves' App. typescript and ms. note improving on above, March 1957. 6épp. ms. notes and related offprints. Correspondence with colleagues at Shel! Laboratories, Delft, who were collaborating in the work, December 1957- April 1958. Included here are computer data found with the correspondence, copies of Bullard's EDSAC programs for seismic reflection, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Extensive folder cf ms. notes, graphs, calculations. Includes computerised data, all headed, annotated or checked by Bullard. ‘Projection of fields' Two sequences of ms. notes by Bullard so described, 8pp. and 9pp., and miscellaneous shorter loose pages. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.514-D.517 ARGON DATING, 1956-61 This was part of an investigation into the earth's atmosphere in the past, analysing argon in rock salt and atmospheric argon. written by Bullard for the EDSAC machine. samples or discussing results dates from 1959 and 1960, but see letter from T.R. Scott on the project, April 1956, and Bullard's letters to H. Borchert, May 1958. he test data were computed ona program Most of the correspondence requesting O.514, P.ars Correspondence with colleagues, firms, etc., requesting samples and discussing research. A-H [= $ Draft programs by Bullard for processing argon data on EDSAC computer. Lipp. hc: "EDSAC' Test printouts, some dated 1961, Ms. notes and calculations, test printouts annotated and checked by Bullard, most dated 1960. In original folder. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Dz518-D,522 SECULAR VARIATION, ¢.1958-59 Contents of a filing-drawer divider so labelled. Very little of the work is dated; some of the paper format used by Bullard in his notes and drafts is similar to that used at the N.P.L. in the 1950s, and may originally have been part of the ‘Dynamo Theory! material, but the draft paper at D.522 is 1959 or later. Bullard's Chree lecture, 'The secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field’, was published in 1958 (Bibliog. 1958a). Acollaborative paper with D.W. Allan, ‘Origin of the secular variation' is listed as ‘abstract only’ (Bibliog. 1960c); the paper at D.522 is unlisted. See D.146, D.275-D.281 for Bullard's first work on secular variation in 1933-34. Miscellaneous ms. notes and calculations by Bullard. 3l pp. (later work) Miscellaneous unpaginated notes, diagrams, calculations. Research notes and information provided by collaborators (more than one hand). App. Bibliog. 7pp. typescript and ms. draft for paper by D.W. Allan and E.C. Bullard, n.d., latest reference 1959, not listed in 'The Secular Variation of the Earth's Magnetic Field! E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.523-D.576 COMPUTER APPLICATIONS, ¢.1959-76 EDSAC c.1959-62 BOMM c.1960-76 The presentation and dating of this sub-section are somewhat artificial, since Bullard had been interested in mechanical methods of calculation and data-processing from very early in his research career. Some of the work on explosion seismology during the 1930s was processed on an early adding-machine, and Bullard himself was active in designing automatic recording instruments for gravity measurements. Similarly, many of the folders for research projects of the 1950s contain work making use of the computer resources of the National Physical Laboratory and the University Mathematical Laboratory at Cambridge. It is nevertheless the case that during the 1950s Bullard came increasingly to BOMM for time-series analysis. D .523-D.527 EDSAC ¢.1959-62 Bullard used it to This was the computer (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) developed seek ways of automatically reducing large quantities of observational data, and thus to write his own programs, using the Cambridge EDSAC machine. Later, in collabora tion with colleagues at the Scripps Institution he shared in the major project known as and built at the University Mathematical Laboratory, Cambridge. process much of the data from the 'Discovery II' expeditions and other research projects He wrote several programs himself, descriptions of which are retained program, another copy of which is included in D.525. 2 ms. draft programs for EDSAC, 4pp. (dated May 1959), and 3pp. Included here is a copy of the instructions for the completed Miscellaneous test printouts for program, June 1959. D.523 "Least Squares’ during the 1950s. Ony.geos E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Correspondence, 1960, re 'magnetic programme’ at University of Durham, with 7Zpp. ms. notes and calculations by Bullard using Durham program. Tagged folder of 'EDSAC PROGRAMS', containing 18 descriptions of programs by Bullard, as follows: — D N W R H A a A N A O 10. 11. 2. 13. 14, 133 16. iz. 18, Attractions Sum Series Fit function Read or punch alpha-numeric characters Reduce magnetometer (4 BP) and (5 BP) Power spectrum Read magnetometer Difference magnetometer Check magnetometer Total field = Daily variation Remove trend (1) Seismic reflection (2B) Remove trend (2) Field from count Least squares (1) and (2) Argon (1) Seismic reflections (1) and (1x) Copies of nos. 7, above, perhaps earlier or later versions. 16, 9, 17 with alternative material from Two additional programs not included in D.525. The folder has a ms. note ‘about 1958', though probably some of the work is rather later. (or) 2x) Nee “Short description of the programme "Seismic Reflection ‘Proton Precession', 3pp., dated December 1962. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.528-D.576 BOMM, 1960-76 This was a program for time-series analysis. Its name is derived from the initials of those principally involved: B(ullard), O(glebay), M(unk), M(iller). makes clear the collaborative nature of the work, which was funded by American research grants and conducted chiefly at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California (see Section C). The acronym A ‘User's Guide to BOMM ... preliminary version’ appeared in 1962, followed in April 1964 by a revised version and a second edition in January 1966. copy of the 1966 version is included at D.560. Bullard's In a short biographical sketch of Bullard (Earth-Science Reviews, 4, 1968), D. Davies writes: ',.. in collaboration with a group from Scripps Institution ... a 'super-program' for time~series analysis, reducing the programmers effort from the punching of thousands of cards to the punching of tens. He didn't just act as genial overlord to the project - programming, punching and testing. chievous sense of humour need only borrow the program and try and insert a time series including the non-existent days when we changed calendar in the eighteenth century. he took an equal share in the Anyone wanting evidence of his mis- The result is surprising. ' he developed D.558). There are two principal sections: Bullard's own draft programs and notes (D.528-D.559) and the correspondence with colleagues 1960-76 (D.561-D.576). The correspondence, as well as complementing the notes and drafts for the 'User's The surviving material corroborates this account of the active part played by Bullard throughout, including his joke program for the calendar change in 1752 (see See also E.21. guide', continues after publication and includes comments by other laboratories and institutions using or adapting BOMM on various machines. et seq.), BOOM was developed; see D.574-D.576 for 'thoughts' and notes on this by Bullard, 1968, 1976. Ata later stage (see D.569 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.530 "Check' Research Extensive folder of notes, narratives and programs, almost all by Bullard, a few in the hand of F.E. Oglebay. Some dated July, September 1963, November 1964, and includes 48pp. ms. sequence for various 'Check' routines. 'CHGVAR' 2pp. only, ms. draft program by Bullard. 'CONVL' 3pp. ms. draft program by Bullard. "Subroutine CYCLE! Notes, narratives and programs by Bullard, some dated August, September 1960, April 1962. "END! "ERROR' "INSERT! 'INTPL' Notes, narratives, draft program by Bullard, none dated. Notes, narratives, draft program by Bullard, some dated August 1960, March 1962 (by F.E. Oglebay). September 1962. Notes, calculations, draft program by Bullard, some dated 2pp. only draft program, dated November 1961. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research ‘RET GH Notes, programs, printout, some dated August 1961 and several in the hand of F.E. Oglebay. "Subroutine LET' Narratives and programs by Bullard, August 1960, February 1962. "LIBR' Notes, narratives, programs, various dates, August 1960- April 1964, some in the hand of W.H. Munk. "NUB' Extensive folder of notes, narratives, programs, test printouts, various dates, September 1960-April 1962, mostly by Bullard, but a few in the hand of F.E. Oglebay. 'NUM' 'O PER' ‘OPTION ‘OUTPUT Ms. notes and draft programs by Bullard. Notes, narratives, test printouts by Bullard, mainly dated August 1960. 1961, January 1961 (perhaps an error for 1962). Narrative, notes, draft program by Bullard, August~September 1960. Notes, narrative, draft programs by Bullard, dated December E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.546 "PRERROR' Research Notes and draft program by Bullard, August 1961. "Subroutine RE' Miscellaneous notes by Bullard. Computer printout June 1964, with ms. note by Bullard ‘Test of revised RE. Works correctly’. Also included is letter, 1960, from D.P. Moore, about this subroutine. "READ 1' Notes, charts, draft programs by Bullard, one dated August 1961. Includes letters from F.E. Oglebay, December 1960, January 1961. "READ, WRITE ETC.' Ip. only, dated March 1962, in the hand of F.E. Oglebay. Notes and programs by Bullard, only two dated (November 196], January 1962). Extensive folder of notes and drafts by Bullard, several dated May 1961; draft programs by Bullard and D.P. Moore, May~- July 1961; several test printouts annotated by Bullard (some programmed to produce text of 'Good King Wenceslas'). Test printouts annotated by Bullard, n.d. Notes, narratives, draft programs by Bullard (dated May 1962). "RERROR' "RESUME' 'SBERP' E.C, Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research PoE Notes and draft programs by Bullard, dated December 1960. "STARTING DECK' Ip. only ms. draft program by Bullard, n.d. "STRSER' Ip. only ms. draft annotated program by Bullard, May 1961. 'TEATYM' Ip. draft program by Bullard. 2pp. draft program in the hand of F.E. Oglebay, dated March 1962. "TIM' "TNAME' 'TRANSF Miscellaneous notes and draft routines by Bullard, some dated January 1962, April 1964. Narratives, notes, draft programs, all by Bullard, some with various dates, March and October 1961, January 1962. Includes page headed ' Joke about 1752', a reference to Bullard's program fer the calendar change of that year. See the acriele by D. Davies in Earth- Science Reviews, 4, 1968, quoted in part in the introductory no note to 'BOMM'! above. 2pp. ms. draft routines by Bullard, n.d. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 "A User's Guide to BOMM' Bullard's own initialled copy of the version published in January 1966, D.561-D.576 Correspondence on BOMM and BOOM Bullard was based in Cambridge for most of the academic year while the other members of the BOMM team were at the Scripps Institution. There is therefore unusually full documentation for the development of BOMM and its programs. The principal correspondent is Florence (Flicka) E. Oglebay (later Dormer), with whom letters are exchanged sometimes several times a week in bursts of activity over a particular problem. On the other hand, there are total gaps for the periods when Bullard was himself resident at Scripps. expeditions, Bullard's posts at Scripps, etc. at D.528-559 above, also appear occasionally in the correspondence. Some of Bullard's own notes and draft programs, similar to those in the main sequence The main theme is the development of BOMM, its use, and its successor, BOOM; in letters exchanged with W.H. Munk there are also references to other research projects, 1963, January-June Bullard's letter of 31 December to a prospective user explains the state of the project and the machines for which versions of BOMM were to be produced. 1960, December only. 1961, August-December 1962, January-May 1962, June-December E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Dy565 D.566 Research 1963, July-December Includes correspondence, July, re adapting BOMM for Titan. 1964 Includes correspondence with users of BOMM on adaptations for other machines and languages, and correspondence with collaborators re ‘User's Guide’ and modifications required. An extensive folder. 1965 1964-68 Correspondence with G.W. Lennon on the use of BOMM at IBM Data Centre and elsewhere. See also E.60. 1966-67 Letter of January 1967 explains the origin of BOOM (Bullard, Oglebay, Oglebay end Munk). 1967-68 Correspondence re use of BOMM at Atlas Computer Laboratory, Letter to Bullard of 19 December speaks in very favourable terms of the value of BOMM as an analytical tool in power system problems. version for IBM/360. Includes correspondence on possible use of BOMM at Tata Institute, Bombay, and at CERN; also on development of BOOM, the CDC 3600 version of the successor to BOMM. Includes various draft papers for BOOM, copy of 'User's Guide to BOMM on Ailas', and correspondence rea E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research 1970-73 Correspondence about BOMM and BOOM. D.574-D.576 Miscellaneous reports and work by Bullard on BOOM. D.574 ‘Thoughts on BOOM', 15 July 1968, ‘Decisions based on thoughts on BOOM', 23 July 1968. "Note on the present state and prospects of BOOM on the CDC 7600 at Berkeley', with a trial printout and a circular letter from W.H. Munk on the BOOM project, February 1976. Ms. narrative and printout, on 'Meta-statements in BOOM', n.d. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.577-D 585 CONTINENTAL DRIFT, ¢.1962-65, 1975 Bullard researched and published extensively on this and allied topics, but the surviving manuscript documentation is relatively scanty. collaborative paper with J.E. Everett and A. G. Smith 'The fit of the continents around the Atlantic’ (Bibliog. 1965a); D.583-D.585 date from 1975 when he began a re-examination of the subject. D.577-D.580 relate to his See also D.646. Draft for 1965a paper, few pages only, some ms. annotations by Bullard, 1p. comments by A.G. Smith, and 4pp. ‘data notes' on continental fit, by Smith. Ms. notes, calculations and charts by Bullard. Correspondence (addressed to J.E. Everett), re statistical methods for solving problems of continental fit, 1962. 'A mechanism for diastrophism' 8pp. draft for a paper on orogeny by M.J.S. Dewar, dated 1 September 1947 and found with material. "Atlantic Fit' Computer printouts of data for paper. Miscellaneous notes, charts, a few dated October 1975. Incomplete ms. for a paper on continental drift, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics, p.4, pp.37-54. n.d. but latest reference 1971. There is a ms. note by Belinda Bullard that the paper was ‘found in cupboard at Madingley Rise [Cambridge] July’. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Correspondence with colleagues, mainly sending information on Atlantic fit 1979, in response to Bullard's requests, June-July Miscellaneous lists of maps, reports, etc. requested or ordered by Bullard for work, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research PALAEO MAGETISM, 1964-67 This is mainly concerned with the analysis of rock samples collected during expeditions in the Pacific Ocean organised by the Scripps Institution: to Easter Island and the Juan Fernandez Islands in July 1964 and 1966, and to Fiji and other Pacific islands in July 1967. Bullard wrote a collaborative paper on the subject with J. Booker and R.L. Gasty (Bibliog. 19679). For further correspondence about the expedition and research, see C.17, C.20. Green notebook, with Bullard's name and addresses at and Cambridge inside front cover, and labelled '6/64. Rocks. & Juan Fernandez’. Easter Is. La Jolla in Bullard's hand. Maps and charts indicating sites Includes list of sites of samples, diagrams, description of collection methods, analysis of magnetisation, etc., mainly but not all 1965, and a note of samples 'Sent to Blackett 8/4/65’. (P.M.S. Blackett, who was working on magnetic reversal at that time.) Includes some later material, Similar notebook, with Bullard's name and address and date, July 1967, inside front cover and labelled 'NOVA Leg 3 July 1967", Pages numbered 1-16, with several loose pages of maps and diagrams. as ‘Collection of oriented rock samples for palaeomagnetic and age determinations'. of expenditure. of rock specimens taken. Typescript 'Description of work on Easter Island’ taken from Bullard's diary. Bullard's list of rocks collected on 1964 expedition. Entries run 31 June-20 July 1967 and are described At rear of book, Ip. only account All in Bullard's hand. Research Bullard's notes and calculations. App. sequence 'Track of R.V. Baird during Ist leg of Carousel! (code name for 1964 expedition). Notes, drafts, charts, mainly on Alijos rocks. Miscellaneous computer programs (using BOMM) for processing data on rocks, July 1964. 2pp. shorter notes on ‘Easter Is.'. Charts and diagrams, probably for a publication, all drawn or annotated by Bullard. Charts of rock samples, by Bullard and others. Correspondence and reports from colleagues. ‘Work report on measurements of the magnetic properties of basalts from Easter and Juan Fernandez Islands', by A.|. Rees, February 1965. J.A. Miller, August 1965. J. Booker, September 1965 ‘Preliminary petrological report on rocks from Easter Island and the Juan Fernandez Islands', by F.J. Fitch, n.d. Printout with ms. note ‘Easter Island, magnetisation of rocks', July 1966. 1964", In original folder, inscribed 'Pacific Track and Easter Islands E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.593-D.609 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF OCEANS The material was received as the contents of a filing-drawer divider labelled uv "Induction in Ocean’. Bullard began work on the topic in 1965 (see D.593) but most of the dated notes and drafts are 1967, 1968. and 9 little material from R.L. Parker and other colleagues. collaborative paper with Parker, 'Electromagnetic induction in the oceans’ Bibliog. 1970a). They include some computer programs and printouts, Bullard published a See G.54. Correspondence with R.A. Cox, in which Bullard explains the purpose of the research 'to calculate the effect of the oceans on magnetic variations’ and requests information, December 1965. Notes, data, programs, etc. on temperatures and salinity in Indian and Pacific Oceans, various dates, January, March, May 1967. Includes research notes from R.L. Parker, 1967-68. 2 S97 Correspondence from colleague and collaborator, with data. Miscellaneous shorter data, annotated bibliography, 1967 and 1968. Miscellaneous notes, research ideas, diagram by Bullard, related to 1967 work. and will not be published’. Typescript with ms. corrections (photocopy), dated 'August 1967', witha ms. note 'This note is intended as a summary D.598-D. 609 Drafts and notes by Bullard, D.598 ‘The electrical conductivity of the oceans' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Extensive draft, paginated 1-74 with several intercalated pages, headed 'Induction in a sheet’. "Induction in spherical shell’, pp.1-10. "Induction by motion in a disc', pp. 1-8. "Induction in a strip conductor’, 2pp. (photocopy). "Induction in a half space', pp.1-26. 'The general problem', Ip. pp.15, 16 only of a sequence. "Induction in ocean for short periods', 4pp., dated July 1971. .608, D. 609 Unpaginated notes, drafts, diagrams by Bullard relating to conductivity research, 1967-68. Photocopy of part of a paper on induction, heavily annotated and revised by Bullard. 2 folders. E.C, Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.610-D.612 MAGNETIC VARIATIONS, 1967-69 D.610, D.611 "Removal of Trend! Contents of a filing-drawer divider so labelled. published a paper 'The removal of trend from magnetic surveys' (Bibliog. 1967b), though some of the material here is later. Bullard Ms. drafts by Bullard, 19pp., 2pp., 2 pp. Diagrams (perhaps for 1967 paper). Letter and data from |..R. Alldredge, with Bullard's notes and data on the subject, February 1967. includes letter to Members of Working Group on ‘Analysis of the Geomagnetic Field' (Bullard was a member), November 1967. "Magnetic Variations' Contents of a filing-drawer divider so labelled. Ms. notes and diagrams, charts (various dates, December 1968, January 1969), brief correspondence. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research D.613-D. 643 ENERGY SOURCES / NUCLEAR WASTE, 1976-80 Most of this work consists of drafts and background material for Bullard's contribu 1977d). Of interest are the fragmentary drafts for an uncompleted book on the subject on which Bullard was engaged at the very end of his life (D.626-D.629). The work on abiogenic methane at D.640-D.643 represents Bullard's contribution to the discussion of T. Gold's hypothesis on the viability of abiogenic methane as a fuel source, and was undertaken at the request of the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy. For contracts and terms of Bullard's consultancy at JPL, and other related material, see E.99-E.113. The material is presented as follows: D.613-D.625 D.637-D.639 D.640-D.643 D.626-D.636 Ms. drafts, notes and calculations Drafts for publications and papers Background statistics and information assembled by Bullard Abiogenic Methane E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 .613-D.625 Drafts for publications and papers Research .613 'Notes on the problems of waste disposal from light water reactors' 9pp. typescript, 4 January 1976. ‘The central problem in waste disposal, notes by Edward Bullard' Spp. typescript, n.d. "Effect of Radioactive Heat on Seabed Disposal of Nuclear Waste’ 3pp. typescript research proposal by Bullard 'to examine the stability of clay containing buried heat sources', n.d. "Waste disposal - a brief review, by Edward Bullard! App. typescript and ms. (photocopy), for collaborative publication, probably Bibliog. 1977c. Versions of a paper, all with variants, dated 17 October 1976, 21 October 1976, and a second amended copy with 1 page dated 23 March 1977. 4pp. typescript, no author or date. ‘Appendix. Level Nuclear Waste Management' Effect of Plutonium Recycle Options on High- 9pp. typescript unsigned but by Bullard, n.d. "Appendix B. Units of energy’ 6pp. typescript and ms. n.d. ‘Summary! ‘Appendix A. Energy' + E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.621, D.622 ‘Origin, nature and disposal of high level waste! Research Paper written as 'Appendix A', described by Bullard as 'a background paper Ewhich2] does not go into the detail of the main report’, n.d., but 1977. Ms. and heavily-corrected typescript draft (photocopy) Typescript version of above, 36pp. "High-level Waste’ 25pp. typescript + 7pp. figures, with a few ms. corrections dated 2 June 1977. (Uses some similar material to D.622.) ‘Notes on Waste Disposal’ App. typescript with a ms. note 'For Adm. Long's daughter’, dated 8 December 1978. Enclosed here is a copy of a letter from W.H. Munk forwarding the material, Letter to Bullard (JPL Interoffice memo.) from J. Klimberg commenting on Bullard's seminar at La Jolla on 'Lasting Engineered Structures for Disposal’, February 1977. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 D.626-D.63 Ms. drafts, notes and calculations Se ea f aa D.626-D.629 Drafts for an uncompleted book on energy, with special reference to nuclear power. hand, very heavily revised and corrected, sometimes fragmentary and not easily attributable. The work is all in Bullard's ‘Preface’, 10pp. Here Bullard outlines the scope of the book as follows: Chapter 1 ‘an outline of the world's energy needs and resources and of the reasons for considering nuclear energy as a major source’ Chapter 2 ‘the nuclear fuel cycle of the Light Water Reactor' Chapter 3 'the nature of the waste and its radioactivity' Chapter 4 (omitted) Chapter 5 ‘biological effects of radioactivity! Chapter 6 ‘options for disposal’ Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 summary and conclusions ‘effect of alternative fuel cycles on waste disposal' ‘possibilities of the diversion of materials from the fuel cycle either by non-nuclear states or by terrorists’ radiation, pp.1-4, 8-14, 9-13. Miscellaneous drafts for chapter 5 on biological effects of There isa ms. note at the head 'book in ‘Chapter 1 'How much will be enough! 18pp. + Ip. progress 1980", D.628 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Shorter paginated drafts, pp.5-7, 6-8, 17-25 (perhaps for Chapier 1), ‘The generation of radioactivity by a reactor’ App. ms. note 'to prove a theorem which seems not to be widely known’. D.631 Shorter paginated sequences of notes and calculations. D.632-D.636 Shorter notes, statistics, references, etc., a few with dates, 1976-79, 5 folders. D.637-D .639 Background information and statistics Miscellaneous material assembled by Bullard on nuclear waste and energy sources in America, a few with ms. annotations. 3 folders. D.640-D.643 Abiogenic Methane Correspondence and papers examining the proposal by T. Gold that 'methane ... and other hydrocarbons may have been significant components of primordial Earth'. Bullard was asked for his views and comments, which he conveyed ina paper (D.641) and which were considered in preparing its report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy by the ad hoc Committee on Abiogenic Methane of the National Academy of Sciences. deposits, February 1979, sent to Bullard for information. Includes invitation to forward comments, exchanges with colleagues. Also included is a copy of a letter by T. Gold on methane Correspondence, July-November 1979. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research "Abiogenic Methane’! Bullard's report on the subject, 9pp. typescript, dated 10 September 1979. With covering letter, anda ms. note of others who received copies. 'Abiogenic Methane: scientific and practical considerations of its potential as an energy source! Report of ad hoc Committee, with background papers, 8 October 1979, ‘Alternative Gas Workshop! Papers and correspondence re meeting at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, September 1979, which Bullard attended. Includes programme, list of participants, brief correspondence, anda few brief notes by Bullard. D.644 D.645 Maps for gravity survey in Britain. See D.359-D.371. D.644-D.651 MISCELLANEOUS Maps and drawings on continental fit, c.1964. D.577-D .585. See Maps of boreholes, for work on heat flow in South Africa, 1937-39. (from later part of Bullard's career), Shorter ms. notes, on spherical harmonics and other topics Ms. notes and drawings. early pendulum paper. Includes original figure for an E.C, Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Research Ms. diagrams and charts by Bullard. Data and diagrams by others. Typescript material, with ms. annotations by Bullard, on "The Cambridge Supermap Programs’, f ¢ E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 SECTION E COMMITTEES AND CONSULTANCIES _ E.1 - E.231 INTRODUCTION TO SECTION E The material is presented in alphabetical sequence and covers both govern- ment and private commercial work. Bullard undertook consultancy and committee work for a number of government departments. His connection with the Admiralty dates from the mid-1930s when the Navy cooperated with the Cambridge Department of Geodesy and Geophysics in marine geophysical research and Bullard joined the Admiralty Research Department during the Second World War. ‘There is virtually no record of the wartime work in the collection. * — After the war he was a consultant and served on government committees on atomic energy, atomic weapons, nuclear disarmament and maritime defence and served as the chairman of Lord Hailsham's Space Steering Committee. Bullard also had a number of important consultancies with industrial concerns. The most fully documented are those with Shell and IBM UK where he was a director SOME OF THE MATERIAL IN THIS SECTION MAY BE SUBJECT TO RESTRICTION for ten years. For unpublished wartime papers, see G.19. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 LIST OF CONTENTS ADMIRALTY Committees and consultancies ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT, HARWELL ATOMIC WEAPONS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT, ALDERMASTON BRITISH PETROLEUM BURMAH OIL COMPANY LIMITED CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION COMMITTEE ON COLONIAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS FOREIGN OFFICE GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATIONS HEADQUARTERS, CHELTENHAM IBM UK l i o . a . m . i m . 1 3 S . 7 . m . m . e F . a . e a . . . e e . r T JET PROPULSION LABORATORY, CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNO LOGY METEOROLOGICAL OFFICE MINISTRY OF DEFENCE MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND NATIONAL SERVICE MINISTRY OF SCIENCE MINISTRY OF SUPPLY OSCAR WEISS, CONSULTING GEOPHYSICIST, (JOHANNESBURG) PHYSICAL DYNAMICS, INC,/LA JOLLA INSTITUTE RIO TINTO COMPANY LIMITED SHELL OIL COMPANY SMIDTH, F.L., & COMPANY LIMITED _WARBURG, S.G. & COMPANY LIMITED r t t m . a f . . . E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies ADMIRALTY, 1936, 1938-39, 1941, 1944, 1946, 1953, 1959 1936 Letter from Department of Scientific Research and Experiment to G.P. Lenox-Conyngham re daia on ships' movements. 1938-39 Correspondence and papers re seismological experiments carried out from H.M.S. Jason under the direction of Bullard, and gravity work carried out by the submarine H.M.S. Narwhal under the direction of B.C. Browne. See also D,342-D. 351. 1939 Correspondence re Bullard's wartime appointment as Temporary Senior Experimental Officer in the Admiralty Scientific and Technical Pools. to the A/S Establishment, H.M.S. Osprey, Portland. He was assigned for duty in the first instance Manuscript draft, with much crossing~out, corrections and interlineation, of a letter to (?R.H.)Fowler, dated at Edin- burgh 9 June 1941, with Bullard's criticism of the Admiralty Experimental Establishments, particularly H.M.S. Osprey. wartime Admiralty research. Copy of memorandum by A.C. Hardy on proposed new methods of making hydrologic cal surveys of wide areas from commercial ships down to depths of 200 metres, with covering letter from the Hydrographer of the Navy. Correspondence re book by R.A. Lochner which dealt with 194] 1944 1946 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies 1946 Correspondence re request from Italy for the retention of a submarine for gravity work. | Under the terms of peace, all Italian submarines were to be destroyed. 1946 Seventh report of Admiralty Computing Service, with carbon of Bullard's letter acknowledging its receipt. 1953, 1959 Brief correspondence. 1947-48 Brief correspondence with J.D. Cockcroft. Bullard's appointment as Consultant ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (AERE) HARWELL, 1947-48, 1958-59, 1968 Ip. ms. notes headed 'Times of Atomic Bomb Explosions’, and Ip. ms. notes headed 'Distance from Kew’. Brief correspondence re to the Department of Atomic Energy, Ministry of Supply, with effect from 1 March 1948. | Agendas, notices of meetings and committee papers of the CTR (Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions) Advisory Committee. 8pp. typescript paper by Bullard on 'The Detection of the Explosion of Atomic Bombs’. 1 Bullard was a member of the reconstituted committee which met for the first time on 18 December 1958. ° ° ° 1958-59 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 1958, 1968 Brief correspondence only. The 1968 correspondence relates to the 1967 Harwell Conference on Technology of Sea and Sea-Bed. 1964 Extract from a draft, dated 18 September 1964, of the Users' Manual of the National Institute for Research in Nuclear Science, Atlas Computer Laboratory. The extracted pages are taken from Pari II entitled ‘Putting a Job on the Machine', and were filed by Bullard with AERE Harwell. Culham Laboratory 1961, 1963, 1969 E.14-E.22 1960-68, 1972 Bullard filed this Culham material under AERE Harwell. Brief correspondence re invitation for Bullard to speak at a colloquium (1961) and proposed IPPS Conference on Computational Physics (1969) and two interna! papers on the dynamo problem of the earth's core (1963). ATOMIC WEAPONS RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT (AWRE) ALDERMASTON, Two folders. Correspondence re Bullard's appointment as Consultant to AWRE (1960), consultancy fees (1965, 1968). Soto, Gale Correspondence with AWRE personnel. 1961-66. In alphabetical order. Various dates, E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies Background papers on seismic research, with particular reference to underground detection programmes, 1960. Tagged folder entitled ‘Review of Seisrnology II', Blacknest, May 1961. Paper by H.!.S. Thirlaway (2pp.) entitled 'Summary of Observations from a Study of the Attached Records’, Blacknest, 26 November 1963. There are ten figures attached. "IBM 7090 Installation. November 1960. llpp. booklet. A brief guide for visitors', Aldermaston, Reactor Group Headquarters, Risley, Warrington, 1962-63, 1966-68. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, 1964, 1967, 1972. Brief correspondence only, filed for convenience with AWRE, Aldermaston. Correspondence and papers re computer applications, including references to the BOMM program. Bullard's work was appar ently transferred from the Aldermaston IBM to Risley and the Risley material was filed by Bullard with AWRE, Aldermaston. Not used. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies BRITISH PETROLEUM, 1944-45 Brief correspondence re consultancy. BURMAH OIL COMPANY LIMITED 1945-46 Brief correspondence re consultancy, with three duplicated pages of 'Discussion of Dr. Bullard's Comments’. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION =-1945-47, 1977 Bullard accepted an invitation to join the panel of physicists to advise on recruitment for the Scientific Services of the Government. E2006. 36 COMMITTEE ON COLONIAL GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS 1944-47 Invitation to join panel, correspondence and papers re selection board meetings, promotions. recommended Bullard for the Committee. Correspondence between Colonial Office and Sir Gerald Lenox-Conyngham re formation of a Committee to advise on the geological needs of the Colonies, 1944. cine Lenox-Conyngham felt unable to serve himself and strongly E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies Committee papers: ‘Summary of Publications issued by Colonial Geological Surveys, etc.', with covering letter dated 17 April 1944, ‘Expenditure before the War', n.d. Report of the Committee on Colonial Geology, July 1944, with brief correspondence re report, 1947. Brief correspondence te colonial geological surveys, 1945, 1947. E.31-E. 36 British Commonwealth Survey Officers! Conference, 1947. E.3] Brief correspondence re organisation of conference, with provisional agenda, amendment to provisional programme and list of those attending Conference. Ee 67 £ E.33 E.32-E.36 Conference papers arranged alphabetically by author: G E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies E.37eE. 55 FOREIGN OFFICE, 1946-48, 1959, 1965-68, 1971-74 This material is arranged alphabetically by commission, depart- ment, panel, etc. E.37 Brief correspondence, 1959, 1973. E.38-E.48 Arms Control and Disarmament Panel, 1965-68, 1971-74 For earlier Foreign Office correspondence re disarmament see E.124. 'Report of the Working Group on Proliferation of the Panel of Advisers to the Minister of State for Disarmament', April 1965. Bullard was the principal author of this report. Report of the Disarmament Panel Sub-Group on Chino and the Bomb. n.d. (1965 or later). Correspondence, 1966, re disarmament questions generally, meeting of advisory panel. Miscellaneous papers relating to disarmament questions; photocopy of letter to The Times, 18 August 1966, headed "Initiative to Halt Arms Race’ Correspondence and committee papers, 1972. Further miscellaneous papers re disarmament questions. (not from Bullard). Correspondence and committee papers, 1967. Correspondence and committee papers, 1968. Correspondence and committee papers, 1971. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 E.47 E.48 Committees and consultancies Correspondence and committee papers, 1973. Correspondence and committee papers, 1974. E.49-E.53 Control Commission for Germany, Research Branch, 1946-48 E.49 1946 Correspondence re visit to Germany by Bullard to advise on Geophysics at the Institute at G&ttingen and in connection with the Geologisches Landesamt; also preliminary enquiry as to whether Bullard would serve on a Physics Panel to advise on scientific matters in Germany and letter from N.F. Mott re possible meeting of Society for Visiting Scientists to discuss science in Germany. E.50, E.51 1947 E.o9 Correspondence, April-September, re German scientific matters, including letter appointing Bullard consultant. to research branch of control commission. Correspondence re German scientific matters including correspondence about the career plans of Julius Bartels. Correspondence, October-November, re German scientific matters. of Scientific Research. British Intelligence Objective Sub-committee report on German academic geology. International Geological Congress. Results of Applied Geophysics'. of North West Europe. Section 4 'The Geological A Geophysical Compilation Allied Control Authority Control Council Law no.25. Control 1948 Miscellaneous papers filed by Bullard under Control Commission: E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies Marine and Transport Department, 1973 Brief correspondence re foreign research cruises in UK waters. Overseas Development Administration (later Ministry of Overseas Development), 1973, 1975 Brief correspondence only. GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATIONS HEADQUARTERS, CHELTENHAM, 1956 1 letter only. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies Gor-E. 9s IBM UK, 1957, 1962-77, 1979 This material records Bullard's long association with IBM both as a user of the computer firm's data processing facilities and, for the period 1965-75, as a director of IBM UK. The very extensive correspondence relates to board meetings, fees and expenses, technical questions of computer performance, contacts made by Bullard for IBM in the universities, industry and government departments, and symposia, lectures, and other educational, scientific, cultural and social events organised or sponsored by IBM. There is also correspondence re a substantial gift from IBM to the University of Cambridge (E.83, E.84). For lectures given by Bullard for IBM see G.152, G.163. E,o/ 1957 Letters of thanks for Bullard's address at opening ceremony of IBM's data processing centre. 1962 1963-65 July-August 1964 See also D.568. November-December 1964 Brief correspondence re applications for computer time under IBM's Endowed Research Time Scheme. Correspondence re Project Magnet data with the Hydrographer of the Navy, the Royal Greenwich Observatory and IBM. UK. Correspondence re use of computer time under Endowed Research Time Scheme. BOMM. Includes Bullard's letter accepting invitation to join the Board of IBM There are references to Project Magnet and E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies 1964-66 Correspondence re reprinting by IBM of Bullard's article 'The Language of Machines’, which first appeared in Endeavour, September 1964 (Bibliog. 1964a, 1965f). See also G.45. January 1965 February 1965 Includes IBM memorandum on the British computer industry and copies of letters from IBM to the Director of the Electronic Engineering Association, with comments on the EEA's paper 'Electronics and the National Economy’. March 1965 (1) March 1965 (2) April 1965 Includes copy of original draft of the EEA's paper on "Electronics and the National Economy', with ms. comments, underscorings, etc., sent to Bullard by IBM. Includes copy of IBM memorandum of meeting, 23 March, between T.C. Hudson and B.J.A. Hargreaves of IBM UK with Frank Cousins, Minister of Technology, and copy of letter from Hudson to Cousins, 24 March, setting out the ways in which IBM UK might be of use to Cousins's Ministry. Bullard and M.N. Hill. May~-August 1965 September 1965 Includes IBM memorandum on computing equipment for hydrographic research vessels, based on discussions with £ , : E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies October-November 1965 December 1965 January-March 1966 Includes IBM memorandum re tender for cornputer system at R.A.E. Farnborough. April-December 1966 Includes correspondence re computer system intended for proposed Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge and diagrams of layout of computer system for Cambridge University Institute of Theoretical Physics. January-April 1967 May 1967 June-July 1967 November-December 1967 Includes internal memorandum on visit by Bullard and IBM personnel to BAC (Filton) computer. re BAC's purchase of an IBM September-October 1967 other things, on IBM's image in the university. Includes internal memorandum: 'Notes on an interview with Sir Edward Bullard at the Department of Geodesy and Geo- physics, Cambridge’, 8 November. by IBM's Academic Relations Manager and commented, amongst Bullard was interviewed E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 January-February 1968 Includes draft letter from IBM to B.H. Flowers re new IBM computer. March-April 1968 May-December 1968 January 1969 1969-72 Correspondence re gift to the University of Cambridge for seven years. 1969-70 1971-72 March 1970 April-October 1970 197] April-June 1972 January-February 1970 Computing Laboratory. Includes memorandum re meeting between H. Bondi, and Bullard and IBM personnel, to discuss MOD and Atlas Includes correspondence and internal memoranda re visit to NPL by Bullard and IBM personnel. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Commit tees and consultancies August-December 1972 January-June 1973 July-December 1973 January-March 1974 April-June 1974 July-September 1974 October-December 1974 1375 1976-77, 1979 Includes minute of Bullard's resignation from the Board which took effect from 31 March. Brief correspondence only. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies E.o-E.}13 JET PROPULSION LABORATORY, CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (JPL), 1976-80 Bullard was invited to take on a consultancy with JPL initially for one year, with particular reference to their nuclear waste programme. It was also hoped that he would take an interest in other geophysical activity at JPL, and make a private report to the director on the state of science there. For research notes and publications for JPL, see D.613~D ,643 passim. For lecture given at the JPL, see G.172. EL. Correspondence re consultancy agreements, 1976-79. E.100-E.106 General correspondence. In chronological order. E.100 August, October-November 1976 E.101 1977 January-February 1978 Includes letters written during a visit to Australia which touch on the melting of icebergs to get fresh water from them and Australian policy on uranium mining and export. demand and supply. Includes interoffice memos. on nuclear waste management and ms. drafts of two short papers by Bullard on proposals for the disposal of nuclear waste. Includes notes by Bullard on energy use and supply and draft paper by Lester Lees on scenarios for future primary energy March 1978 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies April-June 1978 Includes Bullard's ms. comments on JPL's interim report to NASA on nuclear waste disposal and on the long range environmental constraints proposal, and the interoffice memo. which announced that the nuclear waste disposal project was to be wound up. 1978-79 1980-81 1981 correspondence is a letter setting out Bullard's contributions to JPL projects on radioactive waste disposal . ‘Applications of JPL Technology’, 11 October 1979. 13pp. paper by Bullard discussing how the new technologies developed in JPL's work for NASA could be applied to meeting more mundane needs. Programme, list of participants and brief correspondence. Papers relating to waste disposal and monitoring panel, including summaries of sessions. Summaries of sessions of water column and Benthic Research panel. E, 108-E.112 Advanced unmanned underwater systems and instrumentation workshop, Pasadena, 30 October-1 November 1979, Bullard was a member of the waste disposal and monitoring panel. 57pp. "Miscellaneous notes concerning discussions by panel members on the panel originally entitled later called the Summaries of sessions of Geological and Geophysical Surveying and Mapping and Ocean Mineral Resources and Production panels. Sea Floor Engineering and Panel on Ocean Engineering on the Sea Floor.' E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies Miscellaneous material found with JPL papers. METEORO LOGICAL OFFICE, 1960-62, 1975 Brief correspondence re research fellowships and Meteoro- logical Office personnel. E.115-E.143 MINISTRY OF DEFENCE, 1956-78 E.115-E.135 General Correspondence, 1956-68 Bullard served on a number of committees and working parties and corresponded about matters of mutual interest, e.g. disarmament, Russian science and scientists. 1956 1957 Includes suggestion that Bullard should spend four or five months in Moscow in connection with the possible appointment of a Scientific Attaché there. nuclear tests, Geneva, July-August. Includes duplicated material re conference to study methods of detecting violations of a possible agreement on suspension of January-June 1958 Includes list of 16 British atomic tests, 1952-57, drawn from publicly available sources. July-November 1958 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies January-June, December 1959 Includes letter from Bullard re membership of the Pugwash Committee. 1960 Includes material prepared from publicly available sources on the Soviet scientific township, Novosibirsk, and ms. note by Bullard entitled 'Large Earthquakes in USA and China’. January-June 1961 Includes correspondence re meetings of the British Nuclear Deterrent Technical Sub-Committee. July-December 1961 January-May 1962 July-December 1962 January-March 1963 April-June 1963 Includes letter accepting invitation to be a member of a panel on Technical Aspects of Disarmament. Includes correspondence with Foreign Office re disarmament questions. Includes duplicated summary of Soviet statements on matters affecting disarmament and nuclear testing, 8 March. July-September 1963 Includes correspondence re invitation to join a naval enquiry, and visit fo USA in connection with enquiry. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies October-December 1963 Includes draft article by Bullard entitled 'The Test Ban - What Next'. Not published. 8pp. typescript with ms. corrections. January-June 1964 August, October-December 1964 1965 Includes material and correspondence re the Hornig/Zuckerman talks. January-March 1966 September-October 1967 May-June 1968 October-December 1968 Includes correspondence re request from C. Pekeris in Israel for the loan of equipment which would enable him to select a site for a 'modern seismic station’. Food, and Royal Society. Correspondence re loss at sea of oceanographic equipment in buoys, with MoD, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies E.136-E.141 Defence Scientific Advisory Council (DSAC), 1969-75 In 1969 a new Defence Scientific Advisory Council was constituted to provide the Secretary of State for Defence with independent advice on research and development activities within the Ministry of Defence. Bullard accepted an invitation to serve on the Undersea Warfare Board. In 1972 the Undersea Warfare Board was merged with the Ships Board to form the Maritime Warfare Advisory Board and Bullard agreed to serve on the new board. Also in 1972 he accepted an invitation to serve on a working party on Maritime Air. He resigned from the Maritime Warfare Advisory Board at the end of 1974 because he was going to spend most of 1975 in the USA. Correspondence and committee papers. - 136 1969 Includes invitation to serve on DSAC's Undersea Warfare Board, Bullard's letter of acceptance, and official note describing DSAC's terms of reference and machinery. 1970 197] 1973 1972 1974-75 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies E.142, £.143 General Correspondence, 1973-76, 1978 E.142 1973-74 Includes correspondence re re pro| project for a satellite laser tracker. 1975-76, 1978 MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND NATIONAL SERVICE, 1944-46 Bullard served on the reconstituted Scientific Research Advisory Committee of the Technical and Scientific Register. Correspondence and committee papers. See also A. 55. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies E.145-E.161 MINISTRY OF SCIENCE, 1960-71 Ministry of Science was the designation on Bullard's original folders which more properly should have been Office of the Minister of Science, later Department of Education and Science. E.145-E.157 UK Space Research Steering Group, 1960-63 Bullard was chairman of the group. committee papers relate to the funding of space research, inter- national cooperation, the Blue Streak rocket and satellite and telescope projects. sequence. They are presented in a chronological The correspondence and February 1960 March-April 1960 May 1960 Includes copy of letter from Woodrow Wyatt MP to Harold Macmillan enclosing a memorandum from the British Interplanetary Society on a space programme for the UK, a Spp. typescript commentary on the memorandum and a note on the status of the society (2pp.). Includes 4pp. typescript draft entitled 'Scientific Benefits from Satellites capable of being launched by Blue Streak’, with ms. note by Bullard 'This is the paper for Hailsham that | dictated over phone 26/4/60'. June 1960 Includes 3pp. typescript note by A.W. Lines on the 'Technological Stimulus of Satellite Research’. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies July-September 1960 November~December 1960 Includes photocopy of paper from NASA giving their views on an agenda for the proposed UN Outer Space Conference planned for 1961. January-February 1961 Includes material re visit of Japanese mission on space science. March, May 1961 June-July 1961 August-December 1961 January-February 1962 Includes correspondence and papers re Project West Ford, 3pp. typescript paper by D.W. Parkin on the collection of cosmic dust from outer space using recoverable earth satellites, and 2pp. typescript notes prepared for Lord Hailsham, setting out Bullard's doubts about the British space programme. on scientific experiments. Includes report of working party under chairmanship of J.A. Ratcliffe on the effects of high-level nuclear explosions April-June, November 1962 Janvary-May, September 1963 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies E.158-E.161 General Correspondence, 1962-67, 1969-71 A chronological sequence of correspondence on matters other than space research, Cron 1962-63 Includes paper by Bullard on 'The Financing of Research in Universities’. sent to Trend Committee. (2pp. duplicated typescript), prepared to be 1964 Includes paper by Bullard on 'The Earth Sciences and the Trend Report’, prepared at the request of the Office of the Minister for Science (%pp. duplicated typescript with ms. corrections, dated 7 February 1964) and correspondence and papers re setting up of the Natural Environment Research Council and the funding of the National Institute of Oceanography. For NERC see F.51-F.74 1965-67 1969-71 For NIO_ see F.36-F.38 Correspondence and reports re NATO Advanced Study Institute. Correspondence re NERC, NATO Advanced Study Institute and Russian scientific exchange visit. FOREIGN OFFICE MINISTRY OF OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT ~- see under E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies E<162-E.176 MINISTRY OF SUPPLY (later MINISTRY OF AVIATION), 1946, 1956-61 Most of the material (E.163-£.175) covers the period of Bullard's service as Chairman of the US/UK Advisory Committee on Medium Range Ballistic Missiles. He resigned in 1959 when he agreed to take on the Chairmanship of the Minister of Science's Space Steering Committee and the Ballistic Committee itself was then wound up. The material which is arranged in a dated chronological order relates to committee meetings, visits to the USA, expenses, and other Ministry of Supply affairs on which Bullard was consulted. E.162 1946 Brief correspondence re a problem of explosives. is related to the existing foreign equipments’. January-February 1956 April- July 1956 Includes invitation for Bullard to investigate the work in the Ministry of Supply on airborne magnetometers and to 'prepare a report on how it January-February 1957 Progress reports on three-component magnetometer, 1953-56, and notes on development of airborne magnetometers, sent to Bullard, with covering letter, 20 June. June 1956 August-October 1956 November-December 1956 E.C. Bullard SAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies March-May 1957 Includes Bullard's report on airborne magnetometer (Spp. typescript with ms. corrections). See also D.428 July-September 1957 October-December 1957 Includes correspondence re visit to USA in connection with Ministry of Supply committee work. January-May 1958 July-December 1958 January-June 1959 July-October 1959 Includes carbon copy of Bullard's letter of resignation from Ballistic Missiles Committee. Notebook with record of classified documents sent to Bullard 1954-57, probably in connection with Ballistic Missile Committee; loose in notebook is carbon of letter from M.N. Hill, 1960-61 5 May 1960, returning other documents to Admiralty. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies E.177-E.184 OSCAR WEISS, CONSULTING GEOPHYSICST (JOHANNESBURG), 1946-48 Bullard agreed to act as scientific adviser to Oscar Weiss in August 1946. There is some correspondence re scientific problems but the greater part of the papers relates to the supply of scientific equipment and comprises correspondence with Weiss, suppliers of scientific instruments and the Ministry of Supply (re disposal of surplus stocks). The material is presented in a chronological sequence. August-December 1946 January-March 1947 Includes two photographs of vehicles used by Oscar Weiss in geophysical surveys. April 1947 May 1947 June 1947 July-August 1947 September-December 1947 January-March 1948 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies E.185-E.187 PHYSICAL DYNAMICS INC./LA JOLLA INSTITUTE, 1976-79 In March 1976 Bullard entered into a consultancy agreement with Physical Dynamics Inc. In September of the same year the President of Physical Dynamics Inc., Adolf R. Hochstim, invited Bullard to become a consultant of the newly- founded La Jolla Institute, of which Hochstim was a Trustee and President/Treasurer. The La Jolla Institute described itself as a non-profit research institute for science and technology. E sista Correspondence re consultancy agreement with Physical Dynamics Inc., 1976. Invitation to Bullard to become a consultant of the La Jolla Institute, 1976, and background material re the Institute. See also A.7, G.98, G.99. General correspondence, 1977-78, including 4pp. letter from Bullard on the transmutation of fission products and brief correspondence re Topics in Non~Linear Dynamics to which Bullard had contributed. Also included in this folder is Ip. ms. notes with diagram of disk dynamo, and photocopy of the same, with the results circled in red, found with the preceding material. hood (1968). RIO TINTO COMPANY LIMITED (later RIO TINTO-ZINC CORPORATION LIMITED), 1957, 1961, 1968 Brief correspondence re consultancy work, Bullard's letter of congratulations on the occasion of Val Duncan's knight- E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies E.189-E.229 SHELL OIL COMPANY, 1949, 1955-63 Bullard became a consultant of Shell from the beginning of 1956. There is an extensive correspondence re the technical problems upon which he wos consulted and his visits to research laboratories in Holland and the United States. Bullard's advice was also sought on science education questions including the placing of Shell Common- wealth Scholars in British Universities, and in this connection will comments on the Cavendish Laboratory and Nuclear Physics at Cambridge. interested himself in computer developments within the Shell organisation and corres~ be found Bullard's Bullard ponded on this subject with Lord Rothschild, a director, and Shell personnel. The correspondence is arranged in a chronological sequence. For papers written by Bullard for Shell, see E.214-E.226. For lecture given by Bullard for Shell, see G.145. E.189 1949 (1 letter only) August-December 1955 March-April 1956 May-July 1956 .190 Hy t 4 January-February 1956 January-February 1957 Includes a 3pp. typescript note by Bullard on two papers by P. Leicester, another copy of which appears at E.214. September-October 1956 November-December 1956 Et CSA . Bullard C 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies March 1957 April-June 1957 July-October 1957 Includes 6pp. typescript paper by Bullard on 'The Application of the Mass-Spectrometer to the Study of Sediments’. March-May 1958 July-August 1958 September-October 1958 Includes 2pp. typescript, 'Notes on discussions on recovering a wire with Cable and Wireless Ltd. and with the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Co. Ltd.'. January-April 1959 May-June 1959 November-December 1958 Includes Ip. typescript note on an all metal high-vacuum valve. April-July 1960 July-November 1959 January-March 1960 E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies September-December 1960 Includes internal memorandum, Contract). at Cambridge, 19 October 1960'. Notes on Discussions with Sir Edward Bullard 'Excavated Hole Storage (Conch January-March 196] April- June 196] July, October-December 1961 1963 Brief correspondence re grants from Shell to University Research Departments. -214-E. 222 Papers written by Bullard for Shell, arranged in chrono- logical order. Spp. typescript. "Notes on two papers by Mr. P. Leicester’, June 1956. Leicester's papers had suggested a systematic procedure for assessing the prospects of discovering oil in an area. 'The downward projection of potential fields', February 1957. Spp. typescript. Lecture given by Bullard at University College, London, as part of a short course for science teachers organised by Shell. ‘Operational Research in the Oil Industry', March 1957. Spp. typescript, with ms. additions and corrections, aes | App. typescript. ‘Geophysics ~ Oil Exploration’, 2 April 1957. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/84 Committees and consultancies 'The work of the Geophysical Analysis Group of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’, July 1957. 7pp., 13pp. appendix and Ip. references, typescript with ms. corrections. 'The Application of the Mass~Spectrometer to the Study of Sediments’, October 1957. épp. typescript. 'The location of fires in oil sands', 1 November 1957. App. typescript with a few ms. additions and corrections. "Location of a position at sea', 1] September 1958. Spp. typescript, figures, and ms. additions. 'The balance of short and long term research’ lOpp. typescript. Second draft. E. 22076. 226 Undated papers written by Bullard for Shell. 'The distant future of the oil industry', October 1960. 5pp. typescript with figures and tables of oil consumption. used in the preparation of the paper. 2pp. typescript preliminary notes on California oil fields, ms. drafts of figures for paper and notes and calculations "Note on California Oilfields' 7pp. typescript with figures. E.C. Bullard CSAC 100/4/8 Committees and consultancies 'The relation between the record given by the seismic method proposed by Hales and by an ordinary seismograph'. 'The interpretation of seismic data’. 3pp. typescript by B.C. Browne found with Bullard's Shell papers. Miscellaneous papers relating to computer development at Shell, 1959-60. Miscellaneous unidentified ms. notes found with Shell material. SMIDTH, F.L. & COMPANY LIMITED, 1946 WARBURG, S.G. & COMPANY LIMITED, 1957 Brief correspondence re appointment of a scientific consultant. Brief correspondence and report on the probable effect of blasting by Cement Limited, Dublin. scientists. Bullard declined the position and suggested other suitable