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CSAC 115/6/86 CONTEMPORARY SCIENTIFIC ARCHIVES CENTRE British National Committee for the History of Science, Medicine and Technology under the guidance of the Royal Society’s Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of EGON BRETSCHER CBE (1901 - 1973) Compiled by Jeannine Alton and Peter Harper Deposited in Churchill College Archives Centre, Cambridge 1986 All rights reserved E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 The work of the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre, and the production of this catalogue, are made possible by the support of the following societies and institutions: The Biochemical Society The Charles Babbage Foundation for the History of Information Processing The Institute of Physics The Institution of Electrical Engineers The Institution of Mechanical Engineers The Nuffield Foundation The Rhodes Trustees The Royal Society of London The Wolfson Foundation E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 LIST OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Items SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL & PERSONAL A.1-A.62 SECTION B SWITZERLAND B.1-B.8 SECTION C CAMBRIDGE €.1-C.18 SECTION D "TUBE ALLOYS" D.1-D.105 SECTION E LOS ALAMOS E.1-E.29 SECTION F ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT, HARWELL F.1-F.180 SECTION G VISITS G.1-G.14 SECTION H CORRESPONDENCE H.1-H.80 INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS 1] 12 15 29 33 56 63 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 INTRODUCTION PROVENANCE 2 The material derives from two sources. The major part was received from Mrs. Bretscher at various dates 1984-86. Some of the papers relating to research, committees, lectures and publications during Bretscher's period at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, and not required by the Public Record Office, were received from Harwell in 1984 and are included in Section F of the present catalogue. OUTLINE OF THE CAREER OF EGON BRETSCHER Bretscher was born in ZUrich and educated at Eidgendssische Technische Hochschule (ETH) for which he retained a lasting affection. He obtained his diploma in chemical engineering at E.T.H. and spent 1925-27 in Edinburgh working for his doctorate in the department of chemistry (Sir James Walker). After a further period at E.T.H. he was awarded a Rockefeller Fellowship, held at the Cavendish Laboratory 1934-35; Rutherford invited him to return to Cambridge in 1936 and he remained there as Clerk Maxwell Scholar (1936-39) and Lecturer (1939-44). His work on nuclear physics led to his involvement in the British atomic bomb research project “Tube Alloys" and his membership of the British Mission to the Manhattan District Scientific Laboratory at Los Alamos from early 1944 where he worked in Fermi's Advanced Development After the war, he returned to Britain and joined the newly-establ ished Division. A.E.R.E. at Harwell, first as head of the Chemistry Division, then from 1948 as head of the Nuclear Physics Division. He was awarded the C.B.E. in 1966, the year of his retirement from Harwell. DESCRIPTION OF THE COLLECTION The collection, though not exhaustive, includes some useful material on Bretscher's career and some of the momentous events in which he participated. Of interest in Section A (Biographical and Personal) are A.5 Bretscher's own ‘Survey of activities during the war and with the A.E.R.E.', compiled in 1964 and A.6, a E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 4 lecture given at Harwell in 1967 on 'Wartime nuclear physics and chemical research at the Cavendish Laboratory 1940-44 associated with atomic weapons’. Section C (Cambridge) contains a little material on the early stages of Bretscher's atomic research (C.2-C.4) and his collaboration with D.E. Lea(C.5); the notes of a ‘Private Colloquium with Fermi’ (C.6) are of interest but probably belong to a later period. Section D documents in considerable detail the work undertaken at the Cavendish Laboratory for the "Tube Alloys" project and includes contemporary research notes and reports by members of the team, reports prepared for the Maud Committee and the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, and later work relating to post- war publication of the wartime research. Bretscher's regular exchanges of corres~ pondence with Chadwick are also included here. Section E (Los Alamos) includes some research reports and Bretscher's account of his activities (E.10) as well as various contemporary bulletins and newsletters. Section F (A.E.R.E. Harwell) is the fullest in the collection and is of interest in documenting Bretscher's involvement in national and international nuclear data committees, and his interest in maintaining collaboration with universities and research institutions. There is a short Section G (Visits) which includes several visits to Russia and related background reports; the surviving correspondence is to be found in Section H. E., Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 SECTION A BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL A.1-A.62 A.1 -A.6 Biographical and autobiographical Aid “Be? Diaries A.28-A.61 Career A.62 Photographs BIOGRAPHICAL AND AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 Obituary notice, Nature, 244, 3 August 1973 (by M.M. Gowing). Photocopy. Miscellaneous cvs and autobiographical summaries for various reference books. Bibliographies prepared 1954, 1964 for Poggendorff-Redaktion, listing publications by name of journal. Bibliographies 1960, 1964. ‘Survey of activities during the war and with the A.E.R.E.' 8pp. typescript account prepared by Bretscher (for A.E.R.E.), October 1964. variations from final version. Miscellaneous typescript and ms. drafts with Miscellaneous brief notes by Bretscher: on his retirement from Harwell and return to Cambridge; crucial dates in development of atomic bomb 1939-41; note on A.E.R.E.; personal data. 'Wartime Nuclear Physics and Chemical Research at the Cavendish Laboratory Cambridge (1940-44) associated with atomic weapons. ' 10pp. typescript and ms. January 1967: his departure for America, including the origin of the name 'Plutonium' for element 94. draft for slide lecture given at Harwell Bretscher's account of events and personnel up to E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 DIARIES A.7 A.8 A.9 Biographical and autobiographical Small black hardback notebook, paginated 1-141, used as diary. Entries run 10 November 1918-4 April 1919. In German. Black hardback notebook used as diary. 29 December 1944, 16 November-27 December 1946. used. Entries run 10 July- Few pages Small spiralback notebook; miscellaneous notes on travel, expenses, addresses, career plans, some scientific notes. Ip. dated 1946. 1948 HMSOdiary. Begins 'Today | am taking over Nuclear Physics Division'. Not all pages used. Black looseleaf notebook of 'Lefax' pages, various dates 1954-63 and many undated. Very mixed content, some personal entries but mainly scientific; includes notes on experiments and data on nuclear power, notes for meetings, lectures, committees; travel expenses for self and colleagues, salary scales, etc. A.12 A.13 1959 pocket diary. Few pages used. 1966 HMSOdiary. A.14-A.27 Tagged sequences of 'Lefax' diary pages A.14 A.15 A.16 A.17 A.18 A.19 A.20 1953 1954 1955 1957 1958 1959 1959-60 A.21 A.22 A.23 A.24 A.25 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 A.26 1972 Miscellaneous loose A.27 pages, and Ilpp. sequence perhaps of notes at conference, n.d. The content is similar to A.11 and includes much information on research, meetings, lectures given and attended, conferences and travel by Bretscher and colleagues at Harwell. See also F.6. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 CAREER A.28 Biographical and autobiographical School and university. Entlassungs und Maturitdts-Zeugnis, Realgymnasium, Zurich, October 1921, and list of former pupils issued for 100th anniversary of school in 1933. Two reports, October 1923 and April 1925, from Eidgendssiche Technische Hochschule, Zurich. Letter from H. Staudinger offering Bretscher a place to work under his direction in analytical chemistry laboratory of E.T.H., May 1925. A.29 Correspondence 1927-34 from friends at Edinburgh. Bretscher spent 1925-January 1927 in the department of Sir James Walker working for a doctorate on 'Influence of substitution by the methoxy group on the optical rotatory powers of the menthyl naphthoates' . Material includes congratulatory note signed by colleagues and later (1966) correspondence re expansion of Edinburgh University . Correspondence and papers 1934 re Bretscher's support from Rockefeller Foundation to work with Rutherford at Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, for a year from October 1934. Includes application, references, correspondence exchanged with P. Scherrer (Director, ZUrich EidgenUssische Technische Hochschule), Rutherford, Debye, Rockefeller Foundation, Bretscher's report on his work. Correspondence 1934 re Bretscher's ‘Habilitation’. Correspondence 1936 with M.L. Oliphant on research, career plans, proposed return to Cambridge. Invitation from Rutherford, 1936, to 'spend the next few years mainly at research in the Cavendish Laboratory’ as Clerk Maxwell Scholar. Included here is Ip. note of 'A few recollections of Lord Rutherford whilst | was at the Cavendish Laboratory’. A.30 A.3]1 A.32 A.33 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 A.34 A.35 A.36 A.37 A.38 A.39 A.40 A.41-A.47 Biographical and autobiographical Shorter correspondence re retum to Cambridge, registration as research student, membership of Fitzwilliam House, 1936. Leverhulme Fellow and Lecturer in Physics, Liverpool. and correspondence 1938. Application Brief correspondence 1938 re sale of journals. Letter from E.T.H. Zurich thanking Bretscher for his work as Privatdozent, 1939. Letter re house in Cambridge, 1939. Contract with J. Springer, for book on nuclear physics by Bretscher and N. Kemmer, 1939. Letter granting Bretscher leave from research 'for the duration of the period of the present emergency’, 1940. Invitation from H. Halban to apply for chair of physical chemistry E.T.H. Zurich (declined by Bretscher because of pressure of work and its sensitive nature), 1942. Naturalisation certificate (photocopy) 1944 and related correspondence, 1945-4 6. Postwar career plans. Bretscher left Britain in January 1944 to join the Manhattan Project. Withthe end of hostilities and the conclusion of the project, he explored various career openingsin Britain, America and elsewhere. He was attracted by the idea of a return to Cambridge and the Cavendish Laboratory but the terms and conditions of the appointment as eventually put to him were unsatisfactory. He also gave serious consideration to posts at Syracuse (N.Y.) and at Liverpool (with Chadwick) eventually accepting Cockcroft's offer of the direction of the chemistry division This period of considerable uncertainty at the new A.E.R.E., Harwell. is often alluded to in correspondence elsewherein the collection as well as in the folders below. Correspondence July 1945-March 1946 with W.L. Bragg A.4l re Lectureship at Cambridge - Bragg asked Bretscher if he might 'put your name forward' and the appoint- ment was posted in the Cambridge Reporter but not formally notified to Bretscher. February 1946, and he declined to accept them. Details of his proposed position were sent by Bragg in E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Biographical and autobiographical Correspondence with Chadwick February-December 1946. A.42 Mainly on posts at Cambridge, Liverpool, Harwell. letter 20 February and Chadwick's reply 26 February give their recollections of early work on plutonium, Maud Committee, etc. Bretscher's A.43 at Harwell. Later correspondence with Chadwick, 1948, re conditions Correspondence with Cockcroft, 1944-45. Mainly re A.44 Cambridge post, and includes 6pp. draft of postwar development plans for the Cavendish. Correspondence with Cockcroft, 1946. Mainly plans A.45 for Harwell, conditions of Bretscher's appointment and responsibilities. Includes letter from R. Spence. A.46 Correspondence with Cockcroft, 1947. Includes letter and memorandum by Bretscher on organisation of Harwell and his taking over responsibility for Nuclear Physics Division. A.47 at Cavendish Laboratory, 1945-46. Correspondence with W.E. Burcham re posts and research Two letters (carbons only) re possible post at Zurich, 1945. A.48 Certificate of election as Fellow, American Physical Society, 1946. Application for Chair of Physics, Reading University, 1946. A.49-A.53 Harwell. (See also E.6-E.9, and Section F, especially F.1-F.61.) Miscellaneous shorter correspondence, 1947-48, re A.49 arrangements for removal from America, settling in at Harwell. A.50 1954. Miscellaneous letters of appointment, 1946, 1948, 1949, A.51 Houses at Harwell. A.52 A.53 Miscellaneous financial, F.S.S.U., etc. Miscellaneous shorter personal correspondence. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 A. 54 A.55 A.56 A.57 Biographical and autobiographical 10 Correspondence 1948, 1960, 1964 re proposed election to Royal Society. Correspondence and papers re Chair of Physics, Berne, 1951-52. Correspondence 1954 re Swiss atomic energy project and possibility of Bretscher being Director or consultant. See also F.116-F.119. Retirement from Harwell. Miscellaneous correspondence 1964-67, press-cuttings, Bretscher's letter of thanks for farewell party, etc. A.58 Award of C.B.E., 1966. Letters of congratulation, A.E.R.E. notice of award. A.59 A.60 A.6l Correspondence 1966 re proposed consultancy at National Physical Laboratory . Churchill College, Cambridge. Dining rights, battels, guest nights, etc., 1967-72. Miscellaneous social invitations, signed menus, etc. PHOTOGRAPHS A.62 Photograph of 'H.T. research team Xmas 1943', with identifications provided by Mrs. Bretscher 1986. Portrait photograph of Bretscher (photocopy). E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 11 SECTION B SWITZERLAND B.1-B.8 Very little remains of Bretscher's early work in Switzerland, despite his long association with the E.T.H. Zurich as undergraduate and later Assistant and Privatdozent for Physics under P. Scherrer. B.1 B.2 B.3 B.4 B.5 B.6 Softback exercise book inscribed '1928 Physik Praktikum' . Mainly notes on work of Millikan, Zeeman effect. Few pages used. l4pp. typescript and ms. copy of Gauss's Discourse on infinite series 1812 (in Latin), and ms. notes by Bretscher on verso of documents of ZUrich Kantonalbank. Softbacked exercise book (cover lost). Miscellaneous notes, results, calculations. Both ends of book used. All in German except few pages at beginning by Bretscher and another, headed ‘Substitution of the phenyl groups by the naphthyl radical’ and perhapsrelated to doctorate work at Edinburgh, 1925-27. Typescript and ms. notes on beta-naphthol (on verso of ZUrich Kantonalbank writing -paper). Softback notebook of miscellaneous notes, in English. used . Few pages Meeting of Faraday Society, Oxford, April 1934. on 'Determination and Interpretation of Dipole Moments', was intro- duced by Debye; Bretscher gave a paper on 'The temperature variation of the dielectric constant of ionic crystals’. The meeting, Notices of meeting, brief correspondence re arrangements. B.7, B.8 Correspondence and papers re work on dielectric constant of crystals, 1934-35. B.7 Bretscher's notes and working papers. B.8 H. Saini. Correspondence with M. Blackman, P.W. Bridgman, E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 12 SECTION C CAMBRIDGE C.1-C.18 C.1-C.7 Research C.8-C.18 Lectures and teaching. The surviving research material is unfortunately scanty. For Bretscher's contri- bution to the UK nuclear physics "Tube Alloys" project during his Cambridge period, see Section D. RESEARCH C.1 'The transmutation of heavy elements’. Reprint of lecture by Rutherford at Royal Institution, March 1937; Bretscher's contribution is acknowledged on p.5. C2 Koad C.4 C.5 Small softback notebook, inscribed inside front cover 'Bretscher Cavendish Laboratory Cambridge’ . Notes on various elements, mainly thorium; almost all in German. Few dates; Office 1943. Ip. dated 1938, Ip. ref. 1942 and Ip. ref. to Patent See also D.57-D.62. Softback notebook, inscribed inside front cover 'N. Feather. Chemical Room'. First entry, in Feather's hand, is on 'lonium (material from Manchester)! and dated October 1937. July 1938. Rest of entries are by Bretscher, January- 33pp. draft for lecture or paper on 'hot expansion chamber’ (based on C.T.R. Wilson's cloud chamber). Typescript with ms. corrections and additions in more than one hand but mainly Bretscher's; n.d.; latest reference 1939. Brief material only, re collaborative work with D.E. Lea. Includes letter from Lea proposing publication of 'neutrons-on~-bacteria experiments’ as a joint paper, September 1940 (published J.Hygiene, 41, 1941), and letter, July 1942, re angular distribution of neutron emission by ionisation method (see D.21). Also included is later correspondence, 1964, re proposed collected works of Lea. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Cambridge 13 Loose -leaf ringback binder, American format. front cover: 'Private Colloquium with Fermi dynamics', n.d. Inscribed inside Quantum electro- Includes several sequences of ms. pencil notes, one paginated 1-14, others on ‘Relativistic theory', 'Theory of scattering of radiation’, ‘Quantum electrodynamics', 'Solid State - neutron interaction’. See also F.167 which suggests a date of 1946 for this notebook. C.7 Black springback binder, paginated 1-73, with additional unnumbered pages and a few pagesused at rear. Miscellaneous notes in German and English, probably made over several years. LECTURES AND TEACHING C.8 Miscellaneous outlines for lecture courses, none dated, probably late 1930s. "Atomic & Nuclear Physics', 2pp. ms. outline for course of 15 lectures, in the hand of N. Feather. 5pp. typescript outline for various courses over an academic year. ‘Atoms & Nuclei', 1p. note by Bretscher. Miscellaneous ms. notes for lectures, no titles or dates. Notes for course of 13 lectures, October-December 1940. Notes for lectures February-March 1940. Notes for lectures April, May 1940 (not a completeset). Notes for extended course of 21 lectures, November 1940-February 1941. Notes for course of 13 lectures, April-May 1941. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Cambridge 14 Notes for extended course of 22 lectures, January-March 1942. Notes for course of 7 lectures, May 1942. Ip. (only) of '22nd lecture 15 Feb. 1943'. C.17 C.18 Small notebook 'Supervision 1942', with alphabetical thumb index. Entries run 1940-43. Miscellaneous examination questions and papers, 1940-43, including suggestions from N. Feather, H. Lipson, D. Shoenberg. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 15 SECTION D "TUBE ALLOYS" D.1-D.105 D.1-D.85 RESEARCH AT CAVENDISH LABORATORY, CAMBRIDGE D.1 -D.5 Bretscher's notes and drafts D.6 -D.35 Research reports by co-workers D.36-D.42 Maud Committee reports D.43-D.56 D.S.I.R. reports D..8/7=D.62 Patents D.63-D.85 Postwar publication D.86-D.101 CORRESPONDENCE D.102-D.105 MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS For a full historical account of the work done under the code-name "Tube Alloys", given to the British atomic energy project, the origins, membership, work and report of the Maud Committee and its successor organisation, and the contribution to the nuclear energy project of the many teams and invididual scientists engaged on it, see Margaret Gowing, Britain and atomic energy 1939-45, 1964. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 "Tube Al loys" 16 D.1-D.85 RESEARCH AT THE CAVENDISH LABORATORY Bretscher's notes and drafts. D.1 Red exercise-book, inscribed 'U' on cover and name and address (Cavendish Laboratory) inside. Opening sequence 'Uranium experiments Extensive notes, drafts, calculations on various topics connected with nuclear research, few entries dated and book probably used over several years. Calculations' is paginated 1-10 and p.10 is dated 1 October 1941; next page is intercalated with notes written on Harwell letter paper. Most entries are in black ink, with additions sometimes added in red. Later pages continue notes and calculations, but have some longer sequences of drafts and narratives on fast neutrons, cooling, 'theory of piles', etc. and include sequence on 'Slowing down combined with diffusion of thermal neutrons' written in biro and perhaps mid 1940s. DZ D.3 D.4 Notebook, covers missing, several pages affected by damp and some loose. Both ends used. é' At front of book, entries headed 'Ist work' (on uranium) various dates, 8 November 1938-28 January 1939. At rear of book are more extensive notes, calculations, aides-mémoire on a variety of topics including notes for work by co-workers, letters to be written, Ip. notes 'Maud meeting 9.4.41.' (see D.38), drawings of apparatus, 'Jobs to be done in London’, ‘Points to be settled’, ‘Problems needing attention’, ‘Malvern - Runcorn - Liverpool trip’, etc. A few pages bear various dates 1 March (1941)-24 October 1943; also included are several lists of 'jobs to be done before leaving’ (for USA ) perhaps December 1943. Extensive sequence of notes on the literature of nuclear physics, on loose pages. red perhaps added later. All ms., a few with annotations or underscorings in Ms. notes by Bretscher. Ip. 'Tube Alloy report numbers’. Ip. damp-stained 'Notes concerning Maud report ... Fast neutron affair’. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 "Tube Alloys" 17 D.5 3pp. ms. notes made by Bretscher from the diaries of H. Halban (in UKAEA archives), for 1943 and 1944. For other notes by Bretscher see Maud Committee reports, especially D.36, D.37 Research notes and reports by co-workers The material is presented in alphabetical order by name and may include ms. and typescript notes, graphs and diagrams, brief letters on results or progress, or more complete typed-up reports for communication to Directorate of Tube Alloys research at Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. See D.43-D.56 for a set of the reports as sub- mitted. See also D.63-D.85 D.6-D.9 G.B. Cook Contents of original folder inscribed 'Cook's reports’ . D.6 May, September, October, December 1942, December 1943. Brief ms. ‘Monthly Reports', February, March, April, D.7 and 'Extraction of UX ... by adsorbents’. Brief ms. notes by Cook on research in hand, on wax, D.8 Bretscher and another. Miscellaneous notes, charts, calculations by Cook, D.9 Reports by Cook, none dated. 'The preparation of uranium films by the pyridine method’. 'The preparation of the metallic carbonyls and related compounds'. ‘Electrolytic preparation of UOsfilms’. 'The concentration of element 93', 14pp. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 D.10-D.14 N. Feather "Tube Alloys" 18 Contents of original folder inscribed 'Feather's reports’ . D.10 239 92 U_ "Absorption measurements on the radiations from and 239, 93% 1 Report describing work December 1940-June 1941, n.d. and Figures 1-13, both in Feather's original labelled envelopes. 15pp. typescript D.11 general report, January 1942. Reports on delayed neutrons, July, August (2) 1941, D.12 Reports on fast neutron scattering, March (2), June 1942. 'Note on the radiations and isotropic assignment of the D.13 50-year radioelement 94', n.d., mid 1942, with ms. notes and diagrams. D.14 November 1942. Report on 'Neutron-produced radioactivity ...', D.15-D.19 A.P. French Contents of original folder inscribed 'A.P. French’. D.15 January, April-December 1943 and Ip. note on work with E.B.M. Martin. Brief ms. monthly reports, September-December 1942, D.16 sent to Bretscher in America, June 1944. Letter, 12pp., and 6 figures reporting results of 'H-D method’, D.17 French, January 1944 (A.E.R.E. Harwell copy marked 'Declassified'). ‘Neutron flux measurements', report by Bretscher and ‘Measurement of a neutron flux in the presence of gamma D.18 rays', report by Bretscher and French, September 1944 (A.E.R.E. Harwell copy marked 'Declassified'). ‘Electromagnetic radiation and angular correlations’, D.19 duplicated typescript of lectures given by French at Cavendish, June 1950. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 "Tube Alloys" 19 D.20 O.R. Frisch 'Test for short-delay neutron', 2pp., n.d. D.21 L.H. Gray 'The lonisation method of measuring neutron energy’. A8pp.+ 4pp. references, typescript with ms. corrections and additions, for paper published in Proc.Cam.Phil.Soc., 40, 1944. Gray was then working as radiologist at the Mount Vernon Hospital and was not directly a member of the Cavendish group. His work howeveris referred to by Bretscher in D.2 and in several of the reports and has therefore been included here. D.22 H.H. v. Halban "Discussion of the composition and constitution of uranium~containing systems in view of producing a divergent nuclear reaction-chain', with ms. note at end '9 pages and one page concluding remarks existing in 6 copies'. Some ms. corrections in the hand of L. Kowarski with whom Halban left France in 1940; n.d., prepared for Maud Committee. (This is copy no.5.) D.23, D.24 L. Kowarski Letter from Kowarski (in Cambridge) to Halban (at Montreal) D.23 on research progress, 27 September 1943, with a ms. headnote (addressee unknown, perhaps Bretscher) beginning 'I am not sure whetherthis letter was forwarded to Halban. Perrin [Sir Michael Perrin J was of the opinion that | ought to have a talk with you first’. D.24 by natural uranium’, October 1943. Report 'A critical survey ... absorption of thermal neutrons D.25, D.26 E.B.M. Martin (formerly Murrell) Contents of original folder inscribed 'Mrs. Martin’. D.25 Brief ms. monthly reports, May-December 1943. D.26 no year. 3pp. note on ‘adsorption of UX', various dates in October, E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 D.27, D.28 G.R. Martin "Tube Alloys" 20 Contents of original envelope inscribed 'G. Martin's reports (Tube Alloys)’ D.27 D.28 Brief ms. monthly reports, March-December 1943. Undated ms. notes of work in hand or projected. D.29-D.31 D.H. Peacock Contents of original folder inscribed 'Peacock's reports’. D.29 Brief ms. reports and letters, March-June 1942. D.30 by Bretscher and another. Ms. research notes and calculations by Peacock, annotated D.31 ‘Report on Uranium X' by Peacock, 2pp. 'Uranium X', 7Zpp. no author. 2 copies. 'The extraction of element 93', 5pp., no author. 2 copies. D.32 M.J. Poole Contents of original folder inscribed 'Poole reports’ . Brief ms. monthly reports, March-December 1943. D.33 C.J. Wilkins Contents of original folder inscribed 'Wilkins reports’. Brief ms. monthly reports, August, September 1943. Two ms. research notes, September, October 1943. D.34, D.35 D.H. Wilkinson Contents of original folder inscribed 'Wilkinsons reports’. D.34 for October presented in the form of a Shakespearean sonnet). Brief monthly reports, September -December 1943 (report D385 fast neutrons’ by Wilkinson and E. Broda, January 1945. Report 'The radiative capture cross section of U238 for E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 "Tube Alloys" 21 Maud Committee reports and notes The Maud (more correctly M.A.U.D.) Committee was set up with G.P. Thomson as Chairman in March 1940, at first within the Ministry of Aircraft Production (M.A.P.) and later transferred to the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (D.S.I.R.) as the Directorate of Tube Alloys. D.36 Contents of Bretscher's folder inscribed 'Pu-story', containing ms. notes, drafts, calculations and diagrams of various dates, several probably 1940. Includes Ip. outline points for 'D.S.I.R. report’, n.d., on 93, 94, UX, etc.; 2pp. 'Report on our experiments concerning element 93! beginning 'The following considerations (Autumn 1940) have lead Esic J us to embark on experiments to investigate some of the properties of elements 93 and 94'; 8pp. miscellaneous otherdrafts, notes, calculations. D.37 ‘Report on work carried out in Cambridge Sept.-Dec. 1940'. Presented to Maud Committee December 1940. There are three reports, all dated 19 December, as follows: ‘Report | llpp., by Halban and Kowarski. Interaction of slow neutrons with heavy water ...', 'Report Il and Feather. Experiments involving element 94', 3pp., by Bretscher ‘Attempt to determine the fission cross-section of uranium ...', 3pp., by Bretscher. Also included in folder is 1p. undated ms. note by Bretscher ‘Critical energies for fission for various nuclei’. ‘Summary of the report given at the meeting of the MAUD Committee on 9th April’ £1941 J. A4pp., by Bretscher. 'Extracts from a report to the MAUD Committee in May 1941". 2pp., by Bretscher, on 'SpontaneousFission’ (sequel to report presented on 9 April, see D.38). Included here is letter from Cockcroft, April 1941, requesting report on Bretscher's work on '94' (Plutonium). D.38 D.39 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 "Tube Alloys" 22 D.40 ‘Outline report ... Sept.1940-30 Nov. 1941’. 8pp. on uranium radiation and on delayed neutrons , both by Feather. D.41 D.42 "Proposition for determination of the contents of heavy water ...' 2pp. copy of note by Halban re heavy water brought to Britain by Kowarski and himself. Included here is miscellaneous shorter correspondence re work and meetings of Maud Committee, July 1940-July 1941. Copy of report by M.L. Oliphant on his conversations on American research and possible UK collaboration with E.O. Laurence, H.C. Urey and G.B. Pegram, September 1941; sent to N. Feather in advance of visit by Pegram and Ureyto Britain to investigate state of uranium research. D.S.1.R. Reports This is Bretscher's designation on the original folder. Some of the reports are by named individuals on specific problems, but the majority are monthly reports usually titled 'for the Directorate of Tube Alloys of the D.S.I.R.' (Department of Scientific and Industrial Research). All are typescript carbon copies in fragile condition and damp-stained. D.43 'Preliminary short report concerning the experiments with element 93 (Neptunium) carried out during 1941’. 8pp. by Bretscher. D.44 'The concentration of element 93 ...' l4pp. by G.B. Cook. D.45 'The extraction of element 93 ...' 5pp., not signed. D.46 Monthly reports, February, March, April 1942. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 D.47 D.48 D.49 ‘Tube Alloys" Monthly reports, May, June, July 1942. Monthly reports, August, September, October 1942. 23 ‘Separate measurement of the elastic and inelastic scattering cross- sections of fast neutrons in heavy elements', 13 October 1942. lépp. marked 'Secret', not signed, ms. additions not in Bretscher's hand. Monthly reports, November, December 1942. Monthly reports, January, February, March 1943. D.52 Monthly reports, April, June 1943 (no surviving report for May). Monthly reports, July, August 1943. 'A method of measuring ... inelastic scattering of fast neutrons ... and the energy spectrum of the secondary neutrons ...', August 1943. 24pp. +2 Appendixes, by B.B. Kinsey. Monthly reports, September-December 1943. Review of work of Cambridge Slow Neutron Group, February - November 1943. 2pp. by Kowarski. For other reports and material on theTube Alloys" project, see D.63-D.85. Patents D.57 Documents on 'Case "L" ' (Improved process for the purification of uranium salts) and 'Case "M"'' (Process for the production of neptunium and plutonium), April 1942. Includes Draft Specification, corres pondence re suggested re-wording . Also included here are miscellaneous typescript drafts and documents, two dated April 1941 and signed by Bretscher, Feather, Halban and Kowarski, and others undated, probably later. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 D.58 D.59 D.60 D.61 D.62 "Tube Alloys" 24 ‘Agreement! re patenting applications of various inventions, signed by Bretscher, Feather, Appleton and Sir John Anderson, September 1942. See D.62 for later correspondence on this agreement. Correspondence and papers re U.S. Patents, 1943-44. Copies of patents filed by Bretscher and others, 1941, 1942 and sent to him 1953. List of patents filed by Halban and Bretscher, sent to him in 1959. various dates, 1940-42, Correspondence with R. Makins (Lord Sherfield) re 1942 'agreement' (D.58) and its possible continuing usefulness, 1964. Postwar Publication Wartime security regulations did not permit the publication of research reports other than for restricted circulation to official bodies. were revised and published, though in other cases the research was considered to have After the war, some of the papers been superseded (see especially D.74-D.81). The material below was kept in stiffbacked binders bearing the title and the 'BR' (i.e. the official report) number and is presented in that order. correspondence from the period of the original research or of later date, and is therefore similar or complementary to the research reports at D.6-D.35. It may include drafts and D.63 'The total neutron collision areas of some heavy metals’, by Bretscher and E.B.M. Murrell (later Martin q.v.), B.R. 136- Ip. typescript (several versions), figures and diagrams. Brief corres- pondence, 1948. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 "Tube Alloys" 20 D.64 D.65 "Determination of the collision cross-section of hydrogen, deuterium, carbon and oxygen for fast neutrons', by Bretscher and E.B.M. Martin. B.R. 137. Miscellaneous typescript drafts (some under Mrs. Martin's maiden name of Murrell), diagrams, brief correspondence 1944, reprint of paper as published in Helv.Phys. Acta, 23, 1950. ‘Determination of the number of neutrons emitted by a radium- beryllium source’, by Bretscher, A.P. French, G.R. Martin and M.J. Poole. B.R. 382. Typescript report, miscellaneous notes, calculations, drafts, some by Bretscher, several by A.P. French, one only dated (May 1943). D.66-D.73 ‘Preparation and properties of a reproducible neutron standard’, by Bretscher, G.B. Cook, G.R. Martin and D.H. Wilkinson. B.R. 383, later published in Proc.Roy.Soc., 196, 1949. D.66 but includes ‘Monthly Report July 1943' by C.J. Wilkins. Miscellaneous ms. notes, graphs, etc., mainly by Bretscher, D.67 'A neutron standard'. Cook and Martin, January 1944. note by Bretscher 'Where are the sources now', 1966. 9pp. typescript report by Bretscher, The Ip. attached index has a ms. D.68 corrections and revisions by collaborators. Miscellaneous drafts for published paper, includes ms. D.69 paper for publication in Proc.Roy.Soc. Correspondence with Chadwick, 1948, re submission of Correspondence and papers from G.B. Cook. Includes D.70 ‘Monthly reports’ January, March-November 1943 and miscellaneous other notes, drafts. D.7] paper, 1947, 1948. Correspondence with G.R. Martin re his section of the D.72 on neutron standard), 1946-48 (on publication). Correspondence with D.H. Wilkinson, 1944 (early research D.73 Bretscher's carbons sending copies of published paper, 1949. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 "Tube Alloys" 26 D.74-D.81 "Isolation and spontaneousfission of U(234)', by Bretscher, G.B. Cook, G.R. Martin, M.J. Poole. B.R. 384. D.74 +diagram. Original B.R. 384 report, February 1944, l4pp. typescript Miscellaneous notes, calculations, diagrams, etc. relating D.75 to work, not all by Bretscher, few dated but part of early stages of research. D.76 incorporating name of B.G. Harvey as well as original authors, 1952. Drafts for abstract and paper for later publication, D.77 of work on U234 and other projects), 1952 (possible publication). Correspondence, etc. from G.B. Cook, 1943 (programme D.78 publication. not to publish. Correspondence with B.G. Harvey, 1952, re possible Bretscher's letter 11 August gives reasons for deciding D.79 on U234 work), 1952 (possible publication). Correspondence, etc. with G.R. Martin, 1943 (report D.80 Correspondence and reports from D.H. Peacock, 1942. Correspondence and reports from M.J. Poole, January D.81 and July 1943, June 1944, and brief undated note objecting to later publication as research had been superseded. D.82, D.83 'Cross sections of U(25) and U(28)'. B.R. 385. ~ Ms. calculations, charts, diagrams and drafts, some by D.82 Bretscher but most in the hand of A.P. French, on Angular Distribution, Excitation Function, etc., some with dates in 1943. to paper published in Phys.Rev., 73, 1948. Perhaps related D.83 section ...'. "Determination of the U(235) and U(238) fission cross B.R. 385, by Bretscher, A.P. French and E.B.M. Martin. App. typescript +4 figures, January 1944. D.84 ‘Determination of U235 content of enriched uranium samples', by Bretscher and E.B.M. Martin. B.R. 425. 3pp. typescript report, November 1943, and photocopy; photographs of apparatus. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 "Tube Alloys" ay D.85 Correspondence 1948 with A.P. French re publication of joint paper on D-T reaction and Angular Distribution, published in Phys.Rev. 75, 1949. See also E.17. D.86-D.101 CORRESPONDENCE The correspondence with Chadwick (D.86-D.92) relates to the history and development of the "Tube Alloys" project as it concerned Bretscher and his co-workers from September 1940. D.96-D.100 are letters exchanged between Bretscher and various members of his group after his departure for America in 1944, with scientific, academic and personal news. D.86-D.92 Chadwick, J. 1940-45 D.86 D.87 D.88 D.89 D.90 D.91 1940 September -December 1941 December 1942 January - June 1942 July-December 1943 January-April 1943 May -September D.92 pondence on postwar career plans and research). 1944 (copy of cable only), 1945 (includes corres~- See also A.41-A.47. Monthly reports on research at Chadwick's laboratory in Liverpool are at D.102. D.93 Cook, G.B. March, October 1944 Letter of October is from Montreal. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 "Tube Alloys" 28 D.94 French, A.P. 1944-46 French joined the Los Alamos group in 1945. D.95, D.96 Martin, E.B.M. and Martin, G.R. 1944-46 Letters after August 1944 are from Montreal. D.95 1944 D.96 1945-46 D.97 D.98 D.99 D.100 D.101 Poole, M. J. Wilkins, C.J. Wilkinson, D.H. 1944-46 1944 1944-45 Bretscher's 'round robin' letter to members of the laboratory, n.d. c.April“May 1944. Miscellaneous shorter correspondence relating to wartime research, 1941-44. D.102-D.105 MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS D.102 D.103 D.104 D.105 Monthly reports from George Holt Physics Laboratory, Liverpool (Chadwick's laboratory), August 1942, July, September-December 1943, and Ip. ms. notes by Bretscher. Miscellaneouslists of British reports and manuscripts on "Tube Alloys". 3pp. typescript list of ‘Reports on work carried out in England’, and 'Reports on work carried out in America', n.d., latest reference August 1941. ‘Report on current German Literature’, August 1942. 3pp. typescript signed 'K.F.' and 'R.P.' (K. Fuchs and R.E. Peierls). "Note on positive ion sources', August 1945. App. typescript by A.G. Ward. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 29 SECTION E LOS ALAMOS E.1-E.29 E.! -£.9 PERSONAL CORRESPONDENCE AND MATERIAL, 1943-47 E108 219 RESEARCH AND REPORTS E.20-E.28 CIRCULARS AND NEWSLETTERS E29 PRESS-CUTTINGS Bretscher and his family left Britain in January 1944 to join the British Mission to the Manhattan District Scientific Laboratory at Los Alamos where he worked in Fermi's Advanced Development Division on deuterium-tritium reactions. He left to take up his post at Harwell at the end of 1946. E.1-E.9 PERSONAL CORRESPONDENCE AND MATERIAL, 1943-47 A chronological sequence mainly relating to financial matters, travel claims for consultations with colleagues in Britain and America, etc., and to Bretscher's regular cables of greetings or family news sent via the British Mission to his mother in Switzerland. Bretscher was also able to have small sums of money sent to her. El Faz E.3 E.4 E.5 E.6 E.7 E.8 Ee December 1943-March 1944. documents. Arrangements to leave Britain, travel 1944, March-June 1944, July-December 1945 1946, January-June. article on Bretscher and H. Staub for a Swiss publication. Includes notes and correspondence re biographical 1946, July-August. Arrangements to leave America. 1946, September. housing at Harwell. Visit to Chalk River; cables re appointment and 1946, October-December. Travel to Britain, housing at Harwell. Miscellaneous travel expenses for consultations with Chadwick, Halban and Oliphant, 1946. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 E.10-E.19 RESEARCH AND REPORTS Los Alamos 30 The exceptionally tight security at Los Alamos meant thatvirtually no personal research material remains. £.11-E.17 are final reports contributed to the sequence of 'L.A.' reports. Rather like the 'B.R.' reports at D.63-D.85, most were kept by Bretscher in stiff-backed binders with the L.A. number and are preserved in that order. E.10 Miscellaneous documents on research. Includes 3pp. typescript on ‘Activity since my arrival at Site Y' CLos Alamos; p.3 gives an account of previous work at Cambridge and lists papers by Bretscher and collaborators. Ip. note pasted on card, on ‘Extraction of 94'. Ip. calculations on 'Dragon theory', by O.R. Frisch. 'Fission cross section of 28 and 49 for 14 Mev neutrons’. No report no. 6pp. typescript ' Draft of fission cross section report’, no author but probably by Bretscher. E.12, E.13 'Slow-neutron disintegration of boron-10; search for the formation of Be(10), and estimate of the mean life of Be(10)'. LADC 338. Three typescript copies of paper, one dated 13 September E.12 1947, all with different deletions, ms. revisions and additions, inter- calated calculations. E.13 Miscellaneous charts, drafts, notes, calculations. E.14 "Energy loss of deuterons in D5O at very low energy’, LAMS 392. l4pp. typescript draft with some ms. corrections. l4pp. typescript corrected version. "Low-energy yield of D(D, e)H® and the angular distribution of the emitted protons', by Bretscher, A.P. French and F.G.P. Seidl. LADC 439. Two copies of report dated September 1947; later published in Phys. Rev., 73, 1948. 'Low-energy cross section of the D-D reaction and angulardistribution of the protons emitted', LA-581. 2lpp. typescript draft with appendix and figures, no author or date. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Los Alamos 31 E.17 ‘Low-energy cross section of the T-D reaction and angular distribution of the alpha particles emitted’. LA-595. l4pp. typescript draft, work related to report 581 at E.16. brief forwarding letter to E. Konopinski, June 1946. with A.P. French in Phys.Rev., 75, 1949. See also D.85. Includes Later published E.18 Ew? 'The effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki’. Report of United States Strategic Bombing Survey, June 1946. Official reports to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission on Nuclear Power Reactor Technology. '1-4 Historical of Manhattan Project’. Five items, with a ms. note by Bretscher E.20-E.28 CIRCULARS AND NEWSLETTERS E.20 E.21 E,22 E.23 E.24 Circulars and information bulletins for British personnel, 1944. Similar, 1945. Circulars and information bulletins from U.S. sources to Los Alamos personnel, November 1943, 1945. Similar, 1946. Miscellaneous copies of The Bulletin (published thrice weekly for workers on Los Alamos site). E.25, £.26 Material relating to Association of Los Alamos Scientists, formed 30 August 1945 'to promote the attainment and use of scientific and technological advances in the best interests of humanity’ . Includes press release ‘Motion for formation’ of association, copies of articles by N. Bohr, J.R. Oppenheimer, Sen. McMahon and others, account of Senate debate, and other documents re control of atomic energy. 2 folders. a E.27 Los Alamos Newsletter (published by Association of Los Alamos Scientists, at first weekly, later fortnightly). No.1 includes statement of aims and membership of committees. Nes. 1-10, 12-22, 25-31. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Los Alamos 32 E.28 Miscellaneous official announcements on development and dropping of atomic bomb, telegrams of congratulation, conferment of 'Army- Navy Production Award for high achievement in the production of war equipment’ on Los Alamos Laboratory. E.29 PRESS-CUTTINGS Newspapers and cuttings (Los Alamos Times, Santa Fe New Mexican, Denver Post) mainly 1945, 1946; includes photocopy of a retrospective article 1972. 1 box. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 33 SECTION F ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT, HARWELL, F.1 - F.180 F.1-F.6] BRETSCHER'S CAREER & RESEARCH F.62-F.123 COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH & PROJECTS U.K. Universities F.62-F.78 U.K. Institutions, laboratories & firms F.79-F.88 U.S.A. Universities and institutions F.89-F.108 Europe U.5,5.R. F.109-F.119 F.120-F.123 F.124-F.139 COMMITTEES F.140-F.180 LECTURES AND PUBLICATIONS The material in this Section comes from two different sources. Bretscher's own material includes the notebooks at F.1-F.6 and some of the research and committee folders. material on collaborative research and on publications was received from A.E.R.E. It should be noted that they Harwell as not required for the Public Record Office. The remaining research and committee folders, the are not necessarily the complete original file. their source, is similar and may include notes and calculations, minutes and notes of meetings or discussions, research reports, correspondence and related background material. The content of all the folders, whatever The 'collaborative research', especially that with universities in Britain (F.62- F.78), is of interest in documenting Bretscher's strong wish to maintain high research standards at Harwell. The committee material (F.124-F.139) though incomplete, reflects the importance he attached to the measurement and evaluation of nuclear data and his success in achieving international co-operation . E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 34 BRETSCHER'S CAREER AND RESEARCH F.1 Fae F.3 F.4 F.5 F.6 F.7 F.8 Fue Stationery Office notebook dated on cover 'June 1947' and inscribed 'Seanuts'. Entries run June-November. Few pages used. 'Seanuts' was the codename for the experiment to establish the con- ditions governing dilution and dispersion of effluents discharged into the sea off the Cumberland coast. Stationery Office notebook inscribed 'Italian'. Miscellaneous contents, few dated. Both ends of book used. Stationery Office notebook inscribed on cover 'for History'. Miscellaneous contents, few dated. Stationery Office notebook inscribed 'Timing Unit'. experimental results, not in Bretscher's hand. Notes at rear of book are in his hand. Notes and Linen-bound notebook, probably originally a diary, with many pages torn out. Now contains notes possibly of contributions to a conference. Lefax loose leaf diary, with index. Similar to A.11, A.14-A.27. Research notes and information. Minutes and Appendix of second meeting of Harwell Power Committee, July 1946. 'R.A.E.' Brief correspondence 1947 re temporary accommodation for Chemistry Division at R.A.E. Farnborough while buildings were completed. Shorter correspondencere visits and lectures (Bretscher's carbons only), 1947. F.10 ‘Formulae, graphs, tables’. Bretscher's folder so inscribed. undated but some early; miscellaneous printed tables and related material, some dated 1945, 1953. Includes ms. notes mainly on constants, E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 35 "The pile as a measuring instrument’. Folder of notes, drafts (including paper of that title, by Bretscher) and publications 'by Harwell staff and others, on measurement of fast and slow neutron sources. F.12, F.13 Drafts and papers by P.A. Egelstaff, kept with above, 1948 and later. 2 folders. F.14 F.15 Shorter correspondence on research and visits (Bretscher's carbons only), 1948, 1949. 'Radiothorium' Correspondence and memoranda, January-February 1949, February- March 1954. "Ion sources’ Diagrams, ms. notes, correspondence, notes of conference on ion sources, Amsterdam, November 1949. F.17 'Chemistry' Miscellaneous correspondence mainly with manufacturers re supplies and specimens. Various dates, 1949-62. F.18 'Crystals' Correspondence, notes of meetings, research notes and memoranda, supplies, etc. on scintillation crystals, April 1949-November 1964. F.19-F.21 "Pile theory' Contents of a folder so inscribed. F.19 37pp. ms. draft by Bretscher. Miscellaneous typescript drafts and research reports, by F.20 Bretscher and others, 'Age-velocity theory', 'Multiplying media’, "Pile kinetics', etc. F.21 Research reports by others, 1950. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 36 Rizhes ‘Pile Neutron Research Group' Correspondence, notes of meetings and visits, equipment and supplies, recruitment, finance, research notes and reports. reports are by P.A. Egelstaff who led the Group, which transferred from the Nuclear Physics Division to the Solid State Physics Division from 1 April 1965. Several of the F.22 July 1951-December 1956 F.23 January 1957-March 1965 F.24 F.25 F.26 Fo27 Letter (copy) from R.H. Dalitz on various aspects of neutron scattering, 1952. Report by B.T. Price on collaboration on A/-Mesonsat Aiguille du Midi, 1952. Shorter correspondence on Harwell organisation, visits, etc., 1953-55. "Fission Products’ Correspondence, memoranda, supplies, discussion meetings (meeting of May 1955 has a ms. note by Bretscher '8 men 3 years'), January 1955- July 1959. Comments by various members of Nuclear Physics Division on work on spectra measurements at Argonne Laboratory and similar work at Harwell. TOF sol ae: Includes programme for research on spectra. “1906. (Perhaps related Also included here is miscellaneous shorter correspondence on Harwell affairs, 1957. F228 "Xenon Production’ Correspondence, supplies, research report, January 1958-June 1960. 2? 'He3 Neutron Spectrometer' Correspondence, research notes and memoranda, March 1958-January 1960. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 37 F.30 Th230). "lonium ( Correspondence, memoranda, analyses, printed matter, etc., May- August 1957, 1960, January 1962-December 1963. Not a complete file. inside front cover. Narrative summary of project May 1958-December 1962 tagged F.31 "Spectrum Measurements. LIDO Two Block Experiment' Correspondence, memoranda, proposals, estimates and reports on project (in the charge of M.J. Poole), May 1959-January 1962. F432 "Lead - 208' Correspondence, memoranda, etc., mainly on sources of supply and extraction costs. F.33, F.34 "Pu - Be Sources’ Correspondence with colleagues and suppliers, memoranda, printed material. F.33 July 1959-September 1961. October 1961-December 1962, October 1964. F.34 'Summary of events concerning the availability of Pu/Be sources’ for the period July 1959-November 1961. Includes 3pp. F .35-F .37 'Mussbauer experiments and relevant literature’ Ms. notes by Bretscher. Ms. notes by W. Marshall with 13pp. F .35 typescript draft for lectures on 'The Missbauer effect and experiments in relativity’. F.36 on Mussbauer effect, January 1960, and papers on subject. Press release on papers by members of Nuclear Physics Division, F.37 Reprints and background material. F.38 'Tandem Generator’ Correspondence, research proposals and reports, notes of meetings, equipment, etc., September 1961-February 1966. Not a complete file 'Pt.1B' only. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 38 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell F.39 ‘Nuclear data for Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR)' Correspondence, memoranda, research reports, September 1962- July 1964. F.40 F.41 F.42 Shorter correspondence on Harwell affairs, 1960-62. Miscellaneous ms. notes by Bretscher on DNA, RNA, Genetic code, c.1962. "Nuclear data for resonance reactors’ Ms. notes, correspondence, research reports, related printed matter and references, few only dated 1963. F.43 "Isospin analogue states’ Research notes (not by Bretscher), related printed matter, n.d. 1960s. F.44, F.45 "Polarisation and nuclear orientation’ Correspondence, ms. notes, notes of meetings, research reports and related printed matter, 1963-66. 2 folders. F.46 F.47 Correspondence and papers on Boron 10 (part file only). dates, 1947-64. Various 'Ko° Experiment' Correspondence, notes, mainly on work of High Energy Physics Group at CERN, 1965. F.48 'Weak interaction, parity violation’ Correspondence, printed matter, 1965. F.49 Correspondence, reports and research ideas from members of Nuclear Physics Division, 1965-66. F.50-F .53 Few dated. Miscellaneous shorter notes by Bretscher. miscellaneous photographs of reactors and experiments. F.50 includes 4 folders. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 39 F.54-F.56 Miscellaneous drafts for Nuclear Physics Division Progress Reports, some heavily-corrected by Bretscher. Mainly 1965, but also 1963. 3 folders. F.57 F.58 Foe F.60 F.61 Miscellaneous shorter correspondence (almost entirely Bretscher's carbons) on staff, visits, promotions, research, appointments, 1966. Miscellaneous information re Harwell and outstations, lists of projects, personnel, committee structure, age-groups, etc., c.1966-68. Miscellaneous correspondence 1966-68 mainly re Bretscher's post- retirement consultancy, expense claims, attendance at conferences, arrangements for historical lecture on early Cambridge atomic research (see A.6). Correspondence 1968, re organisation and re boron pile. Continuing shorter correspondence, mainly re consultancy, 1969-72. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 40 COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND PROJECTS Most, though not all, of this material was received from the A.E.R.E. It reflects the wide-ranging nature of the collaboration which Harwell tried to foster in its capacity as a research establishment. The folders may contain, in varying proportions, any or all of the following: Advice on equipment, apparatus and supplies. Suggestions for research projects, arrangements or contracts for collaborative work, progress reports and results. Recruitment, appointments and funding, submission and examination of higher degrees. Exchanges of information, equipment, published reports. Visits and exchanges of personnel. Lectures, colloquia, conferences. U.K. universities F.62, F.63 Birmingham University F.62 1948-54 F.63 F.64 Bristol University 1948-60 1957-60 1958-63 F 65-F 67 Cambridge University Mainly the Cavendish Laboratory but includes some correspondence with other departments, and with overseas colleagues. 1947-65 F.65 1947-52 F.66 famous joke paper 'On the feasibility of coal-driven power stations’ . Includes original typescript draft of O.R. Frisch's 1953-58. F .67 1959-65 (part file only). E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 4] Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell F.68, F.69 Durham University 1942-56 Correspondence mainly with F.A. Paneth and G.R. Martin. F.68 wartime research. 1942, 1947-52. Includes correspondence re publication of F.69 of neutron sources, and progress reports. 1953-56. Mainly on proposed method for absolute calibration F.70 Edinburgh University: 1948-56, 1963-64 Research projects, physics teaching. F.7] F.72 F.73 F.74 Glasgow University 1956-59 Liverpool University 1955, 1964-65 Hire and loan of equipment; fast neutron detector. London University - Imperial College 1947, 1954, 1956-59 Accelerators; deuterium. London University - Queen Mary College, University College 1950-55, 1963 Brief exchanges only. F.75 Manchester University 195) =55 Shower experiments; neutron counters. F.76-F.78 Oxford University Correspondence on a wide variety of research projects, mainly with colleagues at the Clarendon Laboratory, but also at the Physical Chemistry Laboratory, the Department of Metallurgy and the Department of Nuclear Physics. 1948-65 F.76 1948-52 F.77 1953-56: Not a completefile. Continued E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 42 1958-65 F.78 collaborative work on ‘Applications of nuclear orientation to solid state physics', ‘Scattering of protons by deuterons’. Includes research agreements and reports on U.K. Institutions, laboratories and firms F.79 F.80 Admiralty Research Laboratory 1952-54 Associated Electrical Industries (A.E.1.) Research Laboratory 1951-52, 1963 Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (D.S.1.R.) 1955, 1961, 1964, 1965 Various research projects proposed or sponsored. Imperial Chemical Industries (1.C.1.) 1949-52 Medical Research Council Radiotherapeutic Research Unit 1949-52 F.84, F.85 National Physical Laboratory (N.P.L.) 1952-64 Mainly on collaborative work on calibration of neutron sources. F.84 1952, 1957-59 F.85 1959-64 F.86, F.87 United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment (UKAEA) Atomic Weapons Research Establishment (A.W.R.E.) 1955-63 F.86 1955-60. Actinide Isotopes in the U.K. F.87 1958-63 UKAEA Radiochemical Centre (R.C.C.) 1952-64 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 43 U.S.A. Universities, institutions and firms F.89 Aeronautical Research Laboratories 1960 Beryllium targets. F.20 American Institute of Physics 1957, 1962 Proposed 'Compilation Journal’. F.91, F.92 Brookhaven National Laboratory 1949-66 F.91 counters, fast neutron detector. 1949-52, 1965-66. Velocity selector, scintillation F.92 1953-58. Mainly neutron cross section compilation. F.93 California Institute of Technology 1950-56 F.94, F.95 University of Califomia, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory 1946-56 F.94 1946-52 F.9o 1953-56- Includes work on detection of free neutrino. Carnegie Institute of Technology 1949-50 Chicago University Institute for Nuclear Studies 1948-57 Columbia University Pulse height analyser, velocity selector. F.96 F.97 F.98 F.99 Cornell University F.100 General Dynamics Corporation 1955-57 1949-55 1956-57 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell F.101 High Voltage Engineering Corporation 1956 Brief correspondence only, on tandem generator. F.102 lowa State College 1952 Boron crystals. F.103 Massachusetts Institute of Technol ogy 1950-52 National Bureau of Standards 1949-58 F.105 Office of Naval Research 1951-65 Correspondence conducted with successive Scientific Liaison Officers at the Branch Office at American Embassy, London, on research, visits, lectures, etc. F.106 Stanford University 1952-57 Plastic scintillators; klystrons. F.107 F.108 Europe F.109 United States Atomic Energy Commission (UW SES. 1951-63 Miscellaneous shorter correspondence with colleagues in USA, requests for information, thanks for reports and publications, etc. 1952-61. Italy. University of Rome 1956-57 Mainly on linear accelerator. F.110 Spain. Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid 1952-57 Visits, lectures, training, equipment. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 F.111 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 45 Sweden, Co.), Stockholm Aktiebolaget Atomenergi (Atomic Energy) 1952-64 Equipment, visits, lectures, results. F112-F 119 Switzerland F.112 Brown Boveri Company, Baden. 1947-52, 1957 Drawings, patents, visits. F.113-F.115 Zurich, Physikalisches Institut Eidgendssische Technische Hochschule (E.T.H.), 1948-62 F.113 1948-55. Includes drawings. Visits, lectures, research, apparatus. F.114. Bretscher (an old student) attended as representative of A.E.R.E., 1955 Material re Centenary celebration of E.T.H. which F.115 1958-62 F.116-F.119 Swiss nuclear reactor programme 1955-56, 1963-65. Bretscher was asked to advise. See also A.56. F.116 nuclear energy programme. Miscellaneous background material re setting-up of Swiss F.117 Correspondence 1955-56 on initial project. F.118 1963-65 Mainly on meson factories. Copy of conference paper by A.F. Fritzsche on 'Nuclear F.119 Energy Programmes of the Smaller Countries’ taking the Swiss nuclear energy programme as an example, 1961. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Uo stats F.120-F.123 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 46 Miscellaneous correspondence, visits, exchanges of information, etc.; includes some copies of reports on nuclear research in U.S.S.R. F.120 1955-56 F.121 by E. Ajzenberg. Report on nuclear physics in U.S.S.R., n.d. ¢.1955-56, F.122 Reports and correspondence, 1957-62. F.123 Similar, 1963-64 COMMITTEES Harwell and U.K. Data Committees F.124 Nuclear Electronics Committee Bretscher's folder, inscribed 'Data handling computers', mainly reports and background papers for meetings of committee, 1963 and 1965. F.125 Harwell Nuclear Data Committee Bretscher's folder, inscribed 'Nuclear data requirements', mainly reports and background material for meeting of committee in September 1966. F.126 F.127 Minutes and papers for committee meetings and for 'Nuclear Data Forums', 1968. Similar (few only), 1969, 1970, 1971. Nuclear Data Committee meetings. 1971 material is re U.K. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 48 F.137-F.139 International Nuclear Data Scientific Working Group (INDSWG), 1961-66 INDSWG wasset up by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1962 and ‘Bretscher was nominated as UK representative. F.137 (May 1963), discussion notes and reports. 1961-63. Nominations, arrangements for first meeting F.138 1963-64. Second meeting (January 1964). F.139 Internatfonal Data Committee and future representation. Includes correspondence re change of name to 1966. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 49 LECTURES AND PUBLICATIONS F.140-F.169 Lectures and publications by Bretscher F.170-F.180 Lectures and publications by others at Harwell Lectures by Bretscher F.140 Correspondence (only) inviting Bretscher to give course of seven 'causeries' on peaceful use of atomic energy for L'Université Radio- phonique Internationale, 1951. F.141 "Station Lecture’ (on work in progress at Harwell). 3pp. ms. notes, n.d., c.1950. F.142 'Use of atomic piles for nuclear measurements! 7pp. typescript, latest reference 1952. Included in folder are three further lectures on reactor design, piles and neutron energies at Harwell, unsigned but with ms. corrections by Bretscher, and miscellaneous other accounts of research in progress by other members of Nuclear Physics Division, none dated, some probably later, see F.152. F.143-F.145 Lectures at University of California, Los Angeles, March 1956. All accompanied by a clearance note from AERE. F.143 'Mesonic X-rays: Showers’. Ms. notes, background material . ‘Extensive Air Showers'. F.144 diagrams, not all by Bretscher. given in Dublin, March 1954, by 'Dr. Galbraith’. Ms. and typescript notes and drafts, Includes draft for lecture on subject F.145 with ms. annotations. 'Nuclear constants basic to reactor design’. llpp. typescript F.146 Miscellaneous material relating to conference on 'Neutron Physics by Bretscher Time-of-Flight', Gatlinburg, Tennessee, November 1956. chaired a session. Miscellaneous ms. and typescript drafts, diagrams, not all by Bretscher, programmeof conference. , E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 50 F.147 Lecture on 'Nuclear Reactors' to Physical Society, University of Glasgow, February 1957. 9pp. typescript and ms., with clearance note from A.E.R.E. F.148, F.149 Lectures at Yale, September 1957. With clearance note from A.E.R.E. F.148 'Reactor Neutron Spectra’, 10pp. F.149 ‘Survey of Low Energy neutron physics', 7pp. F.150 "Lectures (Durham and Cambridge)' Correspondence, June 1957-January 1958, re lecture at Durham (F.151) and arrangements for Bretscher to give course of lectures on "Interactions of Neutrons with Nuclei’ at Cavendish Laboratory, Michaelmas Term 1957. Includes summaries of lectures 2-5. F.151 "Synopsis of lecture to the Physical Society at Durham'. On nuclear reactors. 5pp. typescript and ms. n.d., perhaps 1958, see F.150. F.152 "Lecture to Physical Society, Cambridge’. On work in hand at Harwell. 9pp. typescript and ms. on Time of Flight, and cosmic ray research also featured in F.142. n.d. but probably mid 1950s; includes work F.153-F.160 ‘Australian Lectures', given on visit to Australia in 1961. F.153 ‘The Mussbauer Effect: nuclear resonance fluorescence’ Wi th clearance note from A.E.R.E. Ms. and typescript notes, drafts, calculations; a little background material. F.154 which determine the economics of the U.K. nuclear energy production’. —''The British nuclear power programme and some of the factors 6pp. typescript and ms. draft, with diagrams attached and some ms. comments by M.J. Poole. Continued E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 51 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell F.155 'Neutron physics in the intermediate energy region’. With clearance note from A.E.R.E. Several typescript and ms. notes and drafts, some probably from previous lectures; a little printed matter. F.156 ‘Survey of the ideas on neutron nuclear interaction’. 7pp. typescript and ms. draft. F.157 Moderator scattering’. ‘Basic data for reactor physics calculations. Part A: With clearance note from A.E.R.E. 9pp. typescript and ms. draft, with diagrams attached. F.158 nuclear data’. ‘Basic data for reactor physics calculations. Part B: With clearance note from A.E.R.E. 6pp. typescript and ms. draft, with diagrams attached. F.159 ~='Slides’. Slide lists, diagrams and other background information. Itinerary and schedule of lectures. F.160 Included here are clearance notes for two additional lectures given on the tour, on 'An experimental test of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions’ and 'Quasi-elastic scattering of protons ...'. F.161 "Nuclear physics in its relation to the National Atomic Energy phy Program’. Y Lecture at Institute of Physics conference on 'Low Energy Nuclear Physics', Harwell, September 1962. l0pp. typescript and ms. draft with intercalated notes and diagrams; conference programme. F.162 'The relation of neutron physics to the development of atomic energy’. Variously paginated typescript and ms. draft for lecture at Los Alamos, February 1963. Also included are notes for talk on Time of Flight by M.S. Coates, November 1962. F.163 10pp. typescript and ms. draft +3pp. tables, for lecture of sametitle, given at Bonner Memorial Conference, Houston, February 1963. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 52 F.164 "Introductory talk' at International Conference on the Study of Nuclear Structure with Neutrons', Antwerp, July 1965. F.165 Undated: Ip. only, on work of Nuclear Physics Division, A.E.R.E. 3pp. 'Draft Programme Review’ . Book reviews by Bretscher 1948-61 Drafts; may include a little correspondence with colleagues and editors. F.166 F.167 1948-52 Includes miscellaneous recollections of E. Fermi (d.1954), 1954-55. one of which refers to 'small private course’ on radiation theory and quantum electrodynamics given by Fermi to Bretscher and a few others at Los Alamos during Bretscher's last summer there (1946). related to notes in C.6. Memoir of Fermi, on which Bretscher and Cockcroft collaborated. Perhaps Work probably intended for Royal Society F.168 1956, 1958, 1959 F167 1960, 1961. Lectures by others at Harwell F.170 Course of twenty lectures by O.R. Frisch, given December 1946- June 1947. Duplicated typescript. F.171 Two papers by J.V. Dunworth. n.d., latest reference 1947. F.172 "Atomic piles and their use in nuclear physics’ 17pp. +1p. references. Latest reference 1949. Lectures and notes by T.M. Fry (1950), E.R. Rae (1958). F.173 Lecture given in Dublin 1954. No author. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell 53 F.174 Shorter correspondence, memos. etc. re lectures given by members of Harwell staff, 1950s. F.175 Similar material, 1962-64. Publications by others at Harwell Correspondence, drafts, etc. relating to submission or refereeing of papers, reviews, etc. F.176 F.177 F.178 F.179 F.180 1948-51 1952-53 1954-55 1956-57 1958-60. and Working at Includes draft of article by American visitor on 'Living Harwell’ and photograph, July 1960. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 SECTION G VISITS G.1-G.14 54 It is clear from correspondence and references elsewhere that the surviving material does not adequately represent Bretscher's visits to lectures, conferences or laboratories. G.] G.2 Invitation to attend 200th Anniversary of Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Zurich. Correspondence only. 1946 Correspondencere visit to Switzerland and Italy. carbons only. Bretscher's 1948 6.3 Visit to U.S.A. and Canada, September-November 195] This was an official visit, and included attendance at International Conference on Nuclear Physics at Chicago, lectures and visits at several laboratories and institutions and renewal of personal contacts. Bretscher visited Washington, Oak Ridge, Houston, Los Angeles, Los Alamos and Brookhaven in U.S.A. and Chalk River, Montreal and Ottawa in Canada. Material includes invitations, travel arrangements and funding, programmeandparticipants at conference, correspondence with colleagues, etc. Tagged inside front cover of folder is Bretscher's 3pp. ms. list of research workers and projects at various centres. There is a little scientific correspondencearising. G.4 Visit to Italy. 1953 Brief correspondence only. G5 Visit to Philips, Eindhoven (declined). 1958 G.6-G.13 Anglo-Russian visits. 1963-66 G.6 in the U.S.S.R., June 1963. Visit to certain laboratories for low and high energy physics This was under the auspices of the UK/USSR agreement; five physicists from A.E.R.E. and three from Rutherford Laboratory visited Moscow, Dubna, Leningrad, Kharkov and Yerevan. Material is mainly reports on the visit; brief notes only by Bretscher. Continued E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Visits 35 G.7 December 1965. Visit of Russian physicists to U.K. laboratories and universities, Programmeofvisits, list of participants, photographs. G.8-G.12 . Visit to laboratories for low and high energy physics in the U.S.S.R. June 1966 A similar visit to that of June 1963. members of the A.E.R.E. delegation and visits were made to Moscow, Obninsk, Serpukhov, Novosibirsk, Leningrad, Kharkov and Dubna. Bretscher was one of the five G.8 Travel arrangements and itineraries. G.9 Notebooks and loose pages of notes by Bretscher. G.10 Photographs and memorabilia, greetings from Russian colleagues. G.11 Russian reports on work at Dubna, Novosibirsk, Obninsk. G.12 U.K. reports on visit. G.13 visits scheme, etc, kept with material for 1966 visit. Miscellaneous reports on Russian atomic energy, exchange various dates 1959-66. Seminar on Intense Neutron Sources (SINS), Santa Fe, September 1966. Draft report, ms. and typescript comments by Bretscher, final version. Brief personal correspondencealso included. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 56 SECTION H CORRESPONDENCE H.1 - H.80 The surviving correspondenceis unfortunately scanty and there are few substantial sequences. It is presented alphabetically, dated and indexed, with a brief indication of content or other information where appropriate . H.1 H.2 Aharoni, J. Two letters, from Freiburg . Alvarez, L. Colleague at Los Alamos. Bretscher's carbons only. Mas Arnold, L. M.M. Gowing's history of atomic energy. H.4 Balmer, J.J. 1930 1948 1972 1896 Letter to family with (on verso) table of helium spectrum lines; diagram of colours; diagrams of polyhedra. Balmer, a distinguished Swiss scientist, is best known for hiswork on hydrogen spectrum lines; helium spectra. The material was passed on via Lydia Knapp-Balmer, wife of Balmer and a friend of Hanni Bretscher's mother . this letter indicates his interest also in H.5 Bloch, F. 1930, various dates 1937-53 Felix Bloch was a lifelong friend from early days in Switzerland. He later moved to America and settled at Stanford. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1952. The letters are mainly personal, Bloch's letters addressing Bretscher as 'Gon'; letters of 1930 are from Bloch in hospital, and from Bloch's mother, both referring to the mountaineering accident in August when Bloch broke a leg and Bretscher contributed largely to saving his life when they had to spend two nights in the open. H.6 H.7 H.8 Blok, A. Breit, G. Visits and research. 1950, 1971 1952, 1958 Bretscher, A.A. (cousin) 1946 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 H.? Burcham, W.E. Cartwright, M.L. H.11 Casimir, H.B.G. Exchange of wartime news. Correspondence 57 1969 1949 1945 H.12-H.14 Chadwick, J. 1948, 1960, 1961, 1966, 1971 H.15 H.16 H.17 H.12 1948 (isotopes), 1960 (publication of A.E.R.E. research). H.13 birthdays. 1961, 1966. Celebrations for Chadwick's 70th and 75th H.14 1971. Oneletter only, from Chadwick, on 80th birthday. Cockburn, R. Brief corre spondence only. 1958, 1966 Cockcroft, J.D. various dates 1964-67 Cook, L.G. 1939-41, 1944, 1947 Former Cambridge colleague, later working at various research stations in Canada. Debye, P. Two letters only. 1931, 1937 Dee, P.I. 1948 Bretscher's carbon only, on T.R.E. and radar. H.20 de Hoffmann, F. 1947, 1950 Colleague at Los Alamos; mainly on publications. H.21 Dunworth, J.V. 1965 Bretscher's carbon only. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Correspondence 58 H.22 Eckart, C. Reports on dispersal experiments in the Irish sea. Eucken, A. Work on dielectric constants of crystals. Feather, N. 1951-52 1934 1945-46 Postwar appointments; possible monograph by Bretscher. Fisch, I. 1955 Uranium waste; use of isotopes. Foster, R.C. (formerly Fleischner) 1943-50, 1963 Foster and his wife were old friends, originally of Hanni Bretscher's family. They had been seed merchants in Czechoslovakia and after various migrations settled in America before returning later in life to Switzerland (information from Mrs. Bretscher, 1986). correspondencein the folder is from and to America. include news of family in Czechoslovakia. Earlier letters All the French, A.P. Frisch, O.R. 1949-54, 1958 1946-48 Correspondence 1946 is re Harwell and Frisch's and Bretscher's appoint - ments there. Fuchs, K. 1948 Oneletter only, on 'Sea Nuts' research report. accompanied by a note on Fuchs contributed by Mrs. Bretscher, 1986. The letter is Garside, L. Goldhaber, M. Neutron measurements. 197] 1949, 1950 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Correspondence 59 Hid2 Gowing, M.M. 197] Bretscher's comments on history of atomic energy. H.33 Halban, H.H. v 1950, 1959 Brief correspondence only. H.34 Hampelman, L. Colleague at Los Alamos. One letter only. Rutherford centenary colloquium in Moscow. from Bretscher on his contacts with Rutherford. Includes draft reply 1948 1948 197] 1955, 1965 1964 1948, 1950 1944-46, 1951-52, 1955 1960 1948, 1949 1945 197] H.35 H.36 H.37 H.38 H.39 H.40 H.41 H.42 Hughes, D. J. Kapitza, P. King, P. King, R. Konopinski, E. Kowarski, L. Research, postwar plans, etc. Lane, A.M. Lauritsen, C.C. Bretscher's carbons only. H.43 Logue, J.T. Atomic bomb. H.44 London, L. E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 H.45 H.46 H.47 H.48 H.49 H.50 Correspondence MacKenzie, K.R. Mark, C. 60 1962-63 1965 Brief correspondence only, re photographs of J. von Neumann. Marshall, W. Martin, E.B.M. Mullett, L.B. Neddermayer, S. Career plans after Los Alamos. 197] 1971 1966 1946 H.51-H.53 Oliphant, M.L. 1939-53 Oliphant was one of Bretscher's oldest friends in Britain; the corres- pondenceis on careers and research. H.51 1939-43 H.52 1945-46. Mainly postwar career plans. H.53 1947-53 H.54 Paneth, F.A. Oneletter only, on death of Bretscher's mother. H.55 H.56 Paul, E.. Pélya, G. Bretscher's carbon only. 1949 1966 1944 H.57 Poole, M.J. 1946, 195] E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Correspondence Rothschild, N.M.V. Bretscher's carbon only, on leading physicists. Scherrer, P. Seligman, H. Mainly post-retirement plans. Sellschop, J.P.F. Possible visit to South Africa. Sigg, E. Schoolfellow at ZUrich Gymnasium. 6l 1966 n.d. 1966, 1968, n.d. 1966 1945-46 Sinelnikova, E.A. 1967 Widow of Russian colleague. Staub, H. 1945-51 Research and appointments; includes a little correspondence from Erika Staub. Strang, G. Twoletters only. Taschek, R.F. Teller, E. 1965 n.d. 1945, 1947-51 Publications, visits, etc. verses by Teller 'Exceedingly small’ (on mesons) on the Solvay Conference in June of that year. Correspondence 1948 includes humorous Titterton, E.W. Vick, F.A. 1966 1966, 1967 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Correspon dence 62 H.70 H.71 H.7Z H.73 H.74 Waller, I. Weber, E. Exchange of postwar news with old friend from Zurich. Weisskopf, V.F. Bretscher's carbon only. Wilkinson, D.H. Wilson, C.T.R. One letter only. See also F.70. 1971 1946 1950 1946, 1954 1948 H.75, H.76 Shorter personal and scientific correspondence. Not indexed. Hs7o 1944-55 H.76 1960-71 and n.d. REFERENCES AND ASSESSMENTS H.77 H.78 H.79 H.80 1944 1966 1967. Grant applications (1) 1967. Grant applications (2) E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 INDEX OF CORRESPONDENTS AHARONI, Joseph ALLEN, Kenneth William ALLEN, W._ OD. ALLIBONE, Thomas Edward ALLISON, Samuel K. ALVAREZ, Louis AMALDI, Edoardo ANDERSON, Herbert L. ARMOUR, Elizabeth G. ARNOLD, Henry ARNOLD, Lorna ASHGAR, M. AWBERY, J. #H. AXTON, Edward J. BACHER, Robert F. BAKKER, C. J. BALMER, Johann Jakob BARSCHALL, Henry H. BATCHELOR, R. BETHE, Hans Albrecht BLACKETT, Patrick Maynard Stuart, Baron BLACKMAN, Moses BLASER, J. P. BLOCH,Felix BLOK, Arthur BONNER, Thomas W. BOVERI, Walter E. 63 H.1 F.33, F.38, F.86, F.87 F.38, F.46, F.84, F.91, F.104 See also F.101 F.80 See also A. 28 F.97, G.3 See also E.5 See H.2 F.109, F.132 F.97 A.29 F.27 H.3 F.49 D.63 F.85 F.95 F.16 H.4 F.108 F.138 F.94, F.99 F.74, F.75 B.8 F.118 H.5 D.57, D.59, H.6 G.3 A.56 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 64 Index of correspondents BOWEN, Edmund John BRADBURY, Norris E. BRADDICK, Henry John James BRAGG, Sir (William) Lawrence BREIT, Gregory BRETSCHER, Adolf A. BRIDGMAN, Percy W. BRODE, Robert B. BROWNE, Benjamin Chapman BULLARD, Sir Edward (Crisp) BURCHAM, William Ernest BURROWS, W._ L. BUSCH, G. BUTLER, Clifford Charles CARTER, P. E. CARTER, Robert S. CARTWRIGHT, Mary Lucy CASIMIR, Hendrik Brugt Gerhard CAVANAGH, Patrick E. CHADWICK, Sir James COCKBURN, Sir Robert COCKCROFT, Sir John (Douglas) COHEN, Bernard L. COLLIE, Carl Howard COLLINGE,Brian COLVIN, Douglas W. COOK, Gerald B. COOK,Leslie G. CROCKER, V._ S. CURTISS, L. F. F.76, F.77 F.94 F.46, F.75 A.41, F.65 F.107, H.7 H.8 B.8 G.3 F.65 F.84 A.47, F.33, F.62, F.63, F.65, H.9 F 79 F.113 F.73 F.88 F.92 H.10 H.11 F.98 A.35, A.42, A.43, D.69, D.86- D.92, H.12-H.14 See also D.102 H.15 A.44-A.46, A.50, D.39, F.8, F.15, F.28, F.62, F.67, F.76, F.167, H.13, H.16 F.96 See F.76 F.72 F.66 D.6-D.9, D.20, D.77, D.93 See also D.44 H.17 F.62 F.104 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Index of correspondents 65 DAGLEY, Peter DALITZ, Richard Henry DANCKWERTS, Peter Victor DANIELSON, G. C. DARDEL, Guyv. DAVIES, J. #H. DAWSON, Peter DEBYE, Peter Joseph Wilhelm DEE, Philip Ivor de HOFFMANN, Frederic DIAMOND, Jack DUNWORTH, John Vernon EASTWOOD, W._ S. ECKART, Carl EGELSTAFF, Peter A. EKLUND, Sigvard ELLIOT, Harry EMELEUS, Harry Julius EUCKEN, A. FALK, Charles E. FEATHER, Norman FEISTER, |. FELD, Bernard T. FENNING, F. W. FERGUSON, A. G._ T. FERMI, Enrico FISCH, I. (Cornu) FLOWERS, Brian Hilton, Baron F.33 F.24, F.62 F.73 F.102 F.111 F.64 F.136 A.30, H.18 F.03, F.71 See also D.101, H.19 F.100, G.14, H.20 F.75 A.59, F.81, F.85, F.107, F.132, F.134 See also F.171, H.21 F.115, F.132 H.22 F.27, F.85, F.87, F.134, F.174 F.111 F.75 F.65 H.23 F.91 D.10-D.14, F.33, F.70, H.24 See also C.18, D.37, D.40 F.70, F.104 F.103 Fa? F.49 See C.6, F.167 H.25 F.33, F.62, F.177 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 66 Index of correspondents FONG, Peter FOSTER, Robert C. (formerly FLEISCHNER) FOWLER, Joseph L. FOWLER, Willy A. FREEMAN, Joan M. FRENCH, Anthony Philip FRISCH, Otto Robert F.97 H.26 F.38 F.93 F.38, F.48, F.65 D.15-D.19, D.65, D.82, D.83, D.85, D.94, F.65, F.66, F.94, H.27 See also E.15, E.17 D.20, E.10, F.65-F.67, H.13, H.28 See also F.170 FUCHS, Klaus H.29 GALBRAITH, W. GARSIDE, Leonard GOLD, Thomas GOLDHABER, Maurice GOLDSCHMIDT, B. GOLDSTEIN, Herbert GOODWAY, N._ F. GOUDSMIT, Sam A. GOWING, Margaret Mary GRACE, Michael Anthony GRAY, Louis Harold (Hal) GREEN, Leslie Leonard GROVE, W. P. GUCK, Rudolf GUERON,J. HALBAN, Hans Heinrich von HAMPELMAN, Louis HANNA, Geoffrey C. HARDING, G. N. F.47, F.63 H.30 F.65 H.31 F.132 F.32, F.132 F.84, F.85, F.136 F.91 H.32 F.76, F.77 D.21, F.83. F.33 F.88 F.112 F.132 A.39, D.22, F.15, H.33 See also A.47, D.37, D.41 H.34 F, 130, F131, F135, F.197 F.62, F.76 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Index of correspondents HARVEY, B. HAVENS, William W. G. HAWORTH, Leland J. HILL, J. F. HOFSTADTER, Robert HOLTE, Gunnar HORNYAK, William F. HUGHES, Donald J. HULME, Henry Rainsford HUME-ROTHERY, William 67 D.78 F.32, F.98, F.137 G.3 F.134 F.106 F i332 F.91 F.91, F.92, F.132, H.35 F.87 F.78 HUTCHINSON, George William F.63, F.65 IPPOLITO, Felice JACKSON, J. Frank C. M. V. JACOBSEN, J. JAUCH, J. JELLEY, J. JEWKES, John JONES, G. A. F.132 4, H.24 .132 118 A .76, F.77 .88 M O M T T 7 7 1 7 n n KAPITZA, Piotr Leonidovich (Peter) = 36 KEMMER, Nicholas KING, Pere KING, Ronald KINSEY, B. B. KNAPP-BALMER, Lydia KOFOED-HANSEN, O. KOLSTAD, George A. KONOPINSKI, Emil KOWARSKI, Lew KRONBERGER, Hans KRUSE, Herald W. KURTI, Nicholas o r .101, F.70 ~ar H.38 See D.54 See H.4 F.132 F.107, F.129, F.130 H.39 D.23, D.24, H.40 See also D.37, D.56 F.175 F.28 F.78 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Index of correspondents LANE, Anthony M. LARSSON, Karl-Erik LAURITSEN, Charles C. LAURITSEN, Tom LAWSON, J. R. LEA, Douglas E. LEWIS, Wilfrid Bennett LITHERLAND, A. E. LITTLER, Derrik, J. LOCKSPEISER, Sir Ben LOGUE, John T. LOMER, William Michael LONDON, Lucie LONGAR, Alec K. LUDLAM, E._ B. McDANIEL, B.D. McILROY, R. W. McKAY, H. A. C. MACKENZIE, KennethR. McMILLAN, Geoffrey A. MADDOCK, Alfred G. MAKINS, Sir Roger Mellor (later BARON SHERFIELD) MANLEY, John H. MANN, W. B. MARK, Carson MARMIER, P. MARSHALL, Walter Charles, Baron MARTIN, ElsieB. M. MARTIN, Graham R. 68 H.41 F.111 H.42 F.93 A.29 C.5 F.28, F.62, F.132, F.133 F.38 F.111, F.134 F.8 H.43 F.81, F.88 H.44 E.1, F.46, F.107, G.3 A.29 F 99 F.128-F.131 F.86 H.45 E.3-E.8 F.67 D.62 F.95 F.104 G.3 See also H.46 F.115 H.47 See also F.37 D.25, D.26, D.63, D.64, D.82, D.83, D.84, D.95, D.96, F.68, H.48 D.27, D.28, D.65, D.71, D.79, D.95, D.96, D.103, F.68, F.69 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Index of correspondents MEIER, Rudolf MIDDLETON, Roy MOON,Philip Burton MORRISON, Phil MOTT, Sir Nevill Francis MUIRHEAD, H. MULLETT, Leslie B. MULLIKEN, Robert Sanderson MUMMERY, Peter W. 69 F.118 F.38 F.62 G.3 F.66, F.67, F.150, H.13 F.71 H.49 F.77 F.139 MURRELL, E. B. M. see MARTIN MYERSCOUGH,Leslie C. NEDDERMAYER, Seth F.88 H.50 OLIPHANT, Sir Mark (Marcus Laurence Elwin) A.32, A.54, F.62, H.36, H.51- H.53 OTERO, José Marfa F.110 PANETH, Friedrich Adolf PATTENDEN, Norman J. PAUL, Eric PAULI, R. PAULI, Wolfgang PAYNE, Ronald M. PANOFSKY, Wolfgang K. H. PEACOCK, D. H. PEIERLS, Sir Rudolf (Ernst) PICKAVANCE, Thomas Gerald POLYA, George POOLE, Michael J. F.68, H.54 F.45, F.49, F.88 H,58 FTI, Fults See A.47 F.80 F.106 D.29-D.31, D.80 F.62 F.28, H.13 See H.56 D.32, D.65, D.81, D.97, F.15, F.31, F.72, F.95, F.133, F.136, H.57 See also F.154, F.175 POSTMA, Hans Terry PRICE, B. F.45 F.3] E, Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Index of correspondents RAE. Ernest R. RANDALL, Sir John Turton RANDERS, Gunnar REINES, Frederick RILEY, D. P. ROBINSON, Denis M. ROCHESTER, George Dixon ROSE, Basil 70 F.39, F.45, F.49, F.136 See also F.42 H.57 F.132 F.9D F.74 A.28 See also F.101 F.75 F.60 ROTHSCHILD, Nathaniel Meyer Victor, Baron See H.58 RUTHERFORD, Ernest, Baron A.30, A.33 SAINI, Hugo SALAM, Abdus SCHAETTI, N. SCHERRER, P. SCHONLAND,Sir Basil Ferdinand Jamieson SCHURER, M. SEIDL, Fred G. P. SEIPPEL, Claude SELIGMAN, Henry SELLSCHOP, J. PP. F. SHERFIELD, see MAKINS SHIRE, Edward Samuel SHOENBERG, David SIGG, Ernst SIMON, Sir Francis (Eugen) SINELNIKOVA, E. SJOSTRAND, Nils G. A. SKINNER, Herbert Wakefield Banks SMITH, Charles L. B.8 F.73 F.113 F.46, F.113, F.115, F.117, F.132, H.59 A.54, F.77, F.81, F.133 A.55 F.91, G.3 F.112 F.137, F.138, H.60 H.6l F.33, F.66 F.65, F.66 See also C.18 H.62 F.76, F.77 H.63 F.134 F.72 F.66 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Index of correspondents 71 SNELL, Arthur H. SNIZEK, Josef SOWERBY, M._ SPAEPEN, J. SPENCE, Robert G. SPIERS, J. A. STAUB, Erika STAUB, Hans STAUDINGER, Hermann STORY, John S. STRANG, Graham SUTHERLAND, Sir Gordon (Brims Black Mc Ivor) TANK, F. TASCHEK, Richard F. TELLER, Edward G.3 F.132 F.73, F.85 F.134, F.137 A.45, F.47, F.70, F.87, F.128, F.136 See also F.25 F.76 H.64 H.64 A.28 F.131, F.138 H.65 F.84 A.56, F.115 F.94, F.95, F.128-F.131, F.132, H.66 H.67 See also F.94, F.97 TITTERTON, Sir Ernest (William) TUNNICLIFFE, P. R. H.68 F.177 VICK, Sir (Francis) Arthur VON MURALT, A. WALDVOGEL, P. WALKER, Sir James WALKER, John WALLER, Iras WATTENBERG, Albert WEBER, Erich WEBSTER, W._L. A.57, F.31, F.33, F.78, F.81, F.87, F.138, F.139, F.175, H.69 A.55 F.112 A.30 F.63 H.70 G.3 H.71 D.59, E.2-E.4 E. Bretscher CSAC 115/6/86 Index of correspondents 72 WEINBERG, Alvin M. WEISSKOPF, Victor Frederick WESTCOTT, Carl H. WILKINS, C.J. WILKINSON, Sir Denys (Haigh) WILSON, Charles Thomson Rees WILSON, John Graham WIRTZ, K. WU, C. S. YORK, Herbert F. ZINGG, Ernst ZINN, W. H. F.26 F.103 See also H.72 F.128-F.130, F.132-F.134, F.137, F.138 D.33, D.66, D.98 D.34, D.35, D.72, D.99, F.33, F.34, F.65, F.66, F.78, F.111, H.73 F.70, H.74 F.75 F.132 F.98 F.108 F.112 F.108